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Statistics Vocabulary
Basic vocabulary
39
Education
10/07/2005

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Term
Science (Define and name four reasons why it is important)
Definition
“A systematic method for the acquisition of knowledge”

- Objective
- Controlled observations
- Replicable
- Contributes to theory building
- Data-based
- Agreed upon vocabulary (Operational Definitions)
Term
Research
Definition
Systematic process of collecting and logically analyzing information for some purpose
Term
Statistics
Definition
"Methods used to summarize, analyze, or make inferences from data"
Term
Data (datum)
Definition
quantifiable information gathered through measurement or observation of behavior or events (controlled; objective; replicable?).
Term
Descriptive Statistics
Definition
describe the sample
Term
Correlational
Definition
show relationships between variables
Term
Inferential Statistics
Definition
make inferences about population or sample
Term
Four types of Data
Definition
"empirical, observational, archival, anecdotal"
Term
Population
Definition
the total set of individuals of interest
Term
Samples
Definition
set of individuals selected from the population of interest (Subjects; Participants)
Term
Six Types of Sampling Plans
Definition
"Random, Stratified Random, Volunteers, Convenience, Purposive, Systematic"
Term
What are the key to making generalizations about the population?
Definition
representation and sample size
Term
Variable
Definition
"ÒA characteristic, influence, or condition that can take on different values at different times, in different contexts, or for different people"
Term
Independent Variables
Definition
variables that are manipulated
Term
Dependent Variables
Definition
variables that measured or observed for change
Term
Extraneous Variables
Definition
"variables that effect outcome, but not intended for study (threats to validity)"
Term
Discrete variable
Definition
"one that consists of separate, indivisible categories; no values exist between data points (age in years)"
Term
Continuous variable
Definition
"one that has an infinite number of possible values(e.g., age in general - - divisible to into days, hours, minutes, seconds)."
Term
Constant
Definition
"A characteristic that does not change, but is the same for every individual."
Term
Question
Definition
"An exploratory question of interest (e.g., I wonder whether there is a relationship between these variables)"
Term
Hypothesis
Definition
A prediction about the relationship between variables.
Term
Null Hypothesis
Definition
prediction of no relationship
Term
Directional Hypothesis
Definition
prediction of a specific relationship
Term
Construct
Definition
"Hypothetical concepts used in theories to organize observations (e.g., intelligence, self-concept)"
Term
characteristics of Nominal Scale
Definition
Data categories are mutually exclusive (can only belong to one category)
Term
characteristics of Ordinal Scale
Definition
Data categories are mutually exclusive, have some logical order (1st, 2nd, 3rd) and are scaled according to amount of characteristic.
Term
characteristics of Interval (Equal Unit Scale)
Definition
Data categories are mutually exclusive, have a logical order, are scaled according to amount of characteristic they possess. Equal differences in the characteristic is represented by equal differences in numbers assigned. No absolute zero.
Term
characteristics of Ratio
Definition
Data categories are mutually exclusive, have a logical order, are scaled according to amount of characteristic they possess. Absolute zero. Equal differences in the characteristic is represented by equal differences in numbers assigned.
Term
Characteristics of normal curve
Definition
"bell-shaped, symmetrical, asymptotic, continuous"
Term
Mean=Median=Mode
Definition
Normal curve
Term
Skewness of Mean > Median > Mode
Definition
postively skewed
Term
Skewness of Mean < Median < Mode
Definition
negatively skewed
Term
Leptokurtic
Definition
"positive kurtosis, peaked distribution"
Term
Mesokurtic
Definition
"kurtosis is 0, has the slope of a normal curve"
Term
Platykurtic
Definition
flat/broad distruction with more extreme scores than normal and the remaining scores more evenly distributed than normal
Term
Central Tendency
Definition
"A statistic that identifies a single score that represents the typical performance of a population (mean, median, mode)"
Term
Mean
Definition
Arithmetic Average
Term
Median
Definition
"Midpoint of frequency distribution, 50th percentile"
Term
Mode
Definition
most frequently occuring case