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1 Sport Psych
Exam 2
108
Psychology
Undergraduate 3
04/09/2014

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Cards

Term
motivation is the _________ and _________ of effort
Definition
direction and intensity
Term
what does direction of effort mean?
Definition
whether an individual seeks out, approaches or is attracted to a situation
Term
what does intensity of effort mean?
Definition
how much effort an individual puts forth in a situation
Term
true or false: direction and intensity of effort are closely related
Definition
true
Term
what are the views of motivation?
1
2
3
Definition
participant or trait centered view
situation centered view
interactional view
Term
what is the participant or trait centered view of motivation?
Definition
motivated behavior is primarily a function of individual characterists (ex: needs, goals, personality)
Term
what is the situation centered view of motivation?
Definition
motivated behavior is primarily determined by situational factors
Term
what is the interactional view of motivation?
Definition
motivated behavior results from the interaction of participant factors and situational factors
Term
examples of personal factors:
1
2
3
4
Definition
personality
needs
interests
goals
Term
examples of situational factors?
1
2
3
Definition
leader-coach style
facility attractiveness
team win-loss record
Term
what are the 5 guidelines for building motivation?
Definition
both situations and traits moticate people

people have multiple motives for involvement

change the environment to enhance motivation

leaders influence motivation, directly and indirectly

use behavior modification to change undesirable participant motives
Term
what are the 5 things under multiple motives for involvement?
Definition
understand why people participate in physical activity

people participate for more than one reason

people may have competing motives for involvement

people have both shared and unique motives

motives change over time
Term
how do you identify participant motives?
1
2
3
Definition
observe participants
talk informally to others
ask participants directly
Term
what are examples of major motives for sport participants:
1-6
Definition
improving skills
having fun
being with friends
experiencing thrills and excitement
achieving success
developing fitness
Term
motives for joining exercise:
1-5
Definition
health factors
weight loss
fitness
self-challenge
feeling better
Term
motives for continuing exercise?
1-4
Definition
enjoyment
like the instructor
like the type of activity
social factors
Term
how to change the environment to enhance motivation:
1-3
Definition
environment can be competitive or recreational
provide for multiple motives and opportunities
adjust to individuals within groups
Term
motivation is a key variable in both ________ and ________ contexts
Definition
learning and performance
Term
other ____________ and __________ beyond motivation influence behavior and have to be considered.
Definition
physical and psychological factors
Term
some motivational factors are __________ than others
Definition
more easily influenced
Term
what is achievement motivation:
Definition
an individuals orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face of failure and experience pride in accomplishments
Term
achievement motivation influences:
1
2
3
4
Definition
choice of activities
effort to pursue goals
intensity of effort
persistence (in face of failure)
Term
attribution theory:
Definition
how people explain their success and failures
Term
what are the attribution categories:
1
2
3
Definition
stability
locus of causality
locus of control
Term
the achievement goal theory have two orientations:
Definition
ego goal
task goal
Term
what does ego goal orientation (or competitive goal orientation) focus on?
Definition
comparing performance with others and defeating others
Term
what does task goal orientation or (mastery goal orientation) focus on?
Definition
improving relative to ones own past performances
Term
what are the keys to the achievement goal theory:
Definition
focus extra attention on task oriented goals

foster mastery or task motivational climates
Term
implications for professional practice rules:
Definition
recognize the interaction of personal and situational factors influencing achievement behavior

emphasize mastery goals and downplay outcome goals

monitor and alter attributional feedback

assess and correct innapropriate attributions

determine when competitive goals are appropriate

enhance feelings of competence/control
Term
definition of goal:
Definition
an objective standard or aim of some action
Term
what are the types of goals?
1-4
Definition
subjective
objective
performance
outcome
Term
what is a subjective goal?
Definition
general statements of intent such as having fun or doing your best
Term
what is a objective goal?
Definition
attaining a specific standard of proficiency on a task, usually in specified time
Term
what is an outcome goal:
Definition
focus on achieving a victory in a competitive situation (ex: you beat someone)
Term
what is a performance goal:
Definition
focus on achieving standards based on ones previous performances, not on the outcome of others
Term
outcome goals can facilitate short term motivation, but often lead to ____________________
Definition
anxiety before and during competition
Term
__________ are more precise than outcome goals and are less dependent on the behaviors of others
Definition
performance goals
Term
performance goals are particularly useful ___________ or ___________ competition
Definition
before or during competition
Term
what can too much focus on a specific performance goal cause?
Definition
anxiety
Term
is goal setting effective?
Definition
it is for enhancing performance if implemented correctly
Term
why does goal setting work:
1
2
3
4
Definition
goals direct attention to the important elements of the skill

