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Sociology Final
SOCI 305 Final
96
Sociology
11/22/2013

Additional Sociology Flashcards

 


 

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Term
Sex Role Theory
Definition
Chodorow: Parental teaching in early childhood reinforces gender norms through positive reinforcement. Boys = independent, girls - nurturing.
Critique: children don't identify with socialized gender, no children agency, different parenting styles, american perspective, creates a binary, doesn't look at influence of broader social structure (macro)
Term
Structural gender theory
Definition
Risman: Gender differences are a product of the social structure. It is the social context, not the self that produces the behaviour. Positions occupied in social structure create different opportunities for men and women. Example: women and men in high authoritative positions behave in similar ways.
Critique: ignores the individual and interactional levels, and self-identification, doesn’t explain differing behaviours in the same positions, or societal change. Why does equal access to structural positions not change gender perceptions
Term
Doing Gender
Definition
Social constructionist theory: West and Zimmerman.
Sex:a biological designation (genitals and genes)
Sex category: application of approved sexual criteria to display and proclaim one’s membership into a sex
gender: Socially constructed and reproduced ideas, social and cultural expectations about behaviours associated with sex categories
definition: the activity (unconscious or conscious) of managing one’s conduct in a way considered appropriate for your sex category. Gender is something we do, not something we are through constant reproduction and reaffirmation through social interaction DIFFERENT from Goffman because we never STOP doing gender, is it a habit, not a performance. Further, they add a power dynamic to gender that ‘performances’ don’t have.
example: Castor Semenya
critique: : doesn’t look at people’s interaction with structure, or the incorporation of gender into one’s personhood.
Term
sex (west/zimmerman)
Definition
a biological designation (genes, genitalia)
Term
sex category
Definition
Applicaiton of approved sexual criteria to display and proclaim one's membership into a sex
Term
Gender
Definition
Socially constructed and reproduced ideas, social and cultural expectations about behaviours associated with sex categories.
It reinforces difference rather than similarities, and thus reinforces/legitimates inequality. Non conformity can lead to stigmatization, bullying, socio-economic consequences, eating disorders, make-up.
Term
Goffman: Gender
Definition
we display gender as a face – a performance of idealized masculinity and femininity to an audience with specific expectations
critique: West and Zimmerman - we can never stop performing gender
Term
Yodanis
Definition
Class in a coffee shop:
Socioeconomic differences matter, but they are not sufficient for creating class categorizations, identities and rankings. It is through interactions that given socioeconomic positions take on meaning in the daily lives and encounters with other people. Without these actions, involving the taking and acting out of class symbols, there would not be class categories in the coffee shop.
Class is defined as outcomes of performances and interaction. (364) Stratification systems are systems of patterned and selective, symbolic action and interaction.
Term
Ferree
Definition
Intersectionality: When multiple disadvantages happen at once
Locational: Defines groups more statically (a priori) and then uses perspectives to reveal relationships of power and reveal lists of relationships spanning race, class, gender, sexuality and age.

Relational: What are the processes that interaction to produce patterns of inequality
Looks at the multidimensional organization of power and privilege
Term
Race
Definition
race is a group of human beings socially defined (by themselves or others) on the basis of perceived physical characteristics, that are held to be inherent or natural. There is no biological base to racial categories, but rather they are constructed and socially relevant. These categories are dynamic.
Term
Racialized
Definition
racialization is the process in which negative racial significance is attached to groups of people or their activities, or alternatively social significance is assigned to perceived physical differences
Term
Ethnicity
Definition
common descent or kinship. Often associated with cultural practices (food, values, customs). This doesn’t have to be a real common descent. This is a much more cultural discussion, as opposed to physical.
