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Science of Psychology: Ch 3
Chapter Three Review
96
Psychology
02/02/2013

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

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Term
Serotonin is involved in regulation of:
Definition
Learning, Attention, Memory.
Term
Genotype
Definition
The actual genetic material present in every cell of a particular person's body
Term
Somatosensory Cortex
Definition
Part of the brain specifically responsible for processing information about bodily sensations
Term
The limbic system in involved in:
Definition
memory and emotion.
Term
Pons
Definition
A bridge in the hindbrain that connects the cerebellum and the brain stem
Term
Serotonin has been linked to which of the following?
Definition
Sleep and Mood
Term
Spatial location and motor control are the responsibility of the ________ lobes of the brain.
Definition
parietal
Term
Which part of the neuron contains the nucleus?
Definition
Cell Body
Term
Afferent Nerves
Definition
Also called sensory nerves; nerves that carry information about the external environment to the brain and spinal cord via sensory receptors.
Term
Efferent Nerves
Definition
Also called motor nerves; nerves that carry information out of the brain and spinal cord to other areas of the body.
Term
Hormones
Definition
Chemical messengers manufactured by the endocrine glands.
Term
Midbrain
Definition
Reticular Formation and Brain Stem
Term
Medulla
Definition
Controls Breathing, Reflexes, Heart Rate
Term
Nervous System
Definition

The body's electrochemical communication circuitry.

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Term
Plasticity
Definition
The brain's special capacity for change.
Term
Afferent Nerves
Definition
Also called sensory nerves; nerves that carry information about the external environment to the brain and spinal cord via sensory receptors.
Term
Efferent Nerves
Definition
Also called motor nerves; nerves that carry information out of the brain and spinal cord to other areas of the body.
Term
CNS (central nervous system)
Definition
The brain and the spinal cord.
Term
PNS (peripheral nervous system)
Definition
The network of nerves that connects the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body.
Term
Somatic Nervous System
Definition
The body system consisting of the sensory nerves, who function is to convey information from the skin and muscles to the CNS about conditions such as pain and temperature, and the motor nerves, whose function is to tell muscles what to do.
Term
Sympathetic Nervous System
Definition
The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body.
Term
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Definition
The part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body.
Term
Neurons
Definition

One of two types of cells in the nervous system; neurons are the nerve cells that handle the information-processing function.

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Term
Glial Cells
Definition
Also called glia; the second of two types of cells in the nervous system; glial cells provide support, nutritional benefits, and other functions and keep neurons running smoothly.
Term
Cell Body
Definition
The part of the neuron that contains the nucleus, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance.
Term
Dendrites
Definition
Treelike fibers projecting from a neuron, which receive information and orient it toward the neuron's cell body.
Term
Axon
Definition
The par of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body toward other cells.
Term
Myelin Sheath
Definition
A layer of fat cells that encases and insulates most axons.
Term
Resting Potential
Definition

In an inactive neuron, the voltage between the inside and outside of the axon wall. (is between -60 and -75 millivolts)

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Term
Action Potential
Definition

The brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon.

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Term
All-or-Nothing Principle
Definition
The principle that once the electrical impulse reaches a certain level of intensity (its threshold), it fires and moves all the way down the axon without losing any intensity.
Term
Synapses
Definition

Tiny spaces between neurons; the gaps between neurons are referred to as synaptic gaps.

