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Unit 1 Lecture
The Main Themes in Microbiology
96
Microbiology
01/18/2012

Additional Microbiology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

 

 

 

Disease-causing microorganisms are called

Definition

 

 

 

pathogens

Term

 

 

 

The microorganisms that recycle nutrients by breaking down dead matter and wastes are called

Definition

 

 

 

decomposers

Term

 

 

 

The microorganisms that do not have a nucleus in their cells are called

Definition

 

 

 

prokaryotes

Term

 

 

When humans manipulate that genes of microorganisms the process is called

 

Definition

 

 

 

genetic engineering

Term

 

 

 

Which of the following is not considered a microorganism?

Definition

 

 

 

mosquito

Term

 

 

 

All microorganisms are best defined as organisms that

Definition

 

 

 

are too small to be seen with the unaided eye.

Term

 

 

Which activity is an example of biotechnology?

Definition

 

 

 

humans using yeast to make beer and wine.

Term

 

 

 

Which of the following is a unique characteristic of viruses that distinguishes them from the other major groups of microorganisms?

Definition

 

 

lack of cell structure

Term

 

 

The Dutch merchant who made and used quality magnifying lenses to see and record microorganisms was

Definition

 

 

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Term

 

 

 

Pasteur used swan-neck flasks in his experiments to prove that

Definition

 

 

 

dust in air was a source of living microorganisms.

Term

Which of the following is not a process in the scientific method?

 

a. belief in a preconceived idea

b. formulate a hypothesis

c. systematic observation

d. laboratory experimentation

e. development of a theory

Definition

 

 

 

A. belief in a preconceived idea

Term

 

 

Spontaneous generation is the belief that

Definition

 

 

 

living things arise from nonliving matter

Term

 

 

 

Koch's postulates are criteria used to establish that

Definition

 

 

 

a specific microbe is the cause of a specific disease.

Term

 

Which of the following is a taxon that contains all the other taxa listed?

 

a. species

b. phylum

c. kingdom

d. genus

e. family

Definition

 

 

 

C. Kingdom

Term

 

 

 

Which of the following is a scientific name?

Definition

 

 

 

Bacillus subtilis

Term

 

 

 

Taxonomy does not involve

Definition

 

 

 

Koch's postulates

Term

 

 

 

The smallest and most significant taxon is

Definition

 

 

 

species

Term

 

 

 

The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms is called

Definition

 

 

 

phylogeny

Term

 

 

 

A scientist studying the sequence of nucleotides in the rRNA of a bacterial species is working on

Definition

 

 

 

determining evolutionary relatedness.

Term

 

 

A scientist discovers a new microbial species.  It is a single-celled eucaryote without cell walls.  In which kingdom will it likely be classified?

Definition

 

 

 

Protista

Term

 

 

 

A scientist collects grass clippings to find the source of an outbreak of tularemia is an example of working in the field of

Definition

 

 

 

epidemiology.

Term

 

 

 

Helminths are

Definition

 

 

 

parasitic worms

Term

 

 

All of the following pertain to photosynthesis except 

 

 

Definition

 

 

it occurs only in members of the kingdom Plantae.

Term

 

 

 

Organisms called parasites are

Definition

 

 

 

always harmful to their host.

Term

 

 

The surgeon who advocated using disinfectants on hands and in the air prior to surgery was

Definition

 

 

 

Joseph Lister

Term

 

 

 

Which scientist showed that anthrax was caused by the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis?

Definition

 

 

 

Robert Koch

Term

 

 

 

Select the correct descending taxonomic hierarchy (left to right)

Definition

 

 

 

family, genus, species

Term

 

 

 

When assigning a scientific name to an organism

Definition

 

 

 

both genus and species names are italicized or underlined.

Term

 

 

 

The scientist/s that proposed organisms be assigned to one of  domains is/are

Definition

 

 

 

Carl Woese and George Fox

Term

 

 

 

In Whittaker's system, the protozoa and algae are classified in the kingdom

Definition

 

 

 

Protista

Term

 

 

 

Which kingdom does not contain any eukaryotes?

Definition

 

 

 

Monera

Term

 

 

 

Which of the following are the main decomposers of the earth?

Definition

 

 

 

bacteria and fungi

Term

 

 

 

The most common infectious cause of death worldwide is

Definition

 

 

 

respiratory infections

Term

 

 

Which of the following diseases is transmitted by mosquitoes?