Term
Primordialism
Definition
race and ethnicity are ascriptive and discrete characteristics, and they are biological, genetic heritage and unchangeable, fixed, permanent and immutable. Emphasized strength of racial attachment. Justified group tendencies to stick together, which is understood as natural by this perspective.
critique: doesn’t explain if you have weak ethnic or racial patterns. It doesn’t explain why other identities (class, religion) could be stronger within us. Doesn’t look at how our personal identity/identity categories change over time
Term
Circumstantialism
Definition
race is more fluid and malleable, and contingent on circumstance (how one identifies). Could be structural or interpersonal contexts. Racial identity is instrumental and people will emphasize different racial/ethnic identities given specific external forces. Circumstances determine what is advantageous. Less agency, we are slaves to circumstance.
critique: racial category is often chosen for us, or seen differently by others than we see it ourselves. Agency is constrained by public perception. It also doesn’t explain how there is continued identification with a disadvantaged identity or why one would reject an advantageous identity.
Term
Constructionism
Definition
race is a human creation, and identity is wholly dependent on environment. This includes circumstancialism in that identity is malleable and variable in circumstance, but the distinguishing feature is that groups are constantly involved (actively) in the construction and reconstruction of their own group identity. we choose and negotiate our identity within environments.
Critique: overemphasis individual agency, we are socially constrained by how we are able to socially identify.
Term
Racial formation
Definition
this is a process in which racial categories are constructed, inhabited, transformed and destroyed. Social, economic and political forces determine the content and importance of racial categories. The process of racial formation reinforced differences. It can also legitimate inequality through these ideas of difference.
Term
Colour-Blind ideology
Definition
set of commonly held beliefs that minimize and distort the existence of institutional racism. Society is a meritocracy. Hard work and effort is a neutral system is allocating privilege. (Bordieu – not everyone has access to meritocratic principle and equal opportunity) – white look at their success as from their hard work and effort.)
Term
White privilege
Definition
McIntosh: A right, advantage or immunity granted to or enjoyed by white persons beyond the common advantage of all others. Individuals from majority group minimize their privileges – they are taught not to recognize white privilege and socialized in a different way.
examples: bandaids, TV personas, shopping without being followed, police interactions.
Term
Theory of inequality: political economy
Definition
The goal of capitalism is the finding of the lowest paid labour. From this perspective, race and ethnicity heavily overlap with class. Racist ideas are tools to undermine the unity of the working class and creating distinctions between races as a tool of control and exploitation. There are 3 classes (capitalist, higher paid labour force, lower paid labour force) with different motivations and goals.
Critique: Doesn’t apply to the modern context where lower paid labour may be cut along other lines, such as new immigrants (undocumented Spanish labour force in the US or the Québec Charter of Values) It is difficult to prove that capitalism influenced opinions. Gender is not included.
Term
Theory of inequality: cultural explanation
Definition
culture is a justification for inequality and a common culture is shared by an ethnic group and this affected their cognitive perceptions, logical reasoning and mental aptitude, which affect economic achievement. Cultures that don’t value education and motivation will pass these down to their children through socialization.
Same of critique as primordialism, doesn't explain raising through classes, partially relevant with Bordieu
Term
Theory of inequality: Vertical mosaic
Definition
This inability of other ethnic groups (including French Canadians) to assimilate culturally led to their socioeconomic circumstances. This is a blocked Mobility thesis is an impetus for the quiet revolution – they wanted to take back their means of productio
Term
Theory of inequality: Oppositional culture
Definition
Blacks have an oppositional culture against the white middle class and education is actively rejected by the black ghetto population. Residential segregation is behind the formation of an oppositional culture, and lack of integration is perpetuated over generations and reproduced this oppositional culture.
critique: culture is not homogenous, and it sort of blames poor people for being poor by their value set. Has trouble explaining social mobility. Culture is used as a proxy for race and ethnicity, and this is racist.
Term
(New) racism
Definition
expressions of racism are now being masked in politically correct manners – racism without racists (Bonilla-Silva) – There is this consideration of whites as being neutral and normal
Term
Theory of inequality: democratic racism
Definition
(Henry and Tator): Use of myths, explanations, code of meaning, rationalizations, that establish, sustain and reinforce a set of justifications for the discourse of liberalism / tolerance/ undermine the egalitarian nature of society. Example: universal health care – not all neighbourhoods have the same access.
