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Theories Midterm
These flashcards cover all the vocabulary flashcards, the Clicker powerpoint questions, some questions from notes, and many of the questions from the Cengage site.
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10/28/2012

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Term
Carl Roger’s approach is based on the assumptions that humans are trustworthy and that clients desire to grow. True or False?
Definition
1
Term
True or False?: Students of the person-centered approach sometimes have difficulty letting clients truly find their own way and make decisions in an unassisted fashion.
Definition
1
Term
Existential therapy is… *A deterministic approach to therapy
*An expansion of the Adlerian school of therapy
*A phenomenological approach to therapy
*A structured approach to therapy
Definition
A phenomenological approach to therapy
Term
In Gestalt theory, the experiment is considered: *A specific technique of therapy
*A theoretical proposition crafted to fit the client’s unique needs
*A ready-made exercise used to achieve a behavioral goal
*A scientific procedure to assess the effectiveness of therapy
Definition
A theoretical proposition crafted to fit the client's unique needs
Term
An intervention that is concise, deliberate, direct, efficient, focused, short-term, and purposeful.
Definition
Adlerian brief therapy
Term
According to Gestalt theory, people use avoidance in order to: *Keep themselves from finishing unfinished business
*Keep from feeling uncomfortable emotions
*Keep from having to change
*All of the above
Definition
All of the above
Term
In Gestalt therapy, the relationship between client and counselor is seen as: *A joint venture
*An existential encounter
*An I/Thou interaction
*All of these
Definition
All of these
Term
A condition that results from having to face choices without clear guidelines and without knowing what the outcome will be is:
Definition
Anxiety
Term
The existential approach is particularly well-suited to clients who:
Definition
Are grieving with loss and death
Term
The basic goal of Gestalt therapy is: *Attaining awareness, and with it greater choice.
*To understand why we feel as we do.
*To uncover repressed material.
*To help clients develop better social skills.
Definition
Attaining awareness, and with it greater choice.
Term
The therapist’s presence is: *A condition of therapeutic change
*A goal of therapeutic change
*Both a condition and a goal of therapeutic change
*Neither a condition nor goal of therapeutic change
Definition
Both a condition and a goal of therapeutic change
Term
The ego defense mechanism that consists of masking perceived weaknesses or developing certain positive traits to make up for limitations is known as:
Definition
Compensation
Term
According to Adlerians, inferiority feelings: *Are pathological
*Lead to depression
*Keep us from achieving our life goals
*Are directly related to our family constellation
*Create motivation to achieve mastery
Definition
Create motivation to achieve mastery
Term
Which of the following is not considered a necessary and sufficient condition for change in the person-centered framework? *Unconditional positive regard
*Creative expression
*Accurate empathetic understanding
*Congruence
Definition
Creative expression
Term
A person who manages their anxiety by distorting reality and failing to acknowledge painful events is most likely using:
Definition
Denial
Term
The client’s core experience in Adlerian therapy consists of: *Working through the transference relationship
*Discovering their basic mistakes and then learning how to correct them
*Understanding how their relationship with their parents has shaped their personality
*Understanding how their birth order has determined the person they are today
Definition
Discovering their basic mistakes and then learning how to correct them
Term
Directing energy toward another object or a person (when anxiety is reduced by focusing on a “safer target”) is known as:
Definition
Displacement
Term
The Gestalt approach does not interpret and analyze dreams. Instead, the intent is to bring dreams back to life and relive them as though they were happening now.
Definition
Dream Work
Term
A philosophical movement stressing individual responsibility for creating one’s ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
Definition
Exisentialism
Term
Gestalt therapy is a form of: *Freudian psychoanalytic theory
*Neo-Freudian analytic theory
*Behavior therapy
*Existential therapy
Definition
Existential Therapy
Term
A condition of emptiness and hollowness that results from meaninglessness in life.
Definition
Existential Vaccum
Term
Which of the following is not typically a standard psychoanalytic technique? *Free association
*Interpretation
*Exploration of one’s position in the family
*Exploration of patterns of resistance
*Analysis of transference
Definition
Exploration of one's position in the family
Term
True or False?: The person-centered approach is not particularly well-suited to multi-cultural counseling.
Definition
False
Term
The central issue in existential therapy is:
Definition
Freedom and responsibility
Term
Who among the following is not considered a relational Gestalt therapy? *Fritz Perls
*Laura Perls
*Miriam Polster
*Erv Polster
Definition
Fritz Perls
Term
According to the existential viewpoint, death: *Makes life absurd
*Makes life meaningless and hopeless
*Gives significance to living
*Should not be explored in therapy
Definition
Gives significance to living
Term
We are able to strive toward self-actualization only after these four basic needs are met: physiological, safety, love, and esteem.