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Term
Neurotransmitters
Definition
Chemical substances that are stored in very tiny sacs within the terminal buttons and involved in transmitting information across a synaptic gap to the next neuron.
Term
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Definition
Stimulates the firing of neurons and is involved in muscle action, learning, and memory. Works with Norepinephrine to regulate states of sleep and wakefulness.
Term
GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid)
Definition
Plays a key function in the brain by inhibiting neurons from firing. Present in one-third of the brain's synapses. Brain's brake pedal - helps regulate neuron firing and controls the precision of the signal being carried from one neuron to the next.
Term
Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
Definition
Inhibits the firing of neurons in the CNS, but it excites the heart muscle, intestines, and urogenital tract. Helps control alertness. Too little is associated with depression and too much triggers agitated states. Works with ACh to regulate states of sleep and wakefulness.
Term
Dopamine
Definition
Helps control voluntary movement. Affects sleep, mood, attention, learning, and the ability to recognize opportunities for rewarding experiences. Low levels associated with Parkinson's. High levels associated with schizophrenia.
Term
Serotonin
Definition
Involved in regulation of sleep, mood, attention, and learning. Teams with ACh and Norepi to regulate sleep and wakefulness. Low serotonin is associated with depression.
Term
Endorphins
Definition
Natural opiates that depress nervous system activity and eliminate pain.
Term
Oxytocin
Definition
Hormone and Neurotransmitter - Plays an important role in the experience of love and social bonding.
Term
Neural Networks
Definition
Networks of nerve cells that integrate sensory input and motor output.
Term
Brain Lesioning
Definition
An abnormal disruption in the tissue of the brain resulting from injury or disease.
Term
EEG (electoencephalograph)
Definition
Records the brain's electrical activity.
Term
PET (positron-emission tomography)
Definition
Measures the amount of glucose in various ares of the brain and sends this information for analysis. Based on metabolic changes in the brain related to activity.
Term
MRI
Definition
Creates a magnetic field around a person's body and uses radio waves to construct 3D images of the person's tissue and biochemical activities.
Term
fMRI
Definition
uses MRI technology to see what areas of the brain are active during a task by monitoring oxygenated blood levels in that area.
Term
TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)
Definition
Used in conjunction with brain-imaging techniques. Uses brief electrical pulse to to create a temporary virtual lesion.
Term
Brain Structures
Definition
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Term
Brain Lobes
Definition
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Term
Hindbrain
Definition
Located at the skull's rear, the lowest portion of the brain, consisting of the medulla, cerebellum, and pons.
Term
Medulla
Definition
Begins where the spinal cord enters the skull - controls breathing, heart rate, and regulates our reflexes.
Term
Pons
Definition
Bridge in the hindbrain that connects the cerebellum and the brain stem. Contains clusters of fibers involved in sleep and arousal.
Term
Brain Stem
Definition
The stemlike brain area that includes much of the hindbrain and the midbrain (it does not include the cerebellum); it connects the spinal cord at its lowest end and then extends upward to encase the reticular formation in the midbrain.
Term
Cerebellum
Definition
Rounded structure at the back of the skull that extends from the read of the hindbrain. It is involved in motor coordination.
Term
Midbrain
Definition
Located between the hindbrain and the forebrain, an area in which many nerve-fiber systems ascend and descend to connect the higher and lower portions of the brain; in particular the midbrain relays information between the brain and the eyes and ears. Includes the reticular formation, substantia nigra, and the brain stem.
Term
Reticular Formation
Definition
A system in the midbrain comprising a diffuse collection of neurons involved in sterotyped patterns of behavior such as waking, sleeping, and turning to attend to a sudden noise.
Term
Forebrain
Definition
The brain's largest division and its most forward part. Made up of the limbic system, thalamus, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex.
Term
Limbic System
Definition
A loosely connected network of structures under the cerebral cortex, important in both memory and emotion. Its two principal structures are the amygdala and the hippocampus. The limbic system is part of the forebrain.
Term
Amygdala
Definition
An almond-shaped structure within the base of the temporal lobe that is involved in the discrimination of objects that are necessary for the organism's survival, such as appropriate food, mates, and social rivals. (Forebrain - Limbic System - Amydgala)
Term
Hippocampus
Definition
The structure in the limbic system that has a special role in the storage of memories (Forebrain - Limbic System - Hippocampus)
Term
Thalamus
Definition
The forebrain structure that sits on top of the brain stem in the brain's central core and serves as an important relay station.
Term
Basal Ganglia
Definition
Large neuron clusters located above the thalamus and under the cerebral cortex that work with the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex to control and coordinate voluntary movements. (part of the forebrain)
Term
Hypothalamus
Definition
A small forebrain structure, located just below the thalamus, that monitors three pleasurable activities - eating, drinking, and sex - as well as emotion, stress, and reward. If stimulated in certain ways causes pleasure. Important in management of stress. Regulator of body's internal sate, sensitive to changes in the blood and neural inputs, influences the secretion of hormones and neural outputs in response to stimuli.
Term
Cerebral Cortex
Definition
Part of the forebrain, the outer layer of the brain, responsible for the most complex mental functions, such as thinking and planning. Is divided in two halves called hemispheres. Each hemisphere is divided into four regions (lobes) - occipital, temporal, frontal, and parietal.
Term
Neocortex
Definition
The outermost part of the cerebral cortex, making up 80% of the cortex in the human brain.
Term
Occipital Lobes
Definition
Structures located at the back of the head that respond to visual stimuli.
Term
Temporal Lobes
Definition
Structures in the cerebral cortex that are located just above the ears and are involved in hearing, language processing, and memory.
Term
Frontal Lobes
Definition
The portion of the cerebral cortex behind the forehead, involved in personality, intelligence, and the control of voluntary muscles.
Term
Parietal Lobes
Definition
Structures at the top and toward the rear of the head that are involved in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control.
Term
Somatosensory Cortex
Definition