Critique: it homogenizes this ethno-racial population. However, Cultural explanations can fill in political economy gaps
Term
Theory of inequality: minimization of race
Definition
claim that race is no longer a relevant factor affecting minorities and their socioeconomic status (ex. After the election of Obama)
Term
International migration
Definition
movement of people across internationally recognized state borders. There are both voluntary and involuntary migrants.
Term
International migrant
Definition
those people who have moved across internationally recognized state borders and live in a country other than their country of birth
Term
Refugee
Definition
(UNHCR) owing to a well founded fear of being persecuted (race, ethnicity, nationality...etc.) and is outside their country of origin and unable/willing to return to their country. (In your country, internally displaced person).
Term
Economic Migrants
Definition
those who migrate with the explicit goal of improving their economic prospects for themselves or their children. Points system, and people who promise to invest. Includes spouse, common law partner.
Term
Points system
Definition
set of criteria considered valuable for immigrants to have to be considered likely to be successful in Canada: Official language proficiency, education level, age, Canadian work experience, family in the country, arranged employment.
Term
Family Class
Definition
those sponsored by family members already in Canada who didn’t arrive with them during the migration process. (on stall since 2011)
Term
Refugee Class
Definition
resettlement refugees – government sponsored and selected and approved by the UNHCR and then selected by the Canadian government – quota 7500. Harper falling short on these quotas.
Term
Canada immigration goals
Definition
Canadian immigration goals are mostly to support (1) economic development in Canada but also we have (2) reunification and (3) humanitarian goals (through the family and refugee categories) 1/5 Canadians weren’t born here.
Term
Berry
Definition
4 types of acculturation: integration, ethnic, national and diffuse.
Enculturation: intentional or unintentional shaping of an individual and the result is someone who is competent in their culture, language, ritual and values.
Acculturation: a form of cultural transmission that is experienced by an individual that results from contact with and influence with persons, institutions belonging to a culture other than one’s own which includes culture shedding and culture learning. This is a form of secondary socialization
Term
Classical assimilation
Definition
(Chicago school): immigrants to the US were expected to follow a linear path to integration and over time they became more and more similar to the host society, residential segregation declined and they had more and more contact with the dominant culture.
Term
adaptation
Definition
refers to the relatively stable changes that take place in an individual or group in response to external demands. It may or may not be positive, as it may result in adjustments by way of assimilation, or by resistance and attempts to change environments (separation).
Term
Gordon
Definition
Linear, Each subsequent generation is more assimilated than the one before.
Stage 1: assimilation adoption of norms and language of host society.
Stage 2: structural assimilation which involved immigrants entering the mainstream institutions of society (labour market, economy, sports clubs, private clubs – Jews finally allowed in)
Stage 3: large-scale intermarriage
Stage 4: identification assimilation and identify with the dominant group.
Stage 5: host society has to eliminate prejudice in their institutions and attitudes – host society attitudinal assimilation
Stage 6: eliminate behavioural discrimination from institutions – whereas they may have been allowed to enter institution before, now they have equal access to all parts of these institutions without prejudice.
Stage 7: full assimilation – absence of value/power struggle – civic assimilation.
Critique: some immigrants don’t want to assimilate, this order may not happen in this time order, it looks as immigrants as a homogenous class whereas some may have more of less difficulty assimilating. It doesn’t look at the affect of the immigrants on the dominant culture until the end. It doesn’t look at back-sliding, or what happens if a society becomes stuck in a ‘stage.’ Will the host society necessarily always eventually accept immigrants? This applies more to early European migrants to the US, and doesn’t consider more than one dominant host culture. Theory has moved away form the linear process.
Term
Segmented assimilation
Definition
Recognizes not all immigrants will experience successful immigration. It depends on a combination of host society context and immigrant characteristics. The majority of these attachments coexist with successful integration.
Term
Downward assimilation
Definition
where immigrants assimilate into a native group not considered to be successful: example: Hispanic migrants assimilate to the black working class culture rather than the white middle class culture.