Definition

 

 

 

malaria

Term

 

 

 

All of the following are correct about prokaryotes except

Definition

 

 

 

they have organelles

Term

 

 

 

All of the following contribute to the rise of emerging diseases except

Definition

 

 

 

the decrease in drug resistant bacteria

Term

 

 

 

Which scientist discovered heat resistant bacterial spores?

Definition

 

 

 

Ferdinand Cohn

Term

 

 

 

Which of the following is the correct way to write the scientific name of this bacterium?

Definition

 

 

 

Staphylococcus aureus

Term

 

 

 

Where are you most likely to find bacteria belonging to the domain Archaea?

Definition

 

 

 

in a hot spring

Term

 

 

 

When microbes are introduced into the environment to restore stability, the process is called

Definition

 

 

 

bioremediation

Term

 

Which of the following diseases probably involves microbial infection?

 

a. gastric ulcers

b. female infertility

c. coronary artery disease

d. cervical cancer

e. all of the choices are correct

Definition

 

 

 

All of the choices are correct

Term

 

 

 

Members of the same species share many more characteristics compared to those shared by members of the same kingdom.

Definition

 

 

 

True

Term

 

 

 

Viruses are not classified in any of Whittaker's 5 kingdoms.

Definition

 

 

 

True

Term

 

 

 

Members of the kingdom Fungi are photosynthetic.

Definition

 

 

 

False

Term

 

 

 

A scientist studying helminths is working with bacteria.

Definition

 

 

 

False

Term

 

 

 

The fossil record has established that prokaryotes existed on earth for approximately 2 billion years before eukaryotes appeared.

Definition

 

 

 

True

Term

 

 

 

It has been over 25 years since a new infectious disease has emerged in the world.

Definition

 

 

 

False

Term

 

 

 

The term sterile means free of all life forms.

Definition

 

 

 

True

Term

 

 

 

All microorganisms are parasites.

Definition

 

 

 

False

Term

 

 

 

During a scientific experiment, the control group is used to directly test or measure the consequences of a variable in the study.

Definition

 

 

 

False

Term

 

 

 

The scientific method involves formulating a tentative explanation, called the hypothesis, to account for what has been observed or measured.

Definition

 

 

 

True

Term

 

 

 

Once an organism is assigned to a particular taxonomic hierarchy, it is permanent and cannot be revised.

Definition

 

 

 

False

Term

 

 

 

A hypothesis must be tested before it can be considered a theory.

Definition

 

 

 

True

Term

 

 

 

The names of the three proposed Domains are:  Bacteria, Protista, Eukarya

Definition

 

 

 

False

Term

 

 

 

 

One distinguishing characteristic of the archaebacteria is that they live in extreme environments.

Definition

 

 

 

TRUE

Term

 

 

 

His experimentation led to the explanation of heat-stabile and heat-labile organisms and the discovery of endospores.

Definition

 

 

 

Tyndall

Term

 

 

 

Who established the criteria for identifying which specific organism caused a specific disease?

Definition

 

 

 

Koch

Term

 

Which group of organisms is studied in the field of microbiology?

a. Monera

b. Protista

c. Helminths

d. Fungi

e. All of the above are studied

Definition

 

 

 

All of the above are studied.

Term

 

 

 

This is present in eukaryotic but not in prokaryotic cells

Definition

 

 

 

organelles

Term

 

 

 

Which of the following is not true of eukaryotic cells?

Definition

 

 

 

The chromosome is a single continuous thread.

Term

 

 

 

A common bacterial agent of sore throats is Streptococcus pyongenes; the genus name is

Definition

 

 

 

Streptococcus

Term

 

 

 

Pasteur and Tyndall experiments proved

Definition

 

 

 

microbes are transmitted via dust particles.

Term

 

 

The level or organization that includes viruses

Definition

 

 

 

subcellular

Term

 

 

 

The level of organization that could be appropriately exemplified by Bacillus subtilis

Definition

 

 

 

cellular

Term

 

 

 

Discovered penicillin, which was the first antibiotic, in 1929.

Definition

 

 

 

Alexander Fleming

Term

 

 

 

Genetic changes that were not present in the parent but enables survival of the offspring best describes

Definition

 

 

 

adaptation

Term

 

 

 

Multicellular parasites that have a complex life cycle and may cause diseases in man

Definition

 

 

 

helminths

Term

 

 

 

Dutch spectacle makers who are credited with the discovery of the first compound microscope, about 1590.