A region in the cerebral cortex that processes information about body sensations, located at the front of the parietal lobe.

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Term
Motor Cortex
Definition

A region in the cerebral cortex that processes information about voluntary movement, located just behind the frontal lobes.

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Term
Association Cortex
Definition
Sometimes called association areas, the region of the cerebral cortex that is the site of the highest intellectual functions, such as thinking and problem solving.
Term
Broca's Area
Definition
An area in the left hemisphere that plays an important role in speech. Injury to this area causes expressive aphasia/Broca's aphasia.
Term
Wernicke's Area
Definition
An area of the brain's left hemisphere that plays an important role in understanding language. Person's with an injury to this area can produce words, but they may not be able to understand what others are saying.
Term
Corpus Callosum
Definition

The large bundle of axons that connects the brain's two hemispheres, responsible for relaying information between the two sides.

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Term
Left Hemisphere Function
Definition
Recognizes words and numbers, comprehends syntax and grammar, and is also keenly involved when we sing the words of a song - it is very verbally oriented. (logical and rational)
Term
Right Hemisphere Function
Definition
Processes information about people's faces, processes information about emotions, and much of our sense of humor resides here (creative and artistic)
Term
Endocrine System
Definition
The body system of a set of glands that regulates the activities of certain organs by releasing their chemical products into the bloodstream.
Term
Glands
Definition

Organs or tissues in the body that create chemicals that control many or our bodily functions.

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Term
Hormones
Definition
Chemical messengers that are produced by the endocrine glands and carried by the bloodstream to all parts of the body.
Term
Endocrine Glands
Definition
Pituitary Gland, Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid Gland, Adrenal Glands, Pancreas, Ovaries in women, Testes in men.
Term
Pituitary Gland
Definition
A pea-sized gland just beneath the hypothalamus that controls growth and regulates other glands.
Term
Adrenal Gland
Definition
Glands at the top of each kidney that are responsible for regulating moods, energy level, and the ability to cope with stress.
Term
Pancreas
Definition
A dual-purpose gland under the stomach that performs both digestive and endocrine functions.
Term
Ovaries
Definition
Sex-related endocrine glands in the uterus that produce hormones related to women's sexual development and reproduction.
Term
Testes
Definition
Sex-related endocrine glands in the scrotum that produce hormones related to men's sexual development and reproduction.
Term
Collateral Sprouting
Definition
The process by which axons of some healthy neurons adjacent to damaged cells grow new branches.
Term
Substitution of Function
Definition
The process by which the damaged region's function is taken over by another area or areas of the brain.
Term
Neurogenesis
Definition
The process by which new neurons are generated.
Term
Brain Tissue Implants - Brain Grafts
Definition
Implants of healthy tissue to damaged brains. Brain tissue from the fetal stage has the best chance of success.
Term
Stem Cells
Definition
Unique primitive cells that have the capacity to develop into most type of human cells.
Term

Cells, Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA

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Definition
The body houses trillions of cells, which are the basic structural units of life. Each cell contains a central structure, the nucleus. Chromosomes and genes are located in the nucleus of the cell. Chromosomes are made up of threadlike structures composed mainly of DNA molecules. Note that inside the chromosome are the genes. A gene is a segment of DNA that contains the hereditary code. The structure of DNA resembles a spiral ladder.
Term
Chromosomes
Definition
In the human cell, threadlike structures that come in 23 pairs, one member of each pair originating from each parent, and that contain the remarkable substance DNA.
Term
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Definition
A complex molecule in the cell's chromosomes that carries genetic information.
Term
Genes
Definition
The units of hereditary information, consisting of short segments of chromosomes composed of DNA.
Term
Amino Acids
Definition
Proteins that form the bases for everything our bodies do. Genes hold the codes to creating these proteins.