Term
History of immigration
Definition
Immigration act of 1910 (excluded prostitutes, mentally ill, physical disabilities), Chinese head tax and Chinese exclusion tax (to curb Chinese immigration, a very expensive tax was implemented), Then in 1923, there was a ban on all Chinese migration (with some exceptions, and only lifted in 1948). Continuous journey stipulation – all migrants must arrive directly from their country of origin - (from India this was very difficult – this was not an explicit policy since it was ‘racially neutral’). This still sort of applied to refugees as well, if you arrive in a safe country between home and Canada, you have to claim status there. Post-war boom was essentially a white immigration policy – harsh quotas and VERY flexible exclusion categories.
Term
Explanations for current points system
Definition
it is a more deracialized system starting in the 1960s. Three possible explanations:

1) Bureaucratic initiative – People were liberal and open minded

2) Image: Racist policies undermined Canada’s international image as an emerging power and peacekeeper.

3) Economic: the economy required more workers, and this was more practical than moral or image based.
Term
Current immigration
Definition
still wage discrepancy
The longer one is in the country, and the more generations born here get more ‘canadian’ identities, but there is difference between generations. Although general increases indicate more Canadian identification, blacks associate less than south Asian, than visible minorities in genera, than Chinese, than whites. Stratification within immigrant groups.
Term
Second generation immigrant
Definition
those born in the host country. Keep in mind, this is one of several definitions.
Term
1.5 generation
Definition
born outside the country, but arrive before the age of 12 – before their formative years. Most of their socialization occurs in the host country.
Term
Banting and soroka: 2012
Definition
Case study: Québec. Sharper declines in belonging for 2nd generation racial minorities in Québec than for counterparts in ROC (rest of Canada). The strong lack of sense of belonging to Québec doesn’t make up for this difference in not feeling belonging in Canada. Not explained by: country or origin, economic outcomes, language, different regional level of discrimination
Term
Non-integration
Definition
consequences can be marginalization and bas social consequences, such as home grown terrorists, lack of social cohesion, trust and civic participation.
Term
Multiculturalism
Definition
the existence of multiple cultures in the same space in harmony. Failures in integration are often viewed as failures of policy or ideology (Germany, UK) Can also be successful (Canada). This is not limitless, and social glue is still needed, such as common languages or institutions. Québec didn’t sign multiculturalism legislation.
Term
Québec multiculturalism history
Definition
1) non-territorial, 2) redefining (1960 – 1980) French-English equality, exclusion of minorities from national community – but they were protected – this ended after the first referendum. 3) Extending (1980 – 1995) shared civic culture (interculturalism) and common public language of French. Attempted to include ethnic minorities. 4) Québec citizen (1995 – now) attempted de-ethnicization, civic culture, but a dominant culture of ‘French Canadian.’ People need to integrate into that culture.
Term
Nationalism (Renan)
Definition
“A daily plebiscite” a belief of belonging and a desire shared by others to remain part of the same group. This is a reciprocal belief, and that it is a daily affirmation.
Term
Nationalism (Gellner)
Definition
): Primarily a political principle, which holds that the political and the national unit should be congruent. A set of people desire to have a nation state. A belief in a nation distinct from others. It doesn’t necessarily need a ‘state.’ Nationalism is distinct from patriotism – civic loyalty
Term
Nationalism (Miller)
Definition
1) Mutual belief and social contract, 2) historical continuity reaffirmed through myths and symbols, 3) Active identity formed around national actors, 4) Homeland or geographic territory, and 5) distinct from other nations.
Term
Civic versus ethnic nationalism
Definition
Civic – common political space, institutions and values, a political construct, amenable to integration of newcomers (France). Ethnic – common descent, race, ethnicity, culture, religion, constructed primordial identity, and more exclusive (Germany). These boundaries are not exclusive and they remain dynamic, few states fall fully into one or the other.
Term
Primordialism
Definition
Nationalism is passed on and fixed, it is a natural phenomenon.
Critique: Boundaries are fluid, cannot explain why one national identity will prevail over another, or why some nations become stronger or weaker. What about when you speak multiple languages? Although nationalism may not be ‘natural’ and inherent, it is experienced in a natural way.
