Shared Flashcard Set

Details

320
Exam 1 (chapters 1-3)
98
Management
Undergraduate 3
02/09/2010

Additional Management Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

 

 

 

Management

Definition

 

 

The process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in a changing environment. 

Term

 

 

Effectiveness

Definition

 

 

A central element in the process of management that entails achieving a stated organizational objective.

Term

 

 

Efficiency

Definition

 

 

A central element in the process of management that balances the amount of resources used to achieve an objective against what was actually accomplished.

Term

 

 

Offshoring

 

Definition

 

 

Controversial practice of sending jobs to low-wage countries.

Term

 

 

Internet

Definition

 

 

Global network of servers and personal and organizational computers.

Term

 

 

e-business

Definition

 

 

A business using the Internet for greater efficiency in every aspect of it operations.

Term

 

 

Managerial Functions

Definition

 

 

General administrative duties that need to be carried out in virtually all productive organizations to achieve desired outcomes.

Term

 

 

Managerial skills

Definition

 

 

Specific observable behaviors that effective managers exhibit.

Term

 

 

Small Business

Definition

 

 

An independently owned and managed profit-seeking enterprise with fewer than 100 employees.

Term

 

 

Entrepreneurship

Definition

 

 

Process of pursuing opportunities without regard to resources currently under one's control.

Term

 

 

Universal Process Approach

Definition

 

 

Assumes all organizations require the same rational management process.

Term

 

 

Operational Approach

Definition

 

 

Production-oriented field of management dedicated to improving efficiency and cutting waste.

Term

 

 

Scientific Management

Definition

 

 

Developing performance standards on the basis of systematic observation and experimentation.

Term

 

 

Operations Management

Definition

 

 

The process of transforming material and human resources into useful goods and services.

Term

 

 

Human Relations Movement

Definition

 

 

An effort to make managers more sensitive to their employees' needs.

Term

 

 

Theory Y

Definition

 

 

McGregor's optimistic assumptions about working people.

Term

 

 

Organizational Behavior

Definition

 

 

A modern approach seeking to discover the causes of work behavior and to develop better management techniques.

Term

 

 

System

Definition

 

 

A collection of parts operating interdependently to achieve a common purpose.

Term

 

 

General Systems Theory

Definition

 

 

An area of study based on the assumption that everything is part of a larger, interdependent arrangement.

Term

 

 

Closed System

Definition

 

 

A self-sufficient entity.

Term

 

 

Open System

Definition

 

 

Something that depends on its surrounding environment for survival.

Term

 

 

Contingency Approach

Definition

 

 

Research effort to determine which managerial practices and techniques are appropriate in specific situations.

Term

 

 

Multivariate Analysis

Definition

 

 

Research techniques used to determine how a number of variables combine to cause a particular outcome.

Term

 

 

Demographics

Definition

 

 

Statistical profiles of human populations.

Term

 

 

New Social Contract

Definition

 

 

Assumption that the employer-employee relationship will be a shorter-term one based on convenience and mutual benefit, rather than for life.

Term

 

 

Glass Ceiling

Definition

 

 

The transparent but strong barrier keeping women and minorities from moving up the management ladder.

Term

 

 

Contingent Workers

Definition

 

 

Part-timers and other employees who do not have a long-term implicit contract with their ultimate employers.

Term

 

 

Managing Diversity

Definition

 

 

The process of helping all employees, including women and minorities, reach their full potential.

Term

 

 

Issues Management

Definition

 

 

Ongoing process of identifying, evaluating, and responding to important social and political issues.

Term

 

 

Advocacy Advertising

Definition

 

 

Promoting a point of view along with a product or service.

Term

 

 

Legal Audit

Definition

 

 

Review of all operations to pinpoint possible legal liabilities or problems.

Term

 

 

Alternative Dispute Resolution

Definition

 

 

Avoiding courtroom battles by settling disputes with less costly methods, including arbitration and medication.

Term

 

 

Business Cycle

Definition

 

 

The up-and-down movement of an economy's ability to generate wealth.

Term

 

 

Technology

Definition

 

 

All the tools and ideas available for extending the natural physical and mental reach of humankind.

Term

 

 

Innovation process

Definition

 

 

The systematic development and practical application of a new idea.

Term

 

 

Product Technology

Definition

 

 

Second stage of the innovation process, involving the creation of a working prototype.

Term

 

 

Production Technology

Definition

 

 

Third stage of the innovation process, involving the development of a profitable production process.

Term

 

 

Innovation Lag

Definition

 

 

Time it takes for a new idea to be translated into satisfied demand.

Term

 

 

Concurrent Engineering

Definition

 

 

Team approach to product design involving specialists from all functional areas, including research, production, and marketing.

Term

 

 

Intrapreneur

Definition

 

 

An employee who takes personal responsibility for pushing an innovative idea through a large organization.

