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2 Retroperitoneum
Exam 2
29
Anatomy
Graduate
10/28/2011

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Term
What does the muscular component of the diaphragm attach to “centrally”?
Definition
central tendon of the diaphragm
Term
What passes through the diaphragm at the level of the 10th thoracic vertebral body? What other structure accompanies it?
Definition
esophagus; Vagus nerves
Term
What is the effect on diaphragm function if the right phrenic nerve is damaged?
Definition
Right hemidiaphragm is paralyzed – expansion of lung on affected side more difficult.
Term
What are the two muscles in the posterior abdomen that forms the chief flexor of the thigh?
Definition
Iliacus & psoas
Term
Where does the kidneys originate during development?
Definition
In the pelvis
Term
What is the order of structures at the hilum of the kidney?
Definition
Vein, artery, ureter/renal pelvis
Term
What are the major structures in the kidney medulla?
Definition
Renal pyramids
Term
Into what structure does the renal papillae empty urine?
Definition
Minor calyx
Term
What is the name of the fatty “encasement” that surrounds the kidney?
Definition
Perirenal fat
Term
Why are accessory/aberrant renal arteries common?
Definition
During its ascent out of the pelvis, the kidneys lose & re-establish their arterial supply and thus may have multiple branches rather than just one renal artery to each kidney.
Term
How can accessory/aberrant renal arteries lead to hydronephrosis?
Definition
Accessory arteries to the inferior pole of the kidney can compress the ureter, thus restricting urine flow and eventual dilation of the collecting system within the kidney with backed up urine
Term
What are end arteries and give 4 examples
Definition
Arteries that do not anastomose with other arteries. Ex: vasa recti, segmental renal arteries, segmental hepatic arteries, segmental pulmonary arteries, the appendicular artery (which is a named vas recti).
Term
What is the shape of the left suprarenal gland?
Definition
crescent
Term
Where is the hilum of the suprarenal gland?
Definition
Where the suprarenal vein exits the gland.
Term
Name four different paired arteries off the abdominal aorta , from superior to inferior?
Definition
Inferior phrenic, renal , testicular/ovarian, lumbar, common iliac.
Term
At what lumbar vertebral level does the aorta bifurcate?
Definition
L4
Term
Into what venous structure does most of the veins of the retroperitoneum drain on the right vs the left side?
Definition
Right – IVC, Left – left renal vein.
Term
On the left side, what does the vein in Q17 pass over to reach the inferior vena cava?
Definition
Aorta
Term
What nerves of the lumbar plexus are involved in the cremaster reflex?
Definition
The cremaster reflex tests the integrity of L1-L2 spinal cord level. By stroking the skin over the femoral triangle, the cremaster muscle reflexly contracts, raising the testicle. The nerve involved is mostly the genitofemoral nerve, but some sensory from ilioinguinal nerve.
Term
What are the two lumbar plexus nerves that innervate the thigh?
Definition
Femoral & obturator
Term
What nerve gives parasympathetic innervation to most of the GI tract?
Definition
Vagus
Term
What is the result of parasympathetic innervation to the gut?
Definition
Increased peristalsis, increased secretion of digestive juices, sphincter control.
Term
What are visceral afferents and what is the characteristic of the pain associated with them compared to somatic afferents?
Definition
Sensory nerves of the GI tract. Visceral afferents that carry pain perception are through stretch receptors. It is perceived as dull, achy, poorly localized pains over general areas either referred to the midline or over the affected solid organs.
Term
In the gut, what does increased sympathetic tone result in the GI tract?
Definition
Vasoconstriction. Of vessels to the gut
Term
In the abdominal cavity, the GI tract drains into which set of lymph nodes?
Definition
Preaortic or intestinal nodes
Term
The Retroperitoneum and lower extremities drains into which set of lymph nodes?
Definition
Para-aortic or lumbar nodes
Term
In general, the lymphatic drainage of the abdomen and its contents follows the path of what
other system?
Definition
Blood vessels
Term
Into which lymph nodes do the testes/ovary drain?
Definition
Para-aortic/lumbar nodes
Term
Into which lymph nodes does the scrotum initially drain into?
Definition
Superficial inguinal nodes
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