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Quiz 1
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235
Anatomy
Undergraduate 2
02/07/2017

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Term
Give an example of referred pain
Definition
Angina Pectoris
Term
The applying of stimulus for longer and longer periods of time and loss of conscious awareness of that stimulus is called?
Definition
Adaptation
Term
Inadequate oxygenation of the heart muscle resulting in pain being referred to the chest wall and left shoulder is called?
Definition
Angina Pectoris
Term
Calipers were used in what lab test?
Definition
two-point discrimination test
Term
______________ react to the stimuli in the external environment
Definition
exteroceptors
Term
name one stimulus that general sense receptors react to
Definition
heat
Term
a proprioceptor that is found around tendons is called?
Definition
golgi tendon organ
Term
reflux of gastric juice into the esophagus causing a sensation of intense discomfort in the thorax is referred to as ______________
Definition
heart burn
Term
______________ react to stimuli arising within the body
Definition
interoceptor
Term
the specialized muscle cells that are found wrapped in sensory nerve ending of the muscle spindle proprioceptors are called?
Definition
intrafusal cells
Term
a proprioceptor that is found around skeletal muscle cells is called?
Definition
muscle spindles
Term
the process by which the brain refers sensations to their usual point of stimulation is called?
Definition
projections
Term
______________ respond to the internal stimuli, of the skeletal muscles, tendons/ joints, ligaments and connective tissue coverings of bones and musces
Definition
proprioceptors
Term
the non uniform and clustered locations of general sense receptors are called?
Definition
punctate distribution
Term
a sensory experience called ______________, causes the perception of pain to appear to arise in one area of the body when in fact another area is being stimulated
Definition
referred pain
Term
changes in the body of external environment, "irritants," stimuli cause ______________ to react
Definition
sensory receptors
Term
name one of the special senses
Definition
taste
Term
change in the body or the external environment, "irritants" that cause sensory receptors to react are called?
Definition
stimuli
Term
The ability to determine which portion of skin has been touched is called
Definition
tactile localization
Term
the lab test using the test tube and pencil was used to test what?
Definition
depth perception
Term
name two cutaneous (skin) sensations studied in lab
Definition
pressure, pain
Term
sensory receptors act as ______________, changing environmental stimuli into afferent nerve impulses
Definition
transducers
Term
in lab the test in which calipers are used to distinguish when one sharp point or two are perceived as distance between the ends of the calipers and changed is called?
Definition
two point discrimination test
Term
the smallest distance at which two points of contact can be felt is called?
Definition
two- point threshold
Term
define: presbyopia
Definition
"old vision" Difficulty focusing on near/ close objects. Lens lose elasticity overtime
Term
define: cataracts
Definition
hardening of the lens. opaque.
Term
define: accommodation
Definition
ability of the eye to focus on objects closer than 20 feet
Term
the ability of the eye to focus differently for object of near vision and 6 meters (20 feet), is called?
Definition
accommodation
Term
in the accommodation pupillary reflex test done in the lab, what was the reaction of looking and focusing at a distant object and then focusing at a very close object by the pupils
Definition
pupil dilation followed by pupil constriction
Term
the ______________ chart was used in the lab to show irregularities in the curvature of lens/ cornea
Definition
astigmatism
Term
______________ is blurred vision caused by irregularities in curvature of the lens or cornea
Definition
astigmatism
Term
a test result of 20/15 is better or worse than normal vision?
Definition
better
Term
predators have what type of vision
Definition
binocular vision/ depth perception
Term
name one depolarizing cell found in the sensory layer/ tunic
Definition
ganglion cells, bipolar cell, rod, or cones
Term
what is the function of the ciliary glands?
Definition
eyeball lubrication
Term
the ______________ lens is used to correct the myopic/ nearsighted eye
Definition
concave
Term
the photoreceptor cells called ______________ are responsible for color vision
Definition
cones
Term
what is conjunctivitis
Definition
inflammation of the conjunctiva
Term
what is the medial rotation of the eyes called?