Term
Modernism (Gellner)
Definition
Nationalism as a modern phenomenon, with a focus on industrialization, and a need and role of education to create and transmit a ‘high literature culture.’ There are three stages: 1) hunter gatherer, 2) agrarian, 3) industrial. The step between 2 and 3 is the birth place of nationalism. The organization of human groups into large centrally educated, culturally homogenous groups defines nationalism. This requires a state to administer the education.
Critique: it is purely functionalist, and dismisses political agency – where are the human agents and actors. Who selected the criteria to be the nation, and which criteria were selected? This provides that there is only one model for the creation of nationalism.
Term
Nationalism (Anderson)
Definition
Nation is a modern phenomenon, and calls the nation an ‘imagined political community’ it is imaged as inherently limited (finite boundaries) and sovereign (a notion of other nations outside of yours from which you seek freedom and you want self-determination). It started with print capitalism, and through novels and newspapers (standardization of language) the nation was born.
Critique: Eurocentric vision, it is tautological – doesn’t really explain where that identity came about. Doesn’t really look at anti-colonial nationalism
Term
Nationalism (Hobsbawn)
Definition
the nation is a political and social invention by the state to facilitate governance through homogenization and a sense of social cohesion. It occurred at the intersection between economic and technological development.
Critique: very Eurocentric and reductionist to one explanatory criteria (modernization, industrialization, language)...when the process is much more complex
Term
Ethno-symbolism
Definition
ethnies versus nation. Ethnies are named units of population with their own elements of shared cultures (symbols, history, historical territory, solidarity) but they cannot form a nation without a state apparatus. Nation has an organizational aspect with a common economy and organization. This common public culture needs to exist for an ethnie to transform into a nation through the creation of a state apparatus. State predates nation.
Critique: not necessarily, post-colonial country division could have divided similar cultures that later had points of difference emphasized that later became distinctive cultures.
Term
ethnies (ethno-symbolism)
Definition
thnies are named units of population with their own elements of shared cultures (symbols, history, historical territory, solidarity) but they cannot form a nation without a state apparatus
Term
nation (ethno symbolism)
Definition
Nation has an organizational aspect with a common economy and organization. This common public culture needs to exist for an ethnie to transform into a nation through the creation of a state apparatus. State predates nation.
Term
Hobsbawn and Ranger
Definition
The invention of traditions (1983)
Invented tradition: “a set of practices, normally governed by overtly or tacitly accepted rules and of ritual or symbolic nature, which seek to inculcate certain values and norms of behaviour by repetition which automatically implies continuity with the past.” The continuity with the past is largely invented.
Tradition (static and routine) versus custom (dynamic and changing)
3 types: 3 overlapping types: 1) Those establishing or symbolizing social cohesion the membership of groups, real or artificial communities. 2) Those establishing or legitimizing institutions, status or relations of authority. 3) Those whose main purpose was socialization, the inculcation of beliefs value systems, and conventions of behaviour.
example: valentine's day, scottish kilt
Critique: at some point all traditions were invented, so what is the usefulness of the distinction? This is a very top down idea, and elites inventing traditions, and the masses just accept the traditions. People can interpret and change traditions, and don’t necessarily absorb these handed down traditions. Are traditions unchanging – can they truly be static?
Term
Tradition versus convention or custom
Definition
traditions/convention/routine are static, ideological, or symbolic (the wig, the robe). More common during periods of rapid social change. They can suddenly appear and establish themselves quickly. Customs are dynamic, more pragmatic and technological (the law).
Term
traditions (hobsbawn and ranger)
Definition
3 overlapping types: 1) Those establishing or symbolizing social cohesion the membership of groups, real or artificial communities. 2) Those establishing or legitimizing institutions, status or relations of authority. 3) Those whose main purpose was socialization, the inculcation of beliefs value systems, and conventions of behaviour.