Definition
Hierarchy of Needs
Term
What kind of approach is person-centered therapy?
Definition
Humanistic
Term
The part of personality, present at birth, that is blind, demanding, and insistent. Its function is to discharge tension and return to homeostasis.
Definition
Id
Term
A theory stating that instincts and intrapsychic conflicts are the basic factors shaping personality development (both normal and abnormal).
Definition
Id psychology
Term
Lacking awareness of personal responsibility and passively assuming that our existence is largely controlled by external forces is:
Definition
Inauthenticity
Term
The young adult who adopts his parent’s outdated political beliefs to avoid unpleasant feelings of anxiety is an example of:
Definition
Introjection
Term
Viktor Frankl’s approach to existential therapy is known as…
Definition
Logotherapy
Term
Which of the following Gestalt techniques involves asking one person in a group to speak to each of the other group members?: *The rehearsal exercise
*The reversal technique
*Making the rounds
*The exaggeration technique
Definition
Making the rounds
Term
The technique of reflection involves the therapist: *Restating the client’s words verbatim
*Sharing his or her genuine emotional response with the client
*Mirroring the client’s emotional experience of a particular situation
*Bringing an actual mirror into the session and having a client look at himself or herself in the mirror
Definition
Mirroring the client’s emotional experience of a particular situation
Term
Which of the following would an Adlerian therapist particularly value? *Interpretation of dreams
*Confronting the ways the client is living dependently since early childhood
*Modeling of communication and acting in socially minded ways
*Helping the client to work through the transference neurosis
Definition
Modeling of communication and acting in socially minded ways
Term
A humanistic, client-centered, psychosocial, directive counseling approach that was developed by William R. Miller and Stephen Rollnick in the early 1980s.
Definition
Motivational Interviewing (MI)
Term
The Gestalt therapist: *Freely makes interpretations for the client
*Pays attention to the client’s nonverbal language
*Is mainly nondirective
*Helps the client understand why he or she is behaving in self-defeating ways
Definition
Pays attention to the client's nonverbal language
Term
One contribution of Adlerian therapy is that: *Practitioners are given a great deal of freedom in working with their clients
*It offers a well-defined theory of personality
*Many of its concepts have been supported by research
*It is a common-sense psychology
Definition
Practitioners are given a great deal of freedom in working with their clients
Term
Attributing to others the qualities or traits that are unacceptable to our own ego is best described as:
Definition
Projection
Term
A healthy contact experience involves all of the following except: *Interacting with others while maintaining a sense of self
*Creativity
*Maintaining balance between the figure and the ground
*Projection
Definition
Projection
Term
A person who unconsciously exhibits overly nice behavior to conceal hostile feelings is probably using which ego defense?
Definition
Reaction Formation
Term
The ego defense mechanism in which a person exhibits behavior that clearly shows signs of reverting to less mature stages is:
Definition
Regression
Term
One of the most important Freudian concepts, which consists of pushing unacceptable life events and painful feelings into the unconscious, is:
Definition
Repression
Term
The process of redirecting sexual energy into some form of socially acceptable behavior is known as:
Definition
Sublimation
Term
The Adlerian approach is well suited to multicultural counseling because: *The approach encourages clients to define themselves within their social context
*The approach has few rigid techniques
*The focus on early recollections allows clients to explore their past
*The focus on a lifestyle assessment is appealing to most cultures
Definition
The approach encourages clients to define themselves within their social context
Term
A critical difference between early Gestalt therapy and relational Gestalt therapy is: *The emphasis on contact
*The approach to confrontation *The use of techniques
*The focus on the figure formation process
Definition
The approach to confrontation
Term
Carl Rogers drew heavily from existential concepts, especially as they apply to: *The transference relationships
*Countertransference, or unfinished business of the counselor
*The client/therapist relationship
*Guilt and anxiety
*Death and non-being
Definition
The client/therapist relationship
Term
One point of disagreement between existential and humanistic thought involves: *A respect for the client’s subjective experience
*A trust in the capacity of the client to make positive choices
*An emphasis on freedom
*The idea of an innate self-actualizing drive
Definition
The idea of an innate self-actualizing drive
Term
Which child tends to feel squeezed out and may develop a conviction that life is unfair and a feeling of being cheated?