Definition
convergence
Term
in the convergence reflex test done in the lab, what was the reaction of looking and focusing at a distant object and then focusing at a very close object by the eyes?
Definition
regular eye movement, then medial eye movement to view close object
Term
the ______________ lens is used to correct the hyperopic/ farsighted eye
Definition
convex
Term
name one of the components of the outer fibrous tunic/ layer of the eye
Definition
cornea/ sclera
Term
what do the extrinsic muscles allow the eye to do?
Definition
eyeball movement, follow a moving object
Term
name one of the two groups of muscle responsible for eye reflexes
Definition
intrinsic/ extrinsic muscles
Term
the ______________ is the part of the eye that is examined when using the opthalmascope
Definition
retina
Term
what eye disorder is caused by compression of retina/ optic nerve
Definition
glaucoma
Term
name one of the non-depolarizing supporting cells found in the retina
Definition
horizontal cells
Term
which specific type of lens is used to correct hyperopia?
Definition
convex lens
Term
define hyperopia
Definition
farsightedness. Image focused behind retina
Term
______________ is the general name of the involuntary muscles that are responsible for changes in both the lens curvature and pupillary size
Definition
intrinsic muscle
Term
______________ is the specific name of color plates used to test for color blindness in lab.
Definition
Ishihara color plates
Term
name one constituent of the lacrimal apparatus
Definition
lacrimal sac
Term
what do the lacrimal glands produce?
Definition
tears
Term
what is the function of the lacrimal sac?
Definition
fills and stores tears
Term
optic tract fibers will synapse with what part of the brain?
Definition
lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
Term
fibers from which eye(s) are found in the left optic nerve?
Definition
left eye
Term
fibers from which eye(s) are found in the left optic tract?
Definition
medial fibers from right eye and laterals fibers from left eye
Term
what is the cause of presbyopia?
Definition
loss of elasticity of lens over time
Term
what is the function of lysozyme?
Definition
kills bacteria
Term
which specific type of lens is used to correct myopia
Definition
concave lens
Term
define myopia
Definition
nearsightedness. Image is focused in front of retina
Term
closer in children and young adults and farther with old age, the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus is the closest distance an object can be focused on clearly
Definition
near point of accommodation
Term
which fibers coming from the eye(s) cross in the optic chiasma
Definition
median fibers from left and right eyes
Term
what causes glaucoma
Definition
optic nerve due to lack of drainage of aqueous fluid
Term
fibers/ axons from the lateral geniculate nucleus will branch into the ______________
Definition
optic radiation
Term
prey tend to have what type of vision
Definition
panoramic
Term
the ______________ reflex is served by sudden illumination of the retina by bright light causing the pupil to constrict in direct proportion to light intensity
Definition
photopupillary reflex
Term
what accompanies conjunctivitis in the eyeball?
Definition
redness
Term
what is the bending of light upon passing from one substance to another called?
Definition
refraction
Term
light bending power of the cornea, lens or vitreous humor is called its
Definition
refractive index
Term
name one part of the sensory tunic/ layer of the eye
Definition
retina
Term
fibers from which eye(s) is found in the right optic nerve?
Definition
right eye
Term
fibers from which eye(s) are found in the right optic tract?
Definition
medial fibers from left eye and lateral fibers from right eye
Term
the photoreceptor cells called ______________ are responsible for dim light vision
Definition
rods
Term
what is the function of the scleral venous sinus?
Definition
reabsorption of aqueous humor
Term
the ______________ chart is used to measure visual acuity
Definition
snellen
Term
what is a sty?
Definition
inflammation of ciliary (sweat) glands or small oil gland
Term
what are the tears comprised of?
Definition
diluted salt solution with lysozome
Term
name one part of the vascular tunic/ layer of the eye
Definition
choroid
Term
the snellen chart was used to test______________
Definition
visual acuity
Term
the branched optic radiations will terminate in which region of the brain?