goals mobilize performer efforts

goals prolong performer persistence

goals foster the development of new learning strategies
Term
what is the indirect thought process explanation?
Definition
goals influence performance indirectly by affecting psychological factors, such as anxiety, confidence, and satisfaction
Term
key to goal setting:
Definition
athletes who performance goals rather than outcome goals experience less anxiety and more confidence/satisfaction
Term
principles of goal setting:
1-6
Definition
set specific goals
set difficult but realistic goals
set long and short term goals
set performance and process goals, as well as outcome goals
set practice and competition goals
record goals
Term
principles of goal setting continued:
7-11
Definition
develop goal achievement strategies
consider participants personalities and motivations
foster an individuals goal commitment
provide goal support
provide evaluation of and feedback of goals
Term
group goals:
Definition
future state of affairs desired by enough members of a group to work toward its achievement

attaining specific standards of "group" proficiency, usually within a specified time
Term
group goal setting principles:
1-6
Definition
establish long term goals first

establish clear paths of short term goals on route to long term goals

involve all members of the team

monitor progress toward team goals

reward progress made

foster collective team confidence or efficacy concerning team goals
Term
common problems in goal setting:
1-6
Definition
convincing someone to set goals
failing to set specific goals
setting too many goals too soon
failing to adjust to goals
failing to set performance and process goals
not providing goal follow ip and evaluation
Term
why do we study exercise behavior?
Definition
most American adults don't exercise regularly and only HALF of those who begin exercise programs continue their participation
Term
_____ of adults are sedentary
Definition
60%
Term
_____ of youth do not participate in regular physical activity
Definition
50%
Term
physical activity declined through _____________ and inactivity is more prevalent in women, __________ and ___________
Definition
adolescence
African American
hispanic
Term
______ of people starting an exercise program will drop out within 6 months
Definition
50%
Term
reasons to exercise:
1-6
Definition
weight control
reduced CVD risk
reduced stress and depression
enjoyment
self esteem
socializing
Term
individual barriers to physical activity:
1-6
Definition
lack of time, energy or motivation
excessive cost
illness/injury
feeling uncomfortable
lack of skill
fear of injury
Term
health belief model:
Definition
likelihood of exercising depends on the persons perception of the severity of health risks and the appraisal of costs and benefits of taking action
Term
theory of planned behavior:
1
2
3
lead to exercise behavior
Definition
intentions
subjective norms and attitudes
perceptions of ability to perform behavior
Term
transtheorhetical model:
Definition
individuals progress through 5 stages of change
Term
what are the 5 stages in the transtheoretical model
Definition
precontemplation
contemplation
preparation stage
action stage
maintenance stage
Term
true or false? white collar workers have lower exercise adherence rates than blue collar
Definition
false
Term
early involvement in sport and physical activity is encouraged because:
Definition
there is a positive relation beteen childhood exercise and adult physical activity patterns
Term
strategies for enhancing adherence (5 categories)
Definition
environmental approaches
reinforcement approaches
goal setting and cognitive approaches
decision making approaches
social support approaches
Term
environmental approaches have 3 steps:
Definition
prompts (verbal, physical, symbolic cues that initiate behavior

contracting (participants enter in contract with leader)

perceived choice (give participants more choice in activity selection)
Term
reinforcement approaches have 3 steps:
Definition
rewards for attendance and participation

feedback

self-monitoring (particpants keep written records of physical activity)
Term
in goal setting/cognitive approaches, exercise related goals should be
Definition
self set
flexible
time based, not distance based
Term
in cognitive approaches, ____________ emphasize external distractions and produce higher levels of exercise adherence
Definition
dissociative
Term
decision making approaches involve exercisers and a key aspect is to:
Definition
develop balance sheets
Term
a decision balance sheet will:
Definition
increase awareness of costs and benefits of participating in an exercise program that can enhance exercise adherence
Term
social support approaches recommend:
1
2
3
Definition
participating in small groups, using personalized feedback, develop a buddy system
Term
guidelines for improving exercise adherence:
1-6
Definition
match intervention to the participants stage of change