Definition
The middle child
Term
When Adler spoke of individuality, he referred to:
Definition
The unique way we develop our own style of striving for competence
Term
One of the limitations of the person-centered approach is that: *It has not been subjected to rigorous research
*It is not grounded in personality theory
*Therapists use vigorous confrontation methods
*There can be a tendency to give too much support and not enough challenge
Definition
There can be a tendency to give too much support and not enough challenge
Term
Freud used the term libido in which of the following ways? *To refer to the death instinct
*To refer to the energy of all life instincts
*To refer to sexual abuse
*To account for the aggressive drive
Definition
To refer to the energy of all life instincts
Term
True or False?: An assumption of person-centered therapy is that the counselor’s presence is far more powerful than the techniques he or she uses to facilitate change.
Definition
True
Term
The act of perceiving accurately the internal frame of reference of another; the ability to grasp the person’s subjective world without losing one’s own identity.
Definition
accurate empathic understanding
Term
A growth force within us; a directional process of striving toward self-regulation, self-determination, realization, fulfillment, perfection, and inner freedom; the basis on which people can be trusted to identify and resolve their own problems in a therapeutic relationship.
Definition
actualizing tendency
Term
The second stage of psychosexual development, when pleasure is derived from retaining and expelling feces.
Definition
anal stage
Term
An elaborate explanation of human nature that combines ideas from history, mythology, anthropology, and religion.
Definition
analytical psychology
Term
A Danish and German word whose meaning lies between the English words dread and anxiety. This term refers to the uncertainty in life and the role of anxiety in making decisions about how we want to live.
Definition
angst
Term
The biological and psychological aspects of masculinity and femininity, which are thought to coexist in both sexes.
Definition
animus (anima)
Term
A feeling of impending doom that results from repressed feelings, memories, desires, and experiences emerging to the surface of awareness. From a psychoanalytic perspective, there are three kinds of anxiety: reality, neurotic, and moral anxiety.
Definition
anxiety
Term
A condition that results from having to face choices without clear guidelines and without knowing what the outcome will be.
Definition
anxiety
Term
The images of universal experiences contained in the collective unconscious.
Definition
archetypes
Term
A higher level of ethical practice that addresses doing what is in the best interests of clients.
Definition
aspirational ethics
Term
Evaluating the relevant factors in a client’s life to identify themes for further exploration in the counseling process.
Definition
assessment
Term
The process of creating, discovering, or maintaining the core deep within one’s being; the process of becoming the person one is capable of becoming.
Definition
authenticity
Term
The process of attending to and observing one’s own sensing, thinking, feelings, and actions; paying attention to the flowing nature of one’s present-centered experience.
Definition
awareness
Term
Faulty, self-defeating perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs that may have been appropriate at one time but are no longer useful. These are myths that are influential in shaping personality.
Definition
basic mistakes
Term
Adler identified five psychological positions from which children tend to view life: oldest, second of only two, middle, youngest, and only. Actual birth order itself is less important than a person’s interpretation of his or her place in the family.
Definition
birth order
Term
An anonymous stance assumed by classical psychoanalysts aimed at fostering transference.
Definition
blank screen
Term
Paying attention to where energy is located, how it is used, and how it can be blocked.
Definition
blocks to energy
Term
A disorder characterized by instability, irritability, self-destructive acts, impulsivity, and extreme mood shifts. Such people lack a sense of their own identity and do not have a deep understanding of others.
Definition
borderline personality disorder
Term
A departure from a commonly accepted practice that could potentially benefit a client (e.g., attending a client’s wedding).
Definition
boundary crossing
Term
A boundary crossing that takes the practitioner out of the professional role, which generally involves exploitation. It is a serious breach that harms the client and is therefore unethical.
Definition
boundary violation
Term
An adaptation of the principles of psychoanalytic theory and therapy aimed at treating selective disorders within a preestablished time limit.
Definition
brief psychodynamic therapy (BPT)
Term
The traditional (Freudian) approach to psychoanalysis based on a long-term exploration of past conflicts, many of which are unconscious, and an extensive process of working through early wounds.
Definition
classical psychoanalysis
Term
From a Jungian perspective, the deepest level of the psyche that contains an accumulation of inherited experiences.
Definition
collective unconscious
Term
An individual’s awareness of being part of the human community. Community feeling embodies the sense of being connected to all humanity and to being committed to making the world a better place.
Definition
community feeling
Term
An ego-defense mechanism that consists of masking perceived weaknesses or developing certain positive traits to make up for limitations.
Definition
compensation
Term
This is an ethical concept, and in most states therapists also have a legal duty not to disclose information about a client.