Definition
visual cortex
Term
a test result of 20/40 is better or worse than normal vision?
Definition
worse than normal vision
Term
define: presbycusis
Definition
"old hearing" "sensorineural deafness" loss of high frequency and frequencies involved with speech
Term
which hearing test done in lab used a ticking clock?
Definition
acuity test
Term
the enlarged region at the base of each semicircular canal is called?
Definition
ampulla
Term
what is the device used in the audiometry test?
Definition
audiometer
Term
define: audiometry
Definition
determines hearing acuity by exposing ear to sound stimuli of varying frequency (Hz) and intensity (dB)
Term
the lab test for equilibrium that spun a subject quickly and halted them abruptly to see nystagmus is called?
Definition
barany test
Term
what do the ceruminous glands produce?
Definition
wax
Term
the ______________ consists of tuft of hair cells covered with a gelatinous cap
Definition
crista ampullaris
Term
the gelatinous cup of the crista ampullaris is called the ______________
Definition
cupula
Term
it is thought that high pitched sounds peaked on the basilar membrane close to the ______________
Definition
oval window
Term
it is thought that low pitched sounds peaked on the basilar membrane close to the ______________
Definition
apex of cochlea
Term
found on the walls of the saccule and the utricle, the ______________ consists of hair cells embedded in an otolithic membrane and otoliths
Definition
maculae
Term
the crista ampullaris of the semicircular canals are responsible for the perception of what type of equilibrium, dynamic or static?
Definition
dynamic equilibrium
Term
the maculae of the saccule and utricle are responsible for the perception of what type of equilibrium, dynamic or static?
Definition
static equilibrium
Term
in this condition, if large amounts of pus or fluid accumulate in the middle ear cavity, an emergency procedure called______________ may be used to relieve the pressure
Definition
myringotomy. Lacing the eardrum
Term
the involuntary rolling of the eyes in any direction or the trailing of the eyes slowly in one direction followed by rapid movement in the opposite direction is called?
Definition
Nystagmus
Term
inflammation of the middle ear is called ______________
Definition
otitis media
Term
______________ is a gelatinous mass that is part of the maculae
Definition
otolithic membrane
Term
______________ are small grains of calcium carbonate found in the maculae
Definition
otoliths
Term
what is the cause of presbycusis?
Definition
damage to hair cells in the organ of corti
Term
name one test for deafness performed in lab
Definition
weber test
Term
does vision play a role in equilibrium?
Definition
yes
Term
the lab test that checked equilibrium with eyes opened and closed by drawing lines on the blackboard as the subject swayed is called?
Definition
romberg's test
Term
the rubber mallet/ hammer was used to perform what hearing test?
Definition
weber test
Term
what hearing test was performed using the tuning forks?
Definition
weber test
Term
Define vertigo
Definition
sensations of dizziness and rotational movement when movement had ceased
Term
other than the equilibrium apparatus of the ear, what other parts of the body play a role in equilibrium?
Definition
vision
Term
PTC is another name for the chemical
Definition
phenylthiocarbamide
Term
an individual with the genotype Tt for the PTC tasting gene would be a ______________
Definition
taster/ heterozygous for taste gene
Term
to what chemical stimuli do bitter taste receptors respond?
Definition
alkaloids
Term
PTC-like chemicals are found in the ______________ family of vegetables
Definition
brassica
Term
name on vegetable in which PTC- like chemicals are found
Definition
brussel sprouts
Term
receptors like those of olfaction and taste that respond to chemicals in solution are called?
Definition
chemoreceptors
Term
large round papillae are called
Definition
circumvallate papillae
Term
which cranial nerve sends afferent fibers that serve the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
Definition
facial nerve (CN VII)
Term
Papillae found on the side of the tongue are called?
Definition
foliate papillae
Term
mushroom-shaped papillae are called?