Term
Museum
Definition
Preserve our heritage; define culture, seen as purveyors of authoritative knowledge/objective truths, education and research, social improvement agenda, entertainment and tourism. “The public museum of the 19th C is sometimes seen as an expression of democracy: an attempt to educate the working classes. But it can also be seen as a tool of the dominant socio-economic group.
Term
Museum
Definition
Preserve our heritage; define culture, seen as purveyors of authoritative knowledge/objective truths, education and research, social improvement agenda, entertainment and tourism. “The public museum of the 19th C is sometimes seen as an expression of democracy: an attempt to educate the working classes. But it can also be seen as a tool of the dominant socio-economic group.
Term
Duncan
Definition
museums as ceremonial monuments – they are transformed to reflect the idea of a ‘nation state’ and to give this idea to the public as ceremonial monuments. The experience has a ceremonial quality to it. It carries out political and ideological ideas as well, subtly or overtly (Napoleon using the museum to represent the new order). 1) Evolution of museums = evolutions of state and the relationship between the state and its citizens. 2) They are seen as purveyors of authoritative and objective knowledge, but in reality this is subjective, and not neutral knowledge, and it has an agenda. 3) This is a product of 19th C art history They have a strong symbolic function, and sued to glorify the nation through a historic narrative.
Term
MacDonald and Alford
Definition
How Canadian museums historically upheld dominant cultures and misrepresented minorities. Progress was celebrated, and this was associated with western societies and considered superior to primitive first nations cultures. Past and present not separate, and not static. Western method of classification. 2) Contemporary Ms evolve and respond to political and social changes – ethnic and cultural diversity – and new concepts of multicultural citizenship
Term
Political socialization
Definition
a process of learning and internalizing values and norms related to ideologies and political identities. It is a process of socializing into a political system through internalizing procedures, institutions and symbols.: the internalization of this value system. It can be seen in both behaviours and attitudes
example: , a Canadian identity based in positive things like free health care, inclusivity and these values and intentionally pushed onto Canadians. This would make people ‘share a common goal
Term
Political self-efficacy
Definition
An individual’s belief that through their efforts they can influence the political process. You believe you ’matter.’ This is highly predictive in terms of political participation.
Term
Situational political involvement
Definition
the perceived relevance of an issue oat a given moment such as an election or issue. This is the point of entrance into the political process, as an involved voter is more willing to seek out information.
Term
class reproduction in political socialization
Definition
active citizens have disproportionate advantages and their children have disproportionate advantages. (similar to bordieu – because children from upper class families have more benefits, and this reproduces social stratification and education reproduces advantages to kids who already have advantages – these class backgrounds permeate social life and class background makes the difference – they have more habitus – money, know how the system works, social networks, more leisure time to become involved) to extend this to political activity, the people who see their parents more politically active are more able t be politically active.
Critique: not dynamic (you’re stuck) or when political issues affect one class more than another. Focuses on class as the major stratification, rather than other issues such as race, age gender…etc. this deterministic theory of (the habitus we’re given) doesn’t explain how this resource of capital is activated and the variation of how people get more or less politically active within the same class. There is thus an opening for social learning.
Term
social learning (political socialization)
Definition
socialized youth, independent of their background to have or develop specific capacities, motives and relationships, that facilitate political participation. Depending on what activities youth are participating in, these activities will help develop or not develop capacities and relationships that will help you in you future political participation. Family practices may facilitate political engagement behaviour. School and community organization have both formal and informal institutions that correspond with adult political participation (student council).
Example: Parents can adopt practices that might encourage political involvement. Engage in discussions, encouraging children to volunteer.
Critique: are school and family completely separate from class? Are schools all the same in terms of teachers, ex curricular activities, political institutions, and volunteer opportunities? Not all school activities are associated with political participation.
Term
Combine social learning and class reproduction
Definition
social reproduction of unequal political participation is occurring through youth extra curricular activities. It depends on your school/parents, you will have different activities available to you that you can participate in. but many of these organizations bring youth and parents into more contact and thus activate important forms of capital. Not all voluntary activates are equal (football versus debate) thus participating in youth activities have a moderate affect on adult political participation. For example, activities that include community service, debate, communal representation and communal rituals are more heavily correlated with political participation because they help develop identity and community engagement.