Definition
confidentiality
Term
A disturbance in which the sense of the boundary between self and environment is lost.
Definition
confluence
Term
An invitation for the client to become aware of discrepancies between verbal and nonverbal expressions, between feelings and actions, or between thoughts and feelings.
Definition
confrontation
Term
The state in which self-experiences are accurately symbolized in the self-concept. As applied to the therapist, congruence is matching one’s inner experiencing with external expressions; congruence is a quality of realness or genuineness of the therapist.
Definition
congruence
Term
The process of interacting with nature and with other people without losing one’s sense of individuality. Contact is made by seeing, hearing, smelling, touching, and moving.
Definition
contact
Term
Newer formulations of psychoanalytic theory that share some core characteristics of classical analytic theory, but with different applications of techniques; extensions and adaptations of orthodox psychoanalysis.
Definition
contemporary psychoanalysis
Term
Staying with the moment-to-moment flow of experiencing, which leads individuals to discover how they are functioning in the world.
Definition
continuum of awareness
Term
The process of clients seeing in their clients patterns of their own behavior, overidentifying with clients, or meeting their own needs through their clients
Definition
countertransferance
Term
The therapist’s unconscious emotional responses to a client that are likely to interfere with objectivity; unresolved conflicts of the therapist that are projected onto the client.
Definition
countertransference
Term
According to Erikson, a turning point in life when we have the potential to move forward or to regress. At these turning points, we can either resolve our conflicts or fail to master the developmental task.
Definition
crisis
Term
The values and behaviors shared by a group of individuals
Definition
culture
Term
A Freudian concept that refers to a tendency of individuals to harbor an unconscious wish to die or hurt themselves or others; accounts for the aggressive drive.
Definition
death instincts
Term
A way of avoiding contact and awareness by being vague and indirect.
Definition
deflection
Term
In denial there is an effort to suppress unpleasant reality. It consists of coping with anxiety by “closing our eyes” to the existence of anxiety-producing reality.
Definition
denial
Term
The analysis and explanation of a client’s problems. It may include an explanation of the causes of the client’s difficulties, an account of how these problems developed over time, a classification of any disorders, a specification of preferred treatment procedure, and an estimate of the chances for a successful resolution.
Definition
diagnosis
Term
A blend of cognitive behavioral and psychoanalytic techniques that generally involves a minimum of one year of treatment.
Definition
dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)
Term
A split by which a person experiences or sees opposing forces; a polarity (weak/strong, dependent/independent).
Definition
dichotomy
Term
An ego-defense mechanism that entails redirection of some emotion from a real source to a substitute person or object.
Definition
displacement
Term
An ongoing process that involves a practioner developing awareness of beliefs and attitudes, acquiring knowledge about race and culture, and learning skills and intervention strategies necessary to work effectively with culturally diverse populations
Definition
diversity-competent practioner
Term
A technique for uncovering unconscious material and giving clients insight into some of their unresolved problems. Therapists participate with clients in exploring dreams and in interpreting possible meanings.
Definition
dream analysis
Term
The process by which the latent content of a dream is transformed into the less threatening manifest content.
Definition
dream work
Term
A counselor assumes two (or more) roles simultaneously or sequentially with a client. This may involve assuming more than one professional role or combining professional and nonprofessional roles.
Definition
dual or multiple relationships
Term
Childhood memories (before the age of 9) of one-time events. People retain these memories as capsule summaries of their present philosophy of life. From a series of early recollections, it is possible to understand mistaken notions, present attitudes, social interests, and possible future behavior.
Definition
early recollections
Term
The part of the personality that is the mediator between external reality and inner demands.
Definition
ego
Term
The psychosocial approach of Erik Erikson, which emphasizes the development of the ego or self at various stages of life.
Definition
ego psychology
Term
Intrapsychic processes that operate unconsciously to protect the person from threatening and, therefore, anxiety-producing thoughts, feelings, and impulses.
Definition
ego-defense mechanism
Term
Rooted in a person-centered philosophy, EFT is integrative in that it synthesizes aspects of Gestalt therapy and existential therapy. Strategies used in EFT are aimed at strengthening the self, regulating affect, and creating new meaning.
Definition
emotion-focused therapy
Term
Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) entails the practice of therapy being informed by understanding the role of emotion in psychotherapeutic change.
Definition
emotion-focused therapy (EFT)
Term
A deep and subjective understanding of the client with the client.
Definition
empathy
Term
A role-playing intervention in which clients play conflicting parts. This typically consists of clients engaging in an imaginary dialogue between different sides of themselves.