provide cues

make it enjoyable

tailor intensity, duration and frequency

promote exercising with a friend

have participants sign a contract or statement of intent
Term
guidelines for improving exercise continued:
1-7
Definition
offer a choice of activites

provide rewards for attendance/participation

give individualized feedback

find a convenient palce to exercise

reward yourself

encourage goals to be self set

suggest daily exercise logs
Term
what is a group?
Definition
a collection of interacting individuals
Term
a group shares:
1-5
Definition
a collective identity
a sense of shared purpose/objectives
structured modes of communication
personal or task interdependance
interpersonal attraction
Term
how does a group become a team:
(4 stages)
Definition
forming
storming
norming
performing
Term
forming:
Definition
familiarization, interpersonal relationships, team structure formed
Term
storming:
Definition
rebellion, resistance to the leader and control by the group, conflict
Term
norming:
Definition
solidarity and cooperation develop
Term
performing:
Definition
energies channeled for success
Term
group roles:
Definition
behaviors required or expected of a person occupying a certain position
Term
formal roles:
Definition
dictated by the natural structure of the organization
Term
informal roles:
Definition
evolve from group dynamics or interactions among group members
Term
what are group norms:
Definition
level of performance, pattern of behavior or belief
Term
Leaders need to establish ___________ group norms
Definition
Positive
Term
Creating an effective team climate:
1-5
Definition
Social support
Proximity
Distinctiveness
Fairness
Similarity
Term
what is social support:
Definition
an exchange of resources between at least 2 people perceived by the provider and the recipient to be intended to enhance the well being of the recipient
Term
functions of social support:
Definition
provides appraisal, information, reassurance, companionship

reduces uncertainty

aids in mental/physical recovery

improves communication
Term
___________________ of team members alone are not good predictors of how a team will perform
Definition
individual abilities
Term
what is the equation to steiners model:
Definition
actual productivity = potential productivity - losses (coordination and motivation)
Term
teams of __________ ability tend to play best
Definition
equal
Term
what is the ringlemann effect:
Definition
phenomenon by which individual performance decreases as the number of people increases
Term
what is social loafing:
Definition
individuals within a group of team putting forth less than 100% effort due to motivation losses
Term
eliminating social loafing:
1-6
Definition
emphasize importance of individual pride/contributions

increase identifiability of individual performances

determine specific situations where social loafing occurs

conduct individual meetings to discuss it

walk a mile in teammates shoes

break down team into smaller units
Term
how are teams affected by departures?
Definition
not good
Term
how to facilitate smooth transitions following departures:
Definition
clarify role differentiation

increase individual awareness of disengagement

facilitate group interaction

negotitate closure and new group develoment
Term
cohesion:
Definition
tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of goals/objectives
Term
task cohesion:
Definition
group members work together to achieve common goals/objectives
Term
social cohesion:
Definition
interpersonal attractions among group members
Term
coacting teams:
Definition
no cohesion-performance relationship
Term
interacting teams:
Definition
cohesion increases performance
Term
circular relationship of cohesion:
Definition
increased cohesion leads to greater performance and brings teams together, which leads to even more cohesion
Term
increased cohesion is related to increased __________
Definition
satisfaction
Term
the more cohesive a team is, the greater the pressure is to _____________________
Definition
conform to the attitudes/behaviors of group
Term
in terms of social support, there is a ____________ correlation between social support a person receives and his/her eval of group cohesion
Definition
positive
Term
teams higher in cohesion resist _________ better and teams that stay together longer have higher ____________
Definition
disruption
cohesion
Term
do exercise classes with high feelings of cohesion have fewer dropouts/later arrivals?
Definition
yes
Term
how to increase distinctiveness to increase team cohesion
1-4
Definition
have a group name
wear a group t shirt/jersey
posters/slogans
shaving your heads/dye your hair
Term
leader-coach strategies for building team cohesion:
1-6
Definition
encourage team identity
discourage cliques
avoid excessive turnover
conduct meetings
know team climate
know something personal about each group member
Term
group member strategies for increasing team cohesion:
1-7
Definition
get to know other members
help members when possible
give positive reinforcement
be responsible
communicate honestly/openly
resolve conflicts right away
give 100% effort
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