Definition
fungiform papillae
Term
which cranial nerve sends afferent fibers that serve the posterior third of the tongue?
Definition
glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
Term
The microvilli found in the taste buds are called ______________
Definition
gustatory / taste cells
Term
other than the tongue, name one area papillae may be found
Definition
cheek
Term
where are the receptors for olfaction found?
Definition
nasal cavity
Term
Individuals with two recessive Alleles (tt) for PTC taste are called______________
Definition
non-tasters
Term
is the sense of olfaction prone or not prone to adaptation?
Definition
very prone
Term
neurons in the ______________ synapse with the olfactory nerves
Definition
olfactory bulb
Term
name the hair-like structures that extend from the olfactory receptor cells
Definition
olfactory cilia
Term
what is the name of the organ of olfaction?
Definition
olfactory epithelium
Term
name the structures that extend through the olfactory foramina of the cribriform plate to synapse with the olfactory bulb
Definition
olfactory nerve
Term
______________ is the region of the cortex that interprets olfactory stimulus
Definition
uncus
Term
name the receptor cells of the sense of smell
Definition
olfactory receptor cells
Term
specialized receptor cells found in the roof of the nasal cavity are called
Definition
olfactory receptor cells
Term
______________ send impulses from the olfactory bulbs to the olfactory portion of the cortex (uncus)
Definition
olfactory tracts
Term
taste buds are found in the ______________, peg-like projections of the mucosa on the dorsal side of the tongue
Definition
papillae
Term
to what chemical stimuli do salty taste receptors respond?
Definition
metallic ions and sodium ions
Term
afferent fibers from the taste cells are sent to the ______________ parts of the brain
Definition
sensory cortex in postcentral gyrus
Term
Name one of the factors, other than the sense of taste, that effect perception of taste
Definition
smell
Term
to what chemical stimuli do sour taste receptors respond?
Definition
hydrogen ions
Term
the non-sensory cells that surround olfactory receptor cells are called?
Definition
supporting cells
Term
to what chemical stimuli do sweet taste receptors respond?
Definition
sugar, saccharine, some amino acids, lead salts.
Term
most taste buds are found on the side of, or on top of, what structure?
Definition
papillae
Term
______________ are the specific receptors of the sense of taste
Definition
taste bud
Term
name the opening from which receptor cell microvilli of the taste bud project
Definition
taste pores
Term
an individual with the genotype TT for tasting the chemical PTC is an ______________
Definition
taster- monozygous dominant
Term
______________ is the major area where taste buds are found
Definition
tongue
Term
to what chemical stimuli do umami taste receptors respond?
Definition
glutamate
Term
which cranial nerve sends a few afferent fibers that serve the pharyngeal region?
Definition
vagus- CN X
Term
what cells produce growth hormone and prolactin
Definition
acidophil
Term
what cells are responsible for the exocrine products of the pancreas?
Definition
acinar cells
Term
hyper-secretion of growth hormone in adults result in ______________
Definition
acromegaly
Term
what are the characteristics of acromegaly?
Definition
overgrowth in bones in face, hands, feet of adutls
Term
the part of the pituitary that produces tropic hormones as well as growth hormone and prolactin is called?
Definition
anterior pituitary
Term
name the gland, including the region of the gland, that produces the corticosteroids
Definition
adrenal cortex
Term
name one hormone produced by the medullar region of the adrenal gland
Definition
epinephrine/ norepinephrine
Term
name the gland that lies superior to the kidneys
Definition
adrenal gland
Term
______________ regulates water and electrolyte balance in the extracellular fluids mainly by regulating sodium reabsorption in the kidneys
Definition
aldosterone
Term
what pancreatic cells produce glucagon?
Definition
alpha cells
Term
name the male sex hormone
Definition
testosterone
Term
______________ causes the distal and collecting tubules of the kidneys to reabsorb more water from the urinary filtrate, thereby reducing urine output and conserving body water
Definition
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Term
what cells produce the tropic hormones TSH, ACTH, FSH and LH?