Definition
empty-chair technique
Term
The process of increasing one’s courage to face life tasks; used throughout therapy as a way to counter discouragement and to help people set realistic goals.
Definition
encouragement
Term
To make ethical decisions, consult with colleagues, keep yourself informed about laws affecting your practice, keep up to date in your specialty field, stay abreast of developments in ethical practice, reflect on the impact your values have on your practice, and be willing to engage in honest self-examination.
Definition
ethical decisions
Term
Psychotherapists are required to base their practice on techniques that have empirical evidence to support their efficacy.
Definition
evidence-based practice (EBP)
Term
Ready-made techniques that are sometimes used to make something happen in a therapy session or to achieve a goal.
Definition
exercises
Term
The emphasis of this therapy approach is on the subjective and spiritual dimensions of human existence.
Definition
existential analysis (dasein analyse)
Term
An outcome of being confronted with the four givens of existence: death, freedom, existential isolation, and meaninglessness.
Definition
existential anxiety
Term
The result of, or the consciousness of, evading the commitment to choosing for ourselves.
Definition
existential guilt
Term
Feelings of despair and anxiety that result from inauthentic living, a failure to make choices, and avoidance of responsibility.
Definition
existential neurosis
Term
Seeks a balance between recognizing the limits and the tragic dimensions of human existence and the possibilities and opportunities of human life.
Definition
existential tradition
Term
A condition of emptiness and hollowness that results from meaninglessness in life.
Definition
existential vacuum
Term
A philosophical movement stressing individual responsibility for creating one’s ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
Definition
existentialism
Term
Procedures aimed at encouraging spontaneity and inventiveness by bringing the possibilities for action directly into the therapy session. Experiments are designed to enhance here-and-now awareness. They are activities clients try out as a way of testing new ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
Definition
experiments
Term
An approach that makes use of various arts—such as movement, drawing, painting, sculpting, music, and improvisation—in a supportive setting for the purpose of growth and healing.
Definition
expressive arts therapy
Term
The climate of relationships among family members.
Definition
family atmosphere
Term
The social and psychological structure of the family system; includes birth order, the individual’s perception of self, sibling characteristics and ratings, and parental relationships. Each person forms his or her unique view of self, others, and life through the family constellation.
Definition
family constellation
Term
An imagined central goal that gives direction to behavior and unity to the personality; an image of what people would be like if they were perfect and perfectly secure.
Definition
fictional finalism
Term
A dynamic system of interrelationships.
Definition
field
Term
Paying attention to and exploring what is occurring at the boundary between the person and the environment.
Definition
field theory
Term
Those aspects of the individual’s experience that are most salient at any moment.
Definition
figure
Term
Describes how the individual organizes the environment from moment to moment and how the emerging focus of attention is on what is figural.
Definition
figure-formation process
Term
The condition of being arrested, or “stuck,” at one level of psychosexual development.
Definition
fixation
Term
A primary technique, consisting of spontaneous and uncensored verbalization by the client, which gives clues to the nature of the client’s unconscious conflicts.
Definition
free association
Term
An inescapable aspect of the human condition; we are the authors of our lives and therefore are responsible for our destiny and accountable for our actions.
Definition
freedom
Term
The final stage of psychosexual development, usually attained at adolescence, in which heterosexual interests and activities are generally predominant.
Definition
genital stage
Term
A congruence between the client’s and the counselor’s goals and the collaborative effort of two persons working equally toward specific, agreed-on goals.
Definition
goal alignment
Term
Those aspects of the individual’s experience that tend to be out of awareness or in the background.
Definition
ground
Term
Another term for fictional finalism, which represents an individual’s image of a goal of perfection.
Definition
guiding self-ideal
Term
Attending to a client’s thoughts, feelings, behaviors, body, and dreams.
Definition
holism
Term
We cannot be understood in parts; all aspects of ourselves must be understood in relation to each other.
Definition
holistic concept
Term
A movement, often referred to as the “third force,” that emphasizes freedom, choice, values, growth, self-actualization, becoming, spontaneity, creativity, play, humor, peak experiences, and psychological health.
Definition
humanistic psychology
Term
As an ego defense, this may involve individuals identifying themselves with successful causes in the hope that they will be seen as worthwhile.
Definition
identificaiton
Term
A developmental challenge, occurring during adolescence, whereby the person seeks to establish a stable view of self and to define a place in life.
Definition
identity crisis
Term
Addressing what is going on between the client and therapist right now.
Definition
immediacy
Term
The stuck point in a situation in which individuals believe they are unable to support themselves and thus seek external support.