Term

True/False

 

If a company does not achieve its objective, it is effective but not efficient.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

Offshoring is the controversial practice of drilling fr oil in the ocean.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

With the inspect-it-in approach to improving product quality, the emphasis is on continuous improvement of personnel and processes.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

By definition, e-business involves much more than business-to-customer retailing on the internet.

Definition

 

 

True

Term

True/False

 

One of the three managerial skill categories identified by Clark L. Wilson is leadership.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

According to the Honeywell study, managers learned half of what they knew about managing from job assignments (the "school of hard knocks")

Definition

 

 

True

Term

True/False

 

Ninety-nine percent of the employers in the United States are small businesses.

Definition

 

 

True

Term

True/False

 

Eighty percent of small businesses fail within five years.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

Entrepreneurs tend to be high achievers who dislike ambiguity.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

Management is the process of working with and through others to achieve _____ in a changing environment.

A. plans

B. strategies

C. a mission

D. success

E. organizational objectives

Definition

 

 

E. organizational objectives

Term

Which of these is(are) always required by organizational objectives or goals?

A. Management approval

B. Job descriptions

C. Collective action

D. Financial resources

E. Information gathering

Definition

 

 

C. Collective action

Term

What does "offshoring" involve?

A. Exporting goods to foreign countries

B. Outsourcing jobs to lower-wage countries

C. Hiring recent documented immigrants

D. Hiring undocumented immigrants

E. Sending employees on foreign assignments

Definition

 

 

B. Outsourcing jobs to lower-wage countries

Term

The _____ stage in the evolution of product quality emphasizes _____.

A. inspect-it-in; staffing and supervision

B. fix-it-in; quality training

C. design-it-in; continuous improvement

D. build-it-in; product redesign

E. work-it-in; engineering specifications

Definition

 

 

C. design-it-in; continuous improvement

Term

A business using the Internet for greater efficiency in every aspect is called a(n)

A. global business

B. integrated business

C. small business

D. high-tech business

E. e-business

Definition

 

 

E. e-business

Term

Which of these functions is commonly referred to as the primary management function?

A. Planning

B. Leading

C. Controlling

D. Staffing

E. Organizing

Definition

 

 

A. Planning

Term

On the basis of his 30 years of research, Clark Wilson has identified the following three managerial skill categories:

A. motivating, communicating, and leading

B. planning, checking, and regulating

C. communicating, inspecting, and control

D. teambuilding, motivating, and decision making

E. technical, teambuilding, and drive

Definition

 

 

E. technical, teambuilding, and drive

Term

In the Honeywell study, managers learned the least (20 percent of what they learned) about managing from

A. coworkers

B. internships

C. job assignments

D. formal training and education

E. role models

Definition

 

 

D. formal training and education

Term

Entrepreneurship, by definition, is the process by which individuals pursue opportunities without regard to

A. risk

B. plans

C. the law

D. resources under one's control

E. the future

Definition

 

 

D. resources under one's control

Term

True/False

 

The actual practice of management has been around for thousands of years.

Definition

 

 

True

Term

True/False

 

According to the universal process approach, a successful military commander should be able to run a business successfully.

Definition

 

 

True

Term

True/False

 

Henri Fayol was the father of scientific management.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

The idea of Pareto analysis, or doing it right the first time, was promoted by Elton Mayo.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

Taylor and the early proponents of scientific management have been praised for viewing workers as complex human beings who work for more than just money.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

McGregor's Theory Y assumes that people are capable of self control.

Definition

 

 

True

Term

True/False

 

According to general systems theory, everything we know belongs to only one system - the earth's ecosystem.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

It is appropriate to characterize organizations as closed systems because they are managed internally.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

The most significant contribution of contingency theory has been its search for the one best way to manage.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

Peters and Waterman's book In Search of Excellence played a key role in the era of management by best seller.

Definition

 

 

True

Term

Sharpening one's vision of _____ is the purpose of _____.

A. management theory; managerial practice

B. the present; historical perspective

C. management theory; what could be

D. history; the past

E. management; technology

Definition

 

 

B. the present; historical perspective

Term

_____ is not one of Fayol's 14 universal principles of management.

A. Esprit de corps

B. Empowerment

C. Authority

D. Equity

E. Centralization

Definition

 

 

B. Empowerment

Term

When performance standards are developed on the basis of systematic observation and experimentation, what is involved?

A. Fayol's universal principle

B. Therbligs

C. A Grantt chart

D. Total quality control

E. Scientific management

Definition

 

 

E. Scientific management

Term

Which of these did Taylor's differential pay plan call for when the daily standard was met or exceeded?

A. Inclusion in bonus pool

B. A higher per-unit rate

C. Permission to go home early

D. A ticket to a weekly prize drawing

E. A minimum wage

Definition

 

 

B. A higher per-unit rate

Term

Which of these is also known as the 80/20 rule?

