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Statistics Vocabulary
Basic vocabulary
39
Education
Not Applicable
10/07/2005

Term
 Science (Define and name four reasons why it is important)
Definition
 “A systematic method for the acquisition of knowledge”- Objective- Controlled observations- Replicable- Contributes to theory building- Data-based- Agreed upon vocabulary (Operational Definitions)
Term
 Research
Definition
 Systematic process of collecting and logically analyzing information for some purpose
Term
 Statistics
Definition
 "Methods used to summarize, analyze, or make inferences from data"
Term
 Data (datum)
Definition
 quantifiable information gathered through measurement or observation of behavior or events (controlled; objective; replicable?).
Term
 Descriptive Statistics
Definition
 describe the sample
Term
 Correlational
Definition
 show relationships between variables
Term
 Inferential Statistics
Definition
 make inferences about population or sample
Term
 Four types of Data
Definition
 "empirical, observational, archival, anecdotal"
Term
 Population
Definition
 the total set of individuals of interest
Term
 Samples
Definition
 set of individuals selected from the population of interest (Subjects; Participants)
Term
 Six Types of Sampling Plans
Definition
 "Random, Stratified Random, Volunteers, Convenience, Purposive, Systematic"
Term
 What are the key to making generalizations about the population?
Definition
 representation and sample size
Term
 Variable
Definition
 "ÒA characteristic, influence, or condition that can take on different values at different times, in different contexts, or for different people"
Term
 Independent Variables
Definition
 variables that are manipulated
Term
 Dependent Variables
Definition
 variables that measured or observed for change
Term
 Extraneous Variables
Definition
 "variables that effect outcome, but not intended for study (threats to validity)"
Term
 Discrete variable
Definition
 "one that consists of separate, indivisible categories; no values exist between data points (age in years)"
Term
 Continuous variable
Definition
 "one that has an infinite number of possible values(e.g., age in general - - divisible to into days, hours, minutes, seconds)."
Term
 Constant
Definition
 "A characteristic that does not change, but is the same for every individual."
Term
 Question
Definition
 "An exploratory question of interest (e.g., I wonder whether there is a relationship between these variables)"
Term
 Hypothesis
Definition
 A prediction about the relationship between variables.
Term
 Null Hypothesis
Definition
 prediction of no relationship
Term
 Directional Hypothesis
Definition
 prediction of a specific relationship
Term
 Construct
Definition
 "Hypothetical concepts used in theories to organize observations (e.g., intelligence, self-concept)"
Term
 characteristics of Nominal Scale
Definition
 Data categories are mutually exclusive (can only belong to one category)
Term
 characteristics of Ordinal Scale
Definition
 Data categories are mutually exclusive, have some logical order (1st, 2nd, 3rd) and are scaled according to amount of characteristic.
Term
 characteristics of Interval (Equal Unit Scale)
Definition
 Data categories are mutually exclusive, have a logical order, are scaled according to amount of characteristic they possess. Equal differences in the characteristic is represented by equal differences in numbers assigned. No absolute zero.
Term
 characteristics of Ratio
Definition
 Data categories are mutually exclusive, have a logical order, are scaled according to amount of characteristic they possess. Absolute zero. Equal differences in the characteristic is represented by equal differences in numbers assigned.
Term
 Characteristics of normal curve
Definition
 "bell-shaped, symmetrical, asymptotic, continuous"
Term
 Mean=Median=Mode
Definition
 Normal curve
Term
 Skewness of Mean > Median > Mode
Definition
 postively skewed
Term
 Skewness of Mean < Median < Mode
Definition
 negatively skewed
Term
 Leptokurtic
Definition
 "positive kurtosis, peaked distribution"
Term
 Mesokurtic
Definition
 "kurtosis is 0, has the slope of a normal curve"
Term
 Platykurtic
Definition
 flat/broad distruction with more extreme scores than normal and the remaining scores more evenly distributed than normal
Term
 Central Tendency
Definition
 "A statistic that identifies a single score that represents the typical performance of a population (mean, median, mode)"
Term
 Mean
Definition
 Arithmetic Average
Term
 Median
Definition
 "Midpoint of frequency distribution, 50th percentile"
Term
 Mode
Definition
 most frequently occuring case
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