Definition
impasse
Term
Lacking awareness of personal responsibility and passively assuming that our existence is largely controlled by external forces.
Definition
inauthenticity
Term
Adler’s original name for his approach that stressed understanding the whole person, how all dimensions of a person are interconnected, and how all these dimensions are unified by the person’s movement toward a life goal.
Definition
individual psychology
Term
The harmonious integration of the conscious and unconscious aspects of personality.
Definition
individuation
Term
The early determining force in behavior; the source of human striving and the wellspring of creativity. Humans attempt to compensate for both imagined and real inferiorities, which helps them overcome handicaps.
Definition
inferiority feelings
Term
The right of clients to be informed about their therapy and to make autonomous decisions pertaining to it.
Definition
informed consent
Term
A special form of awareness that facilitates a meaningful understanding within the therapeutic relationship and acts as a foundation for change.
Definition
insight
Term
A technique used to explore the meanings of free association, dreams, resistances, and transference feelings.
Definition
interpretation
Term
Understanding clients’ underlying motives for behaving the way they do in the here and now.
Definition
interpretation
Term
The fact of our interrelatedness with others and the need for us to struggle with this in a creative way.
Definition
intersubjectivity
Term
A process of taking in the values and standards of others.
Definition
introjection
Term
The uncritical acceptance of others’ beliefs and standards without assimilating them into one’s own personality.
Definition
introjection
Term
A period of psychosexual development, following the phallic stage, that is relatively calm before the storm of adolescence.
Definition
latency stage
Term
Our hidden, symbolic, and unconscious motives, wishes, and fears.
Definition
latent content
Term
The instinctual drives of the id and the source of psychic energy; Freudian notion of the life instincts.
Definition
libido
Term
Instincts oriented toward growth, development, and creativity that serve the purpose of the survival of the individual and the human race.
Definition
life instincts
Term
Universal problems in human life, including the tasks of friendship (community), work (a division of labor), and intimacy (love and marriage).
Definition
life tasks
Term
The core beliefs and assumptions through which the person organizes his or her reality and finds meaning in life events. Our perceptions of self, others, and the world. Our characteristic way of thinking, acting, feeling, living, and striving toward long-term goals.
Definition
lifestyle
Term
The process of gathering early memories, which involves learning to understand the goals and motivations of the client.
Definition
lifestyle assessment
Term
Developed by Frankl, this brand of existential therapy literally means “healing through reason.” It focuses on challenging clients to search for meaning in life.
Definition
logotherapy
Term
The dream as it appears to the dreamer.
Definition
maifest content
Term
Refers to a range of procedures, such as an analyst’s anonymity, regularity, and consistency of meetings, as a structure for therapy.
Definition
maintaining the analytic frame
Term
The view of ethical practice that deals with the minimum level of professional practice.
Definition
mandatory ethics
Term
The fear of one’s own conscience; people with a well-developed conscience tend to feel guilty when they do something contrary to their moral code.
Definition
moral anxiety
Term
A process whereby group members develop intense feelings for certain others in a group; an individual may “see” in others some significant figure such as a parent, life-partner, ex-lover, or boss.
Definition
multiple transferences
Term
Extreme self-love, as opposed to love of others. A narcissistic personality is characterized by a grandiose and exaggerated sense of self-importance and an exploitive attitude toward others, which hides a poor self-concept.
Definition
narcissism
Term
Characterized by a grandiose and exaggerated sense of self-importance and an exploitive attitude toward others, which serve the function of masking a frail self-concept.
Definition
narcissistic personality
Term
The fear that the instincts will get out of hand and cause one to do something for which one will be punished.
Definition
neurotic anxiety
Term
A response out of proportion to the situation. It is typically out of awareness and tends to immobilize the person.
Definition
neurotic anxiety
Term
Additional relationships with clients other than sexual ones.
Definition
nonprofessional interactions
Term
An appropriate response to an event being faced.
Definition
normal anxiety
Term
Interpersonal relationships as they are represented intrapsychically.
Definition
object relatedness
Term
Interpersonal relationships as they are represented intrapsychically.
Definition
object relations
Term
A newer version of psychoanalytic thinking, which focuses on predictable developmental sequences in which early experiences of self shift in relation to an expanding awareness of others. It holds that individuals go through phases of autism, normal symbiosis, and separation and individuation, culminating in a state of integration.
Definition
object-relations theory
Term
Adlerians seek basic information about the client’s life as a part of the lifestyle assessment process.