Definition

 

 

 

The Janssens

Term

 

 

 

Prokaryotic cell division occurs via

Definition

 

 

 

binary fission

Term

 

 

 

The type of cell that has a pronounced absence of membrane bound organelles

Definition

 

 

 

prokaryotic

Term

 

Of the following, which is not true of viruses?

 

a. posses a protein coat

b. may direct its own replication through the use of the host cell's mechanisms

c. may infect bacteria

d. contains a molecule of DNA or RNA

e. all of the above are true

Definition

 

 

 

All of the above are true

Term

 

 

 

Prokaryotic cells may best be described as

Definition

 

 

 

cells that have a pronounced absence of organelles

Term

 

 

 

In which level of organization would viruses exist?

Definition

 

 

 

sub-cellular

Term

 

 

 

The necessity for elaborate sterilization procedures in hospitals and canneries is due to

Definition

 

 

 

endospores

Term

 

 

 

Which of Koch's postulates states that a particular microbe should be present in every case of that disease?

Definition

 

 

 

1

Term

 

 

 

Which domain includes eukaryotic cells?

Definition

 

 

 

Eukarya

Term

 

 

 

The following are parts of the scientific method except:

Definition

 

 

 

biological laws

Term

 

 

 

Abiogenesis was finally disproved by the work of:

Definition

 

 

 

Pasteur

Term

 

 

 

A clear association between contamination and infection from maternity wards with regards to child birth fever was demonstrated by:

Definition

 

 

 

Holmes

Term

 

 

 

Protozoa belong to the Kingdom

Definition

 

 

 

Protista

Term

 

 

 

The agent which causes AIDS is a

Definition

 

 

 

virus

Term

 

 

 

A minute, highly durable body which develops in some bacteria that is very resistant to the environment

Definition

 

 

 

endospore

Term

 

 

 

This is the study of the systems for disease resistance

Definition

 

 

 

immunology

Term

 

 

 

This is the process of an organism coping with its environment

Definition

 

 

 

adaptation

Term

 

 

 

This is the disproven idea that life arose from nonliving matter

Definition

 

 

 

abiogenesis

Term

 

 

 

Who was the virologist that developed the first polio vaccine?

Definition

 

 

 

Jonas Salk

Term

 

 

 

What is number 2 of Koch's Postulates?

Definition

 

 

 

isolate the microbe and grow in a pure culture in the lab

Term

 

 

 

The smallest taxonomic group in the taxonomic classification scheme is

Definition

 

 

 

Species

Term

 

 

 

Although impossible to prove, when using the scientific method, ______ is a scientific theme that attempts to explain biological observed data or information.  This is step 2 in the scientific method.

Definition

 

 

 

a hypothesis

Term

 

 

 

In which level of organization do bacteria exist?

Definition

 

 

 

cellular

Term

 

dealt final defeat to theory of abiogenesis: Louis Pasteur

 

Discovered cells under a microscope: Robert Hooke

 

Used a recombinant DNA technique to place plant and animal genes in the bacteria E. coli: Stanley Cohen

 

Discovered the first antibiotic, penicillin: Alexander Fleming

Definition
Term

 

Linked mosquitoes to the spread of Yellow Fever: Walter Reed

 

Built the earliest known compund microscope: Janssesns

 

One of the first in the first to use antiseptics in surgery: Joseph Lister

 

Definition
Term

 

Developed and used four postulates which were used in sequence to prove that a certain microorganism caused a certain disease: Robert Koch

 

Crystalized and studied the tobacco mosaic virus: Wendell Stanley

 

Discovered the causative agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Howard Ricketts

 

 

Definition
Term

 

Discovered heat stability is linked to the presence of endospores: John Tyndall

 

Developed the rabies vaccine and the anthrax vaccine for sheep: Louis Pasteur

 

Devised a model of the structure of DNA: Watson & Crick

 

 

Definition
Term

 

Developed the first oral polio vaccine: Albert Sabin

 

Developed recombinant techniques and developed the field of modern molecular genetics: Frederick Griffith

 

Developed the vaccine for small pox: Edward Jenner

 

Helped disprove the theory of spontaneous generation with his famous meat experiment: Francesco Redi

Definition
Term

 

Discovered the causative agent of anthrax: Robert Koch

 

Developed the handwashing technique: Ignaz Semmelweis

 

He is sometimes called the "Father of Bacteriology and Protozoology.": Anton van Leeuwenhoek

 

Cloned the first DNA using plasmids: Stanley Cohen

Definition