Definition
Basophils
Term
What pancreatic cells produce insulin?
Definition
beta cells
Term
______________ decreases blood calcium levels by stimulating calcium salt deposit in bones
Definition
calcitonin
Term
the active D3 form of vitamin D is called?
Definition
calcitriol
Term
what cells produce parathyroid hormone?
Definition
chief cells
Term
what pituitary cells have no hormonal production function?
Definition
chromophobes
Term
what is the function of corticosteroids
Definition
regulate water/ electrolyte balance in ECF by regulating kidney sodium reabsorption
Term
what is the function of corticosterone?
Definition
enables the body to resist long term stressors by increasing blood glucose levels
Term
what is the function of cortisone?
Definition
enables he body to resist long term stressor by increasing blood glucose levels
Term
hypo-secretion of ADH results in dehydration from excessive urine output, a condition called ______________
Definition
diabetes insipidus
Term
name the disease produced by hypo-secretion of insulin
Definition
diabetes mellitus
Term
give the characteristics of diabetes mellitus
Definition
inability of the body cells to utilize glucose and its subsequent loss in urine
Term
name the second major control system of the body (with the nervous system) that coordinates and integrates the activity of the body's cells
Definition
endocrine system
Term
name one of the hormones that acts in conjunction with the sympathetic nervous system to elicit the fight-or-flight response to stressors
Definition
epinephrine
Term
name the female sex hormones
Definition
estrogen
Term
______________ are responsible for the development of the secondary sex characteristics of the female at puberty and brings about cyclic changes in the uterine lining during the menstrual cycle (with progesterone)
Definition
estrogen
Term
the female gonads are called?
Definition
ovaries
Term
what do the follicles of the thyroid contain?
Definition
colloid, T3 and T4
Term
Name one gonadotropic hormone
Definition
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Term
hyper-secretion of growth hormone in children results in ______________
Definition
gigantism
Term
______________ stimulates the liver the break down glycogen, when blood glucose is low, to glucose and release it into the blood
Definition
glucagon
Term
what is the function of glucocorticoids?
Definition
enables body to resist long term stressor by increasing blood glucose levels
Term
name one gonadocorticoid hormone
Definition
estrogen/ androgens
Term
these hormones regulate gamete production and hormonal activity of the gonads
Definition
FSH/ LH
Term
Name one of the Human gonads
Definition
testes/ ovaries
Term
______________ is a general metabolic hormone that plays a role in determining body size, growth of muscle and long bones of the body
Definition
growth hormone
Term
abnormal hairiness due to hypo-secretions of the gonadocorticoids is called
Definition
hirsutism
Term
hyper-secretion of gonadocorticoids may cause what condition
Definition
gyneomastia/ virulism
Term
the endocrine system uses chemical messengers called
Definition
hormones
Term
low blood sugar is called
Definition
hypoglycemia
Term
give one symptom of hypoglycemia
Definition
weakness
Term
the vessel system that sends hypothalamic hormones to the pituitary is called?
Definition
hypophyseal portal system
Term
the ______________ produces neurosecretions, releasing and inhibiting hormones that controls the pituitary
Definition
hypothalamus
Term
the stalk that attaches the pituitary to the hypothalamus is called?
Definition
infundibulum
Term
these hypothalamic hormones inhibit the release of the hormonal products of the pituitary
Definition
inhibiting hormone
Term
______________ decreases blood sugar levels by accelerating transport of glucose into the body's cells
Definition
insulin
Term
name one hormonal product of the pancreas
Definition
insulin/glucagon
Term
______________ is known to play a role in biological rhythms, also may exert some inhibitory effect on the reproductive system that prevents precocious sexual maturation
Definition
melatonin
Term
what is the function of mineralocorticoids?