Definition
objective interview
Term
The initial phase of psychosexual development, during which the mouth is the primary source of gratification; a time when the infant is learning to trust or mistrust the world.
Definition
oral stage
Term
An individual’s tendency to take actions and make contacts that will restore equilibrium or contribute to change.
Definition
organismic self-regulation
Term
A theoretical position that authentic change occurs more from being who we are than from trying to be who we are not.
Definition
paradoxical theory of change
Term
The mask we wear, or public face we present, as a way to protect ourselves.
Definition
persona
Term
The third phase of psychosexual development, during which the child gains maximum gratification through direct experience with the genitals.
Definition
phallic stage
Term
Focus on the way people perceive their world. For Adlerians, objective reality is less important than how people interpret reality and the meanings they attach to what they experience.
Definition
phenomenological approach
Term
Through a therapist asking “what” and “how” questions, clients are assisted in noticing what is occurring in the present moment.
Definition
phenomenological inquiry
Term
A method of exploration that uses subjective human experiencing as its focus. The phenomenological approach is a part of the fabric of existentially oriented therapies, Adlerian therapy, person-centered therapy, Gestalt therapy, and reality therapy.
Definition
phenomenology
Term
The idea that the id is driven to satisfy instinctual needs by reducing tension, avoiding pain, and gaining pleasure.
Definition
pleasure principle
Term
An approach taken by practitioners who want to do their best for clients rather than simply meet minimum standards to stay out of trouble.
Definition
positive ethics
Term
A movement that has come into prominence, which shares many concepts on the healthy side of human existence with the humanistic approach.
Definition
positive psychology
Term
Using data generated during treatment to inform the process and outcome of treatment.
Definition
practice-based evidence
Term
Both a condition and goal of therapeutic change, which serves the dual functions of reconnecting people to their pain and attuning them to the opportunities to transform their pain.
Definition
presence
Term
The ability to “be with” someone fully in the present moment; being engaged and absorbed in the relationship with the client.
Definition
presence
Term
Basic convictions and assumptions of the individual that underlie the lifestyle pattern and explain how behaviors fit together to provide consistency.
Definition
private logic
Term
A legal concept that generally bars the disclosure of confidential communications in a legal proceeding.
Definition
privileged communication
Term
A condition that occurs when helpers feel drained and depleted as a result of their work. Certain factors, such as constantly giving without expecting much in return, can sap helpers' vitality and motivation. Self-care can help to prevent this condition.
Definition
professional burnout
Term
An ego-defense mechanism that involves attributing our own unacceptable thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and motives to others.
Definition
projection
Term
The process by which we disown certain aspects of ourselves by ascribing them to the environment; the opposite of introjection.
Definition
projection
Term
Psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy involves a shortening and simplifying of the lengthy process of psychoanalysis.
Definition
psychodynamic psychotherapy
Term
The interplay of opposing forces and intrapsychic conflicts that provide a basis for understanding human motivation.
Definition
psychodynamics
Term
The Frudian chronological phases of devleopment, beginning in infancy. Each is characterized by a primary way of gaining sensual and sexual gratification.
Definition
psychosexual stages
Term
Erikson’s turning points, from infancy through old age. Each presents psychological and social tasks that must be mastered if maturation is to proceed in a healthy fashion.
Definition
psychosocial stages
Term
An ego-defense mechanism whereby we attempt to justify our behavior by imputing logical motives to it.
Definition
rationalization
Term
A defense against a threatening impulse, involving actively expressing the opposite impulse.
Definition
reaction formation
Term
The fear of danger from the external world; the level of such anxiety is proportionate to the degree of real threat.
Definition
reality anxiety
Term
The idea that the ego does realistic and logical thinking and formulates plans of action for satisfying needs.
Definition
reality principle
Term
An analytic model based on the assumption that therapy is an interactive process between client and therapist. The interpersonal analyst assumes that countertransference is a source of information about the client’s character and dynamics.
Definition
realtional analysis
Term
An ego-defense mechanism whereby an individual reverts to a less mature form of behavior as a way of coping with extreme stress.
Definition
regression
Term
A supportive, kind, and compassionate style that emphasizes dialogue in the therapeutic relationship, rather than the confrontational style of Fritz Perls.
Definition
relational Gestalt therapy
Term
A model that characterizes therapy as an interactive process between client and therapist in which countertransference provides an important source of information about the client’s character and dynamics.
Definition
relational model
Term
The phase of the counseling process in which clients are helped to discover a new and more functional perspective and are encouraged to take risks and make changes in their lives.
