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Social Psychology
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Psychology
12/11/2010

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Term

Accepting others' opinions about reality is to ________ as the desire to gain approval is to ________.

A. deindividuation; social facilitation

B. social facilitation; deindividuation

C. informational social influence; normative social influence

D. normative social influence; informational social influence

E. ingroup bias; outgroup bias

Definition
C. informational social influence; normative social influence
Term

Minimal levels of father care are associated with high levels of

A. conformity.

B. group polarization.

C. social facilitation.

D. aggression.

E. discrimination.

Definition
D. aggression.
Term

To a social psychologist, a perceived incompatibility of goals indicates

A. social loafing.

B. prejudice.

C. conflict.

D. group polarization.

E. the frustration-aggression principle.

Definition
C. conflict.
Term

Placing people into groups based on the arbitrary outcome of a coin toss leads people to show favoritism to their own group when dividing any rewards.  This best illustrates

A. the mere exposure effect.

B. the fundamental attribution error.

C. deindividuation.

D. ingroup bias.

E. reciprocity norm.

Definition
D. ingroup bias.
Term

Adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called

A. the reciprocity norm.

B. peripheral route persuasion.

C. social loafing.

D. conformity.

E. obedience.

 

Definition
D. conformity.
Term

Gallup surveys indicate that Americans who frequently attend religious servieces are more likely than those who do not attend religious services to

A. report that they are currently aiding the poor and infirm.

B. demonstrate the bystander effect.

C. violate the social-responsibility norm.

D. base their altruistic acts on the principle of reciprocity.

E. self-disclose to people they consider friends.

Definition
A. report that they are currently aiding the poor and infirm.
Term

The ingroup is the set of people with whom we share a common

A. social norm.

B. dispositional attribution.

C. identity.

D. situational attribution.

E. superordinate goal.

Definition
C. identity.
Term

In an experiment by Donald Dutton and Arthur Aron, one group of men were asked by an attractive woman to complete a short questionnaire immediately after they had crossed a swaying footbridge suspended 230 feet about the Capilano River.  This experiment was designed to study the factors that contribute to

A. the bystander effect.

B. social facilitation.

C. the mere exposure effect.

D. passionate love.

E. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Definition
D. passionate love.
Term

Darley and Latane observed that most university students failed to help a person having an epileptic seizure when they thought there were four other witnesses to the emergency.  The students' failure to help is best explained in terms of

A. the ingroup bias.

B. a failure to interpret the incident as an emergency.

C. indifference and apathy.

D. their feelings of limited responsibility.

E. emergency preparedness.

Definition
D. their feelings of limited responsibility.
Term

Attitudes are _________ that guide behavior.

A. norms and roles

B. superordinate goals

C. belief-based feelings

D. dispositional attributions

E. mirror-image perceptions

Definition
C. belief-based feelings
Term

An increased liking for an unfamiliar stimulus following repeated experience with it is known as
A. social facilitation.

B. companionate love.

C. the mere exposure effect.

D. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

E. mirror-image perceptions.

Definition
C. the mere exposure effect.
Term

The tendency to categorize people on the basis of their gender is most likely to lead Jack to believe that

A. women all have pretty much the same attitudes about sex.

B. women seem to be unpredictable, because no two are alike.

C. most men tend to be logical and emotionally controlled.

D. in contrast to women, men have very similar tastes in dress and fashion.

E. women tend to act on ingroup bias, while men tend to act on outgroup bias.

Definition
A. women all have pretty much the same attitudes about sex.
Term

Unconsciously mimicking those around us is known as

A. group polarization.

B. the chameleon effect.

C. social facilitation.

D. social loafing.

E. mirror-image perceptions.

Definition
B. the chameleon effect.
Term

Those who feel socially pressured sometimes assert their freedom by doing the opposite of what is socially expected.  This best illustrates

A. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

B. mirror-image perceptions.

C. the chameleon effect.

D. personal control.

E. cognitive dissonance theory.

Definition
D. personal control.
Term

After hearing respected medial authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Raul, who has rarely exercised, begins to jog regularly.  The change in Raul's behavior best illustrates the impact of

A. normative social influence.

B. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

C. social facilitation.

D. the mere exposure effect.

E. informational social influence.

Definition
E. informational social influence.
Term

Mr. Jones is a member of the faculty committee on academic standards at a local private school.  He persoanlly disagrees with the other committee members' proposed plan to begin accepting students with below-average grades.  Mr. Jones is most likely, however, to vote in favor of their plan if

A. the other committee members are unanimous in their opinion.

B. he stated his personal opinion early in the committee's discussion.

C. committee voting is done by private ballot.

D. he has a high level of self-esteem.

E. he personally dislikes the other committee members and wishes he were on a more prestigious college committee.

Definition
A. the other committee members are unanimous in their opinion.
Term

Compared with numerical majorities, numerical minorities, such as the Scots in Britain, are especially conscious of their

A. superordinate goals.

B. implicit attitudes.

C. reciprocity norms.

D. social identities.

E. personal space.

Definition
D. social identities.
Term

Ostracism has been observed to intensify

A. self-disclosure.

B. aggression.

C. hindsight bias.

D. deindividuation.

E. conformity.

Definition
B. aggression.
Term

One explanation for the fundamental attribution error involves observers'

A. diffusion of responsibility.

B. limited visual perspective.

C. social-responsibility norm.

D. mirror-image perceptions.

E. scapegoat theory.

Definition
B. limited visual perspective.
Term

Masked bandits might be more likely than unmasked bandits to physically injure their victims due to

A. deindividuation.

B. group polarization.

C. the mere exposure effect.

D. social facilitation.

E. social loafing.

Definition
A. deindividuation.
Term

The frustration-aggression principle suggests that anger results when

A. false stereotypes influence perceptions of others.

B. an attempt to achieve some goal is blocked.

 C. there are striking differences of opinion among group members.

D. self-awareness and self-restraint are reduced.

E. attitudes affect actions through normative social influences.

Definition
B. an attempt to achieve some goal is blocked.
Term

Class members are asked to work cooperatively in groups on major course papers.  Every member of a group is to receive exactly the same grade based on the quality of the group's paper. This simulation is most likely to lead to

A. social loafing.

B. social facilitation.

C. deindividuation.

D. the bystander effect.

E. the fundamental attribution error.

Definition
A. social loafing.
Term

A gradual escalation of intimacy is most positively related to a gradual escalation of

A. cognitive dissonance.

B. social facilitation.

C. groupthink.

D. self-disclosure.

E. normative social influence.

Definition
D. self-disclosure.
Term

Luella publicly agrees with her seventh-grade classmates that parents should allow 13-year-olds to date.  Later that day, she writes in her diary that she actally believes parents should prohibit kids from dating until they are at least 15 years old.  Luella's public conformity to her classmates' opinion best illustrates the power of

A. deindividuation.

B. normative social influence.

C. the mere exposure effect.

D. informational social influence.

E. social facilitation.

Definition
B. normative social influence.
Term

Alex thinks drinking sugar-laden sodas is bad for you but other players of his hockey team insist that it is not.  Alex is likely to conform to their opinion if

A. he has publicly voiced his opinion on this issue.

B. there is obvious disagreement among team players regarding the issue.

C. he feels insecure in his role as a new member of the team.

D. there are very few team members whom he currently wants to befriend.

E. the other players consider him to be one of the leaders of the team.

Definition
C. he feels insecure in his role as a new member of the team.
Term

Carol is restless during class because her teacher's distressed facial expressions lead her to believe that he dislikes teaching.  The teacher, on the other hand, is distressed because he sees Carol's restlessness as an indication that she lacks any motivation to learn.  At this point, both student and teach should be informed of the dangers of

