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Theories of Growth and Development
Theories of Growth and Development
25
Health Care
09/05/2011

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Term

Period 1 (birth - 2 years) Sensorimotor Period.

 

Reflexive behavior is used to adapt to the environment;  egocentric view of the world;  development of object permanence.  

Definition

Infancy

Piaget's Periods of Cognitive Development

Term

Period 2 (2-7 years)  Preoperational thought

 

Thinking remains egocentric, becomes magical, and is dominated by perception.  

Definition

Toddlerhood and Preschool Age

Piaget's Periods of Cognitive Development

Term

Period 3 (7-11 years)  Concrete Operations

Thinking becomes more systematic and logical, but concrete objects and activities are needed.  

Definition

School Age 

Piaget's Periods of Cognitive Development

Term

Period 4 (11 years to Adulthood)  Formal Operations

New ideas can be created; situations can be analyzed; use of abstract and futuristic thinking; understands logical consequences of behavior.

Definition

Adolescence to Adulthood

Piaget's Periods of Cognitive Development

Term

Oral Stage

Mouth is a sensory organ;  infant takes in and explores during oral passive substage (first half of infancy);  infant strikes out with teeth during oral aggressive substage (latter half of infancy)

Definition

Infancy 

Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development

Term

Anal Stage

Major focus of sexual interest is anus; control of body functions is major feature.  

Definition

Toddlerhood

Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development

Term

Phallic or Oedipal. Electra Stage

Genitals become focus of sexual curiosity;  

superego (conscience) develops;  feelings of guilt emerge.

Definition

Preschool Age

Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development

Term

Latency Stage

Sexual feelings are firmly repressed by the superego;  period of relative calm.  

Definition

School Age 

Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development

Term

Puberty or Genital Stage

Stimulated by increasing hormone levels; Sexual energy wells up in full force, resulting in personal and family turmoil.  

Definition

Adolescence 

Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development

Term

Trust vs. Mistrust

Development of a sense that the self is good and the world is good when consistent, predictable, reliable care is received;  characterized by hope.

Definition

Infancy

Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Term
Definition
Term

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Development of sense of control over the self and body functions;  exerts self; characterized by will.

Definition

Toddlerhood

Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Term

Initiative vs. Guilt

Development of a can-do attitude about the self;  behavior becomes goal-directed, competitive, and imaginative; initiation into gender role; characterized by purpose.  

Definition

Preschool Age

Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Term

Industry vs. Inferiority

Mastering of useful skills and tools of the culture; learning how to play and work with peers; characterized by competence.  

Definition

School Age 

Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Term

Identity vs. Role Confusion

Begins to develop a sense of "I";  this process is lifelong; peers become of paramount importance; child gains independence from parents; characterized by faith in self.  

Definition

Adolescence

Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Term

Intimacy vs. Isolation 

Development of the ability to lose the self in genuine mutuality with another; characterized by love.

Definition

Early Adulthood

Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Term

Generativity vs. Stagnation 

Production of ideas and materials through work; creation of children; characterized by care.

 

Definition

Mid Adulthood

Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Term

Ego Intergrity vs. Despair

Realization that there is order and purpose to life; characterized by wisdom.

Definition

Late Adulthood

Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Term

Premorality or Preconventional Morality, Stage 0 (0-2 years) Naivete and Egocentrism

No moral sensitivity; decisions are made of the basis of what pleases the child; infants like or love what helps them and dislike what hurts them; no awareness of the effect of their actions on others.

"Good is what I like and want."

Definition

Infancy 

Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development

Term

Premorality or preconventional Morality, Stage 1 (2-3 years)  Punishment-Obedience Orientation

Right or wrong is determined by physical consequences;  

"If I get caught and punished for doing it, it is wrong.  If I am not caught or punished, then it must be right."

Definition

Toddlerhood 

Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development

Term

Premorality or Preconventional Morality, Stage 2 (4-7 years)  Instrumental Hedonism and Concrete Reciprocity

Child conforms to rules out of self-interest; "I'll do this for you if you do this for me", behavior is guided by and "eye for and eye" orientation.  "if you do something bad to me, then it's OK if I do somethig bad to you."

Definition

Preschool Age

Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development

Term

Morality of Conventioal Role Conformity, Stage 3 (7-10 Years)  Good-Boy or Good-Girl Orientation

Morality is based on avoiding disapproval or disturbing the conscience' child is becoming socially sensitive.  

Definition

School Age (7-10 years)

Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development

Term

Morality of Conventional Role Conformity, Stage 4 (begins at about 10-12 years)  Law and Order Orientation

Right takes on a religious or metaphysical quality. Child wants to show respect for authority, and maintain social order; obeys rules for their own sake. 

Definition

School Age  (10-12 years)

Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development

Term

Morality of Self-Accepted Moral Principles, Stage 6:  Personal Principle Orientation

Achieved only by the morally mature individual; few people reach this level' these people do what they think is right, regardless of others' opinions, legal sanctions, or personal sacrifice' actions are guided by internal standards' integrity is of utmost importance; may be willing to die for their beliefs.

Definition

Adulthood

Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development

Term

Morality of Self-Accepted Moral Principles, Stage 7: Universal Principle Orientation

This stage is achieved by only a rare few; Mother Teresa, Gandhi, and Socrates are examples; these individuals transcend the teachings of organized religion and perceive themselves as part of the cosmic order, understand the reason for their existence, and live for their beliefs. 

Definition

Adulthood

Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development