Definition
reorientation
Term
The ego-defense mechanism whereby threatening or painful thoughts or feelings are excluded from awareness.
Definition
repression
Term
The client’s reluctance to bring to awareness threatening unconscious material that has been repressed.
Definition
resistance
Term
From an existential-humanistic perspective, resistance manifests as a failure to be fully present both duirng the therapy hour and in life.
Definition
resistance
Term
A state of functioning with a limited degree of awareness of oneself and being vague about the nature of one’s problems.
Definition
restricted existence
Term
The act of turning back onto ourselves something we would like to do (or have done) to someone else.
Definition
retroflection
Term
The capacity for consciousness that enables us to make choices.
Definition
self awareness
Term
A theory that emphasizes how we use interpersonal relationships (self objects) to develop our own sense of self.
Definition
self psychology
Term
The central theme of the work of Abraham Maslow. His theory of self-actualization is postulated on a hierarchy of needs as a source of motivation.
Definition
self-actualization
Term
The ability to pay attention to what one is thinking, feeling, and doing. This is a crucial first step to self-care.
Definition
self-monitoring
Term
A Jungian archetype representing thoughts, feelings, and actions that we tend to disown by projecting them outward.
Definition
shadow
Term
A sense of identification with humanity; a feeling of belonging; an interest in the common good.
Definition
social interest
Term
People are assumed to progress through a series of five identifiable stages of motivation and readiness to change in the counseling process. They include the precontemplation stage, the contemplation stage, the preparation stage, the action stage, and the maintenance stage.
Definition
stages of change
Term
A strong inclination toward becoming competent, toward mastering the environment, and toward self-improvement. The striving for perfection (and superiority) is a movement toward enhancement of self.
Definition
striving for superiority
Term
An individual’s way of thinking, feeling, and acting; a conceptual framework by which the world is perceived and by which people are able to cope with life tasks; the person’s personality.
Definition
style of life
Term
The process whereby the counselor helps clients tell their life story as completely as possible.
Definition
subjective interview
Term
An ego defense that involves diverting sexual or aggressive energy into other channels that are socially acceptable.
Definition
sublimation
Term
That aspect of personality that represents one’s moral training. It strives for perfection, not pleasure.
Definition
superego
Term
Exercises or interventions that are often used to bring about action or interaction, sometimes with a prescribed outcome in mind.
Definition
techniques
Term
It is essential that therapists function within the spirit of MI, rather than simply applying the strategies of the approach. The attitudes and skills in MI are based on a person-centered philosophy.
Definition
the MI spirit
Term
Used in an initial assessment to gain understanding of the purpose that symptoms or actions have in a person’s life. The question is, “How would your life be different, and what would you do differently, if you did not have this symptom or problem?”
Definition
the question
Term
The necessary and sufficient characteristics of the therapeutic relationship for client change to occur. These core conditions include therapist congruence (or genuineness), unconditional positive regard (acceptance and respect), and accurate empathic understanding.
Definition
therapeutic core conditions
Term
Through this form of psychoanalytically oriented therapy, clients gain a sense of what it is like to interact more fully and flexibly within the therapy situation. They are helped to apply to the outside world what they are learning in the office.
Definition
time-limited dynamic psychotherapy (TLDP)
Term
The client’s unconscious shifting to the therapist of feelings and fantasies, both positive and negative that are displacements from reactions to significant others from the client’s past.
Definition
transference
Term
The transfer of feelings originally experienced in an early relationship to other important people in a person’s present environment.
Definition
transference relationship
Term
The nonjudgmental expression of fundamental respect for the person as a human; acceptance of a person’s right to his or her feelings.
Definition
unconditional positive regard
Term
That aspect of psychological functioning or of personality that houses experiences, wishes, impulses, and memories in an out-of-awareness state as a protection against anxiety.
Definition
unconscious
Term
Unexpressed feelings (such as resentment, guilt, anger, grief) dating back to childhood that now interfere with effective psychological functioning; needless emotional debris that clutters present-centered awareness.
Definition
unfinished business
Term
Refers to counselors' behavior in directly attempting to define a client's values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
Definition
value imposition
Term
A process of resolving basic conflicts that are manifested in the client’s relationship with the therapist; achieved by the repetition of interpretations and by exploring forms of resistance.
Definition
working through
Term
Core or universal themes in the therapeutic process: death, freedom, existential isolation, and meaninglessness.
Definition
“givens of existence”
Term
An alternative to psychoanalytic and behavioral approaches; under this heading are the experiential and relationship-oriented therapies (existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and Gestalt therapy).
Definition
“third force” in therapy