A. Linear programming

B. Contingency planning

C. Pareto analysis

D. Fishbone analysis

E. Strategic scanning

Definition

 

 

C. Pareto analysis

Term

What did Mary Parker Follett urge managers to do?

A. Motivate rather than simply demand performance

B. Adopt a Theory X view of workers

C. Ignore the findings of the Hawthorne studies

D. Get rid of the traditional hierarchy of authority

E. Share profits equally with workers

Definition

 

 

A. Motivate rather than simply demand performance

Term

Organizations can best be described as which of these?

A. Closed systems

B. Specialized systems

C. Open systems

D. Functional systems

E. Independent systems

Definition

 

 

C. Open systems

Term

Which of the following best describes the contingency approach?

A. Differential management

B. Managerial uniformity

C. Continuous improvement

D. Situational management

E. A search for the one best way to manage

Definition

 

 

 

D. Situational management

 

Term

Craig M. McAllister criticizes "management by best seller" because

A. management books are not theory-driven

B. only three authors have written all of the best sellers

C. management books exhibit too much reliance on survey data

D. Drucker's ideas keep being repeated over and over.

E. management books offer too many "one-size-fits-all" solutions

Definition

 

 

E. management books offer too many "one-size-fits-all" solutions

Term

Managers can avoid the quick-fix mentality by reading which sort of management journals?

A. Those that report nonquantitative studies

B. Those that report highly controlled laboratory studies

C. Those that report the results of public-opinion polls

D. Those that specify how-to-do-it procedures

E. Those that translate research in practice

Definition

 

 

E. Those that translate research in practice

Term

True/False

 

The U.S. workforce is getting older, more diverse, and increasingly female.

Definition

 

 

True

Term

True/False

 

In 2004, only 24 Fortune 500 companies had female CEOs.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

Hispanics/Latinos are now the largest minority group in the United States.

Definition

 

 

True

Term

True/False

 

Managing diversity, by definition, is limited in scope to advancing women and minorities.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

A "defend status quo" attitude is adopted by managers on the neutral portion of the political response continuum.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

Settling legal disputes outside of court is referred to as legal auditing.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

Economic forecasts are a waste of time for mangers because they have a poor track record.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

Researchers have found that in the United States, employees of foreign-owned companies earn less than employees if domestic companies.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

The three steps in the innovation process are inspiration, development, and exploitation.

Definition

 

 

False

Term

True/False

 

Intrapreneurs typically do not quit their present job to pursue and innovative idea.

Definition

 

 

True

Term

Demographics involves the study of

A. regional pay rates

B. managerial influence

C. male-female pay gaps

D. work schedule variations

E. population characteristics

Definition

 

 

E. population characteristics

Term

How does Fortune magazine's Geoff Colvin characterize the education American kids are getting?

A. Not world-class

B. Below average, but rapidly improving

C. About average

D. World-class

E. Average, but steadily improving

Definition

 

 

 

A. Not world-class

 

Term

Which phrase best sums up the new social contract between employers and employees?

A. Mutual distrust

B. Lifetime employment

C. Cautious optimism

D. Shorter-term relationship of convenience

E. Loyalty and long-term obligations

Definition

 

 

 

D. Shorter-term relationship of convenience

 

Term

The subtle yet strong barrier that has kept women and minorities from assuming top executive positions is called the

A. dual-track syndrome

B. black hole

C. glass ceiling

D. wall

E. career canyon

Definition

 

 

 

C. glass ceiling

 

Term

_____ is the process of creating an organizational culture that enables all employees to realize their full potential.

A. Human asset accounting

B. Managing diversity

C. Constructive conflict

D. Issues management

E. Protectionism

Definition

 

 

 

B. Managing diversity


 

Term

When a chemical company replaced its underground storage tanks six years before the government's deadline, it demonstrated that it occupied which position on the political response continuum?

A. Neutral

B. Proactive

C. Anticipatory

D. Reactive

E. Entrenched

Definition

 

 

B. Proactive

Term

Which of the following is not one of the four political strategies available to management?

A. Indirect lobbying

B. Watchful waiting

C. Coalition building

D. Campaign financing

E. Lobbying

Definition

 

 

B. Watchful waiting

Term

The global economy, generally speaking, has raised _____ and lowered _____.

A. financial standards; human tolerance

B. the cost of capital; prices

C. wages; tariff barriers

D. quality standards; wage standards

E. wages; protectionism

Definition

 

 

D. quality standards; wage standards

Term

The three-step innovation process begins with

A. gathering necessary resources

B. conducting a break-even analysis

C. developing a working prototype

D. doing a feasibility study

E. conceptualization of a new idea

Definition

 

 

E. conceptualization of a new idea

Term

Which of these phrases best describes concurrent engineering?

A. One-person product development cycle

B. Continuous improvement

C. Functional specialization

D. Garbage in, garbage out

E. Team approach to product design

Definition

 

 

E. Team approach to product design

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