Term
Kushin + Yamamoto
Definition
increased social media use, online expression, and traditional internet media attention will increase political cognition. They find that attention to social media is insignificant. Online expression significantly related to situational political involvement (knowing about a topic), but no political self-efficacy (belief you make a difference). Moderate link between attention to traditional internet sources for campaign information and political self efficacy and situational political involvement
Term
Multiculturalism
Definition
when there are diverse populations within a country and the nation is pluralistic. : it is a belief that difference is beneficial for society and not everyone needs to be similar for social cohesion and unity. But it does require some active engagement or societal culture – something is needed as cohesive glue. In Canada we have official multiculturalism: 1) reduce barriers to encourage full participation in society 2) encourage French and(?) English language acquisition 3) cross cultural contact and cultural ‘sharing.’
Term
Multiculturalism: pro and con list
Definition
con: Immigrants and minorities live parallel lives separate from the main polity
MC encourages and aggravates this

pro: Recognition and accommodation will create engagement in a larger polity in which they can see themselves fully included (Wright and Bloemraad found slight support)
Term
Wright and bloemraad
Definition
Distinguish between MC and citizenship policy. Official multiculturalism, is it in the curriculum, ethnic rep in public media, exception for dress codes (RCMP allows headgear), funding for mother tongue or bilingual education, funding for cultural stuff, affirmative action policies. Citizenship policy: Ease at which immigrants gain legal, formal access to citizenship. Canada high citizenship inclusion and multiculturalism (US, UK, Canada) medium: Belgium and France, and Low: Switzerland and Germany. Findings: no evidence for less attachment or less engagement in countries with strong cultural recognition policies
Critiques: Canada and US histories differ, and therefore the comparison is imperfect. They focus on foreign born first generation migrants, and the results may be different focusing on second generation or third migrants. Canadian exceptionalism? Diversity within immigrant community; within visible minorities especially non-visible versus visible minorities. Effect of immigrant selection practices and policies may affect how well immigrants integrate (selected on class and language).
Term
Warrant of legitimacy
Definition
defined as the legitimate right to do something. Example: Québec immigration. Legitimacy is both the ultimate and most human form of power – it is derived by consent and moral rectitude. Therefore it does not require excessive monitoring, it is self-monitoring. Two types: Confucian (based in history and tradition, a set of rituals) and liberal legitimacy (social contract, rule of law by reason, natural rights of man).
Term
Relative depravation theory
Definition
the conscious experience of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities. Social comparison makes civil unrest. In democracies there may be channels for dissent and discourse.
Russians experience this in Estonia.
Term
Biculturalism
Definition
Maori in NZ: There are alternative and overlapping warrants of legitimacy in NZ from history and from a liberal social contract provide alternative and overlapping visions for society within a set of British liberal institutions. The ideology people mostly use is ‘historical negation’ and this is how NZ can simultaneously have symbolic accommodation AND maintain privilege of the dominant group – the past is past, it doesn’t count. We should move on as one nation, and not have to pay for the mistakes of the past. In NZ they have pressure release pluralism. Summary: symbolic accommodation and pressure release pluralism. Intermarriage doesn’t mean assimilation, because if they are accepted as maori, they remain so because of biculturalism.
Term
Professional socialization
Definition
This is a form of secondary socialization. Building upon an existing framework (secondary socialization) generally less intense than primary socialization because it doesn’t necessarily involve this attachment that we see in primary socialization. Can be formal (training) or informal (unspoken, mentors). There are material (uniforms and machines) and non-material cultures (beliefs, attitude). Occurs in stages: 1) separation, 2) transition (shedding/learning) and 3) incorporation (rite, oral defense call you doctor).
Term
Goffman and professional socialization
Definition
Identifying with the occupation. Occupational roles give people identities different from their normal identity. Use of props to enhance identity (recall Dramaturlogical approach) - Physical appearance, Uniforms, Office decoration
Example: it is apparent who is a law student and who isn’t base don what they drink, how they dress and who/how they speak.