A. group polarization.

B. the mere exposure effect.

C. deindividuation.

D. the fundamental attribution error.

E. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Definition
D. the fundamental attribution error.
Term

In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" were LEAST likely to deliver the highest levels of shock when

A. the experiment was conducted at a prestigious institution such as Yale University.

B. the experimenter became too pushy and told hesitant participants, "You have no choice, you must go on."

C. the "teachers" observed other participants refuse to obey the experimenter's orders.

D. the "learner" said he he had a heart condition.

E. the "learner" was placed in a different room from the "teacher."

Definition
C. the "teachers" observed other participants refuse to obey the experimenter's orders.
Term

A social trap is a situation in which

A. people lose self-awareness in group situations that foster anonymity.

B. there are insufficient resources to satisfy the needs of all group members.

C. a lack of critical thinking results from a strong desire for group harmony.

D. the pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm.

E. altruism violates a social-responsibility norm.

Definition
D. the pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm.
Term

A vivid example of a North Korean's behavior has an unusually strong influence on people's judgments of all North Koreans primarily because people

A. are motivated to confirm their current stereotypes of specific groups.

B. typically categorize other individuals on the basis of barely noticeable characteristics.

C. estimate the frequency of group characteristics in terms of the memorability of these characteristics.

D. strongly resent those who draw a lot of attention to themselves.

E. are prone to committing the fundamental attribution error.

Definition
C. estimate the frequency of group characteristics in terms of the memorability of these characteristics.
Term

When 12-year-old Jamilah saw an old man lying on the sidewalk in apparent discomfort, he prepared to offer help.  But when he noticed several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help.  His reaction most clearly illustrates one of the dynamics involved in

A. the mere exposure effect.

B. the fundamental attribution error.

C. social loafing.

D. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

E. the bystander effect.

Definition
E. the bystander effect.
Term

A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage

A. altruism.

B. nonconformity.

C. ingroup bias.

D. groupthink.

E. supordinate goals.

Definition
B. nonconformity.
Term

Animals that have successfully fought to get food or mates become increasingly ferocious.  This best illustrates that aggression is influenced by

A. superordinate goals.

B. scapegoating.

C. frustration.

D. reinforcement.

E. group polarization.

Definition
D. reinforcement.
Term

Following 9/11, some outraged people lashed out at innocent Arab-Americans.  This venting of hostility can best be explained in terms of

A. the mere exposure effect.

B. the just-world phenomenon.

C. the bystander effect.

D. scapegoat theory.

E. social facilitation.

Definition
D. scapegoat theory.
Term

In contrast to watching violence on television, participating in violent video games involves

A. acquiring social scripts.

B. role-playing aggression.

C. desensitization to violence.

D. priming aggressive thoughts.

E. models of aggression.

Definition
B. role-playing aggression.
Term

A dispositional attribution is to _________ as a situational attriution is to _________.

A. normative influence; informational influence

B. high ability; low motivation

C. personality traits; assigned roles

D. politically liberal; politically conservative

E. introversion; extraversion

Definition
C. personality traits; assigned roles
Term

Group polarization refers to

A. the lack of critical thinking that results from a strong desire for harmony within a group.

B. a split within a group produced by striking differences of opinion amoung group members.

C. the tendency of individuals to exert more effort when working as part of a group.

D. the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion.

E. the failure to give aid in an emergency situation observed by many onlookers.

Definition
D. the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion.
Term

University College London volunteers used a mechanical device to press on another volunteer's finger, after feeling pressure on their own finger.  They typically responded to the pressure on their finger with

A. less pressure than they had just experienced.

B. more pressure than they had just experienced.

C. the same amount of pressure they had just experienced.

D. Graduated and Reciprocated initiatives in Tension-Reduction.

E. hostility resulting from the frustration-aggression principle.

Definition
B. more pressure than they had just experienced.
Term

Attribution theory was designed to account for

A. the process of revealing intimate aspects of ourselves to others.

B. the impact of both heredity and environment on social behavior.

C. social facilitation and social loafing.

D. the loss of self-awareness that occurs in group situations.

E. how people explain othrs' behavior.

Definition
E. how people explain othrs' behavior.
Term

Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of personal dispositions by _______ and in terms of situational influences by _______.