Definition
regulates water and electrolyte balance in ECF by regulating sodium reabsorption in kidney
Term
mental and physical sluggishness in adults caused by hypo-secretion of thyroxine is called?
Definition
myxedema
Term
the part of the pituitary that stores the hormonal products of the hypothalamus (ADH, Oxytocin) is called?
Definition
posterior pituitary/ hypophysis
Term
______________ stimulates powerful uterine contractions during childbirth and coitus and also causes milk ejection in nursing mothers
Definition
oxytocin
Term
what hypothalamic hormones are stored in the posterior pituitary/ neurohypophysis/
Definition
ADH and Oxytocin
Term
the ______________ is both an endocrine and an exocrine gland
Definition
pancreas
Term
what are the endocrine regions of the pancreas called?
Definition
islet of langerhans
Term
what cells produce calcitonin?
Definition
parafollicular / C cells
Term
what hormone does the parathyroid gland produce?
Definition
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Term
______________ causes released of calcium from the bond matrix and prods the kidney to reabsorb more calcium and less phosphate from the filtrate
Definition
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Term
ADH and pxytocin are produced in what two neuronal regions of the hypothalamus?
Definition
paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei
Term
what gland produces melatonin?
Definition
pineal gland
Term
what glial cells are found in the posterior pituitary / neurohypophysis?
Definition
pituicytes
Term
hypo-secretion of growth hormone results in ______________ in children
Definition
pituitary dwarfism
Term
this gland produces tropic hormones, known as the "master gland"
Definition
pituitary gland
Term
______________ brings about cyclic changes in the uterine lining during the menstrual cycle (with estrogen), as well as maintaining the uterine musculature in a quiescent state during pregnancy during pregnancy and preparing breast tissue for lacatation
Definition
progesterone
Term
name on of the hormones produced by the female gonads
Definition
estrogen/ progesterone
Term
______________ stimulates breast development and promotes and maintains lactation by the mammary glands after childbirth
Definition
prolactin
Term
______________ is a prohormone that is split by enzymes into ACTH and MSH
Definition
pro-opiomenalocortin
Term
these hypothalamic hormones cause the pituitary to release its hormonal products
Definition
releasing hormones
Term
what is the function of triiodothyronine?
Definition
T3 controls the body's metabolism rate and cellular oxidation
Term
what is the function of thyroxin?
Definition
T4 controls the body's metabolism rate and cellular oxidation
Term
organs that respond to a particular hormone are referred to as ______________
Definition
target organs
Term
the male gonads are called?
Definition
testes
Term
______________ is responsible for the development of the secondary sex characteristics of the male at puberty and responsible for the sex drive/ libido
Definition
testosterone
Term
prolonged muscle spasm that can result in respiratory paralysis and death due to hypo-secretion of the PTH is called?
Definition
tetany
Term
what is the function of the thymopoietin?
Definition
T-lymphocyte/ immune system synthesis
Term
what is the function of thymosins?
Definition
T-lymphocyte/ immune system synthesis
Term
what is the function of thymulin?
Definition
T-lymphocyte/ immune systems synthesis
Term
name one of the hormonal products of the thymus
Definition
thymopoietin, thymosins,thymulinT3 and T4
Term
what gland produces T3 and T4 as well as calcitonin?
Definition
thyroid gland
Term
what is the function of thyroid hormone?
Definition
controls body metabolism rate and cellular oxidation
Term
______________ influences the growth and activity of the thyroid gland
Definition
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)/ thyrotropin
Term
a ______________ hormones stimulates a target organ, that is an endocrine organ, to secrete its hormones
Definition
tropic
Term
in what adrenal cortex zona are the glucocorticoids produced?
Definition
zona fasciculata
Term
in what adrenal cortex zona are the mineral corticoids produced?
Definition
zona glomerulosa
Term
in what adrenal cortex zona are the sex hormones produced
Definition
zona reticularis
Term
what two hormones constitute the colloid thyroglobulin?
Definition
T3(triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxin)
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