Term
Occupational culture
Definition
the type of work that you do – a lot of occupations have a lot of culture (engineer, lawyer, doctor) and others don’t
Term
organizational culture
Definition
the organization in which we do our work. A vision or mission of an organization, or rituals and rights of passage in an organization. They often have their own micro-culture in a larger societal culture. They are subcultures divided along work lines (military culture, for example). Interpersonal ties can be essential: flight attendants.
Term
anticipatory socialization
Definition
Murton – individuals expect to move into another job and thus begin to acquire knowledge and skills appropriate for those roles. New clothes, attitudes or behaviour (saving for retirement)
Term
social network
Definition
previous to your position can play a large part in your anticipatory socialization process. Police officers often come from families with a history of law enforcement, or military/political families or if your family runs a business (place for habitus and bordieu here?)
Term
Rites of passage
Definition
Marks induction of new members as well as reaffirms existing values and social roles for everyone present. There is a use of symbols to reaffirm identity as well: Bar Mitzvah.
Term
social network
Definition
previous to your position can play a large part in your anticipatory socialization process. Police officers often come from families with a history of law enforcement, or military/political families or if your family runs a business (place for habitus and bordieu here?)
Term
Rites of passage
Definition
Marks induction of new members as well as reaffirms existing values and social roles for everyone present. There is a use of symbols to reaffirm identity as well: Bar Mitzvah.
Term
emotional labour
Definition
the management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display. Emotional labour, emotional work or management (HOSCHILD?) individuals manage their emotions to conform to their feeling rules, so we express and attempt to feel specific feelings that we consider adequate and appropriate in specific contexts. These vary on occupation and role. Example: face to face, flight attendants, working in service, doctors
Term
emotional labour
Definition
the management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display. Emotional labour, emotional work or management (HOSCHILD?) individuals manage their emotions to conform to their feeling rules, so we express and attempt to feel specific feelings that we consider adequate and appropriate in specific contexts. These vary on occupation and role. Example: face to face, flight attendants, working in service, doctors
Term
Re-socialization
Definition
Most intense form of socialization. Process of learning of attitudes, values and behaviours that are markedly different from those in which one was previously socialized. The process of the acquisition of these new roles, and loss of previously held roles. Giving up one way of life and learning new sets from another. Voluntary: immigration*, convent, monastery, religious conversion, serving in the military* (excluding compulsory service). Involuntary: being committed to mental health facility, prison sentence. This is usually more traumatic.
Term
Total institution
Definition
coined by Goffman, a place of residence and work where a large number of like-situated individuals cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period of time, and together lead an enclosed formally administered round of life. They are micro societies. The goal is to control individuals and this re-socialization is fairly intense and through constant exposure.
Term
5 types of total institutions
Definition
1) Care for persons felt to be incapable or harmless (orphanages, group homes for the blind) 2) Care for persons felt to be incapable of looking after themselves and unintentional threat to community (mental health facilities) 3) To protect the community against the intentional danger (prisons) 4) Justified on instrumental ground to accomplish a work-like task (work camps) 5) Retreats from the world but also serving as training stations for the religious (convents, cloisters
Term
General characteristics of total institutions
Definition
1) All aspects of life in the same place. 2) Activities done with a large group who are treated alike. 3) Imposed tight schedule. 4) Single rational plan
Term
Process of re-socialization
Definition
1) mortification of self (1) Role dispossess, 2) Admission procedures (shower, hair, no things), 3) Property dispossession (removal of your identity kit), and 4) violation of privacy and contamination) and 2) re-socialization (once the individual is broken, you have a space to re-socialize them – homogenization of identity, routinization).
Term
Critique of total institution
Definition
What goffman might be missing is the goal of the institution. Those that are trying to create belonging versus a disciplinary institution.
This is what Foucault said about Prisons. Similar to Goffman in analysis of space that is tightly controlled but Foucault’s analysis is more interested in the mission of transformation and normalization of the individual.