A. the poor; the rich

B. attribution theory; social exchange theory

C. social psychologists; evolutionary psychologists

D. political conservatives; political liberals

E. men; women

Definition
D. political conservatives; political liberals
Term

If one student in a classroom begins to cough, others are likely to do the same.  This best illustrates

A. deindividuation.

B. ingroup bias.

C. the mere exposure effect.

D. the bystander effect.

E. the chameleon effect.

Definition
E. the chameleon effect.
Term

Youths who are shunned and mocked by peers are especially likely to respond with aggression if they have earlier experienced

A. the mere exposure effect.

B. companionate love.

C. the chameleon effect.

D. social rejection.

E. ingroup bias.

Definition
D. social rejection.
Term

After Manny's father refused to let him use the family car on Friday night, Manny let all the air out of the tires.  His action is best explained in terms of the

A. mere exposure effect.

B. foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

C. fundamental attribution error.

D. bystander effect.

E. frustration-aggression principle.

Definition
E. frustration-aggression principle.
Term

The invention and transmission of dating and courtship customs best illustrate

A. personal space.

B. cultural influence.

C. the priming process.

D. the reciprocity norm.

E. self-disclosure.

Definition
B. cultural influence.
Term

Instead of providing arugments in favor of a political candidate, ads may build political support by associating pictures of the candidate with emotion-evoking music and images.  This strategy best illustrates

A. the social-responsibility norm.

B. deindividuation.

C. peripheral route persuasion.

D. informational social influence.

E. central route persuasion.

Definition
C. peripheral route persuasion.
Term

Deindividuation refers to

A. lack of critical thinking due to a strong desire for social harmony within a group.

B. the tendency to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another's behavior.

C. the failure to give aid in an emergency situation observed by many onlookers.

D. the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

E. the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitutes throught group discussion.

Definition
D. the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Term

The just-world phenomenon often leads people to

A. dislike and distrust those who are wealthy.

B. believe that victims of misfortune deserve to suffer.

C. express higher levels of prejudice after suffering frustration.

D. respond with kindness to those who mistreat them.

E. work to resolve and lessen social injustices.

Definition
B. believe that victims of misfortune deserve to suffer.
Term

The best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to

A. experience any empathy for a stranger.

B. assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.

C. realize that the incident was really an emergency situation.

D. notice that the incident was taking place.

E. act on their empathetic feelings.

Definition
B. assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.
Term

After a year-long drought, the city of Pine Bluffs has banned all lawn sprinkling.  Many residents believe, however, that continued watering of their own lawn will have little effect on total water reserves.  Consequently, there is a disastrous drain on city water reserves caused by widespread illegal sprinkling.  This incident best illustrates the dynamics of

A. ingroup bias.

B. social traps.

C. the fundamental attribution error.

D. the bystander effect.

E. the just-world phenomenon.

Definition
B. social traps.
Term

The Milgram obedience experiments were controversial because the

A. "teachers" acutally seemed to enjoy shocking the "learners."

B. "learners" received painful electric shocks even if they had heart problems.

C. experiments were performed despite mass student protests against the research.

D. "teachers" were deceived and frequently subjected to stress.

E. participants were never debriefed about the true nature of the study.

Definition
D. "teachers" were deceived and frequently subjected to stress.
Term

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to

A. neglect critical thinking because of a strong desire for social harmony within a group.

B. perform simple tasks more effectively in the presence of others.

C. comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.

D. lose self-restraint in group situations that foster anonymity.

E. experience an increasing attraction to novel stimuli as they become more familiar.

Definition
C. comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.