Shared Flashcard Set

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QUIZ 1
AHIS 2
19
Art History
Not Applicable
01/10/2017

Additional Art History Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
[image]
Definition

Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned with Angles and Prophets, 1280-1290


FORM


line – detail, thin, vertical (throne, arch, figures), symmetrical, balanced


shape – triangular arch (pointing toward heaven), perfect circles around heads (halos, holy beings)


gold throne – wealth, power, heavenly; red on child– passion, Christ; blue on Virgin – calm, peaceful

gold leaf – wealth, power, heavenly, reminiscent of Byzantine


illusion of texture in fine lines on clothes allows for illusion of sitting figure; smooth – fine lines


perspective – Virgin’s throne recedes into space

overlapping bodies of angels on each side of throne & half-length prophets reinforce sense of depth


proportion – large female figure (importance, Virgin), small child yet still relatively large compared to angels (importance, Christ), small angels surrounding


CONTENT


prophets at bottom worshiping Madonna who is surrounded by angels and holding Christ


setting – not specific, flat, predominantly gold leaf, not mimetic (Byzantine)

structure is unnatural, throne is being lifted by angels, not mimetic (Byzantine)


folds on clothes – texture – mimetic


CONTEXT


painted for Santa Trinita (Holy Trinity) in Florence - Benedictine church near Arno River (built b/t 1258-1280)

 

still technically late Medieval Europe


Cimabue beginning to use Mimesis in response to budding interest in antiquity - beginning of Renaissance in Central Italy

Term
[image]
Definition

Giotto, Lamentation, Arena Chapel, 1305-1306

FORM

fresco


Composition – break from Byzantine work – not static nor flat


bottom left – emotional reaction


uses mountain range (diagonal line) to bring attention to mother’s reaction and Jesus’s body


angels – foreshortening – appear to recede back into space – produce illusion of depth


folds in clothing – very realistic – value – illusionary texture


light on backs of figures – value


range of body positions & expressions – very new – mimetic


CONTENT


passion, crucifixion, resurrection


Christ removed from cross


single dead tree – tree of knowledge of good & evil, which withered after Adam & Eve’s original sin


CONTEXT


Arena Chapel - chapel built 1303-05, not that large, every interior surface painted, barrel vaulted ceiling


private commission by wealthy Scrovegni family – attempt to repent for sins & secure place in heaven – bankers

Term
[image]
Definition

Duccio, Betrayal of Jesus, 1308-1311


FORM


values to create illusion of light


emphasis on drapery


detailed, thin lines


Mimetic – range of body positions & emotions, trees & shadows


balanced, somewhat symmetrical


emotionally hectic, break from Byzantine


CONTENT


depicts final period (passion) of Christ


crucifixion


Judas kissing Christ


allowing Romans to identify him and arrest him


Peter is so mad that he cuts the High-Priest’s servant’s ear off


figures retreating


complex/chaotic – 3 scenes, 1 composition


many expressions, positions


setting – outdoors, trees, mountain


no horizon line/sky because gold leaf


shadows


CONTEXT


detail from Maesta


double-sided High Altarpiece


Siena Duomo (Cathedral)


commissioned by church

Term
[image]
Definition

Simone de Martini, Annunciation, 1333

 

FORM


panel painting


wings – motion – shadows, value


iconography: dove, lilies, olive branch


(international style) Mary’s body is elongated, unnatural


French Gothic style – frame, wings, dove – complex, exaggerated, mood-

evoking figures


CONTENT


Gabriel telling Mary she is pregnant with Christ


Lord represented as dove – facing Mary


words coming diagonally from Gabriel’s mouth


Gabriel holding olive branch (peace)


Christ becomes Prince of Peace


lilies in center – symbol of virgin/purity


Mary was reading before Gabriel entered, now she’s shocked, body is elongated

 

CONTEXT


altarpiece


Siena Cathedral


frame reconstructed 19 Century

Term
[image]
Definition

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Peaceful City, 1338-1339


FORM


color – colorful, playful


line work – thin lines, detailed


very straight lines – orderly


buildings appear to recede into background


used value to create the illusion of light, therefore making it look like the buildings and figures bear mass


not very proportionate, empirical perspective


CONTENT


allegory of good government


inspiration from local architecture, straight lines (structure, order, realistic), regular shapes


workers on top of building – implies growth, strength


merchants on streets, figures interacting, festivity


idealized, utopic town - direct result of strong government


CONTEXT


secular fresco in Siena City Hall


propaganda, decorative


audience = government, 9 leaders


purpose was to glorify government

Term
[image]
Definition

Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece, 1425-1428


FORM

emphasis on textiles – folds are different, distinguishable between North and South


North – more diagonal lines, more crumpled effect, compared to crushed aluminum, more aggressive


table – perspective of room and table is skewed so we can make out objects on tabletop (manipulating perspective to provide us with more information)


space appears to recede back, foreshortening


perspective is inaccurate – empirical perspective

 

CONTENT


FIRST PANEL

patrons featured in painting – kneeling at open door, peering into room where Gabriel and Mary are; secures place in heaven


figures in painting are praying and worshiping for eternity, act as surrogates for actual patrons. devout for life, eternal prayer


patrons are not idealized; in North, artists capture likeness of specific individuals; look as they do in life.


MIDDLE PANEL

depicts annunciation – angel Gabriel tells Mary she is pregnant with Christ


Virgin – wearing red, reading, unacknowledging, on the ground, leaning on bench – sign of humility


objects on table

Ø  open book, scroll – New & Old Testament

Ø  vase of lilies – symbolize purity, usually shown in relationship to Virgin to remind of purity, 3 buds/flowers – holy trinity

Ø  candle recently blown out/snuffed – symbol for end of life, mortality, femoral nature of life, reminder that life on earth is short/temporary. reminds you to be devout, pray

·     holy spirit is present symbolized with a cross

·     

       domestic interior likely modeled after patrons own home – novel at time


CONTEXT


devotional painting for private worship


not commissioned for church, hung in home


first northern Ars Nova painter and his most important piece

Term
[image]
Definition

Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece, 1432


FORM


crinkled folds in drapery – shows Ars Nova


attention to drapery, bodies bearing mass, angular lines in drapery, bodies appear to recede into space


extreme detail everywhere


very balanced


CONTENT


FRONT

bottom panels


flanking sides are two figures kneeling, praying, very detailed – pious-looking, surrogates for patrons shown praying for eternity


Saint John and Saint ??? – depicted as sculptures


middle panels

annunciation scene


Gabriel, Virgin reading

dove, lilies

highly detailed in background – shows Ars Nova


top panels

prophets watching down on scene

·      recently been through conservation

Term
[image]
Definition

Jan van Eyck, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, 1434

FORM

COLOR

she is wearing emerald green dress, a lot of fabric, suggests they are wealthy; veil – covering one’s head is sign of modesty, purity


red is dominant color – draw attention


LINE WORK


fine lines, detailed; complimented by medium (oil paints allow great control)


mirror detail


PERSPECTIVE


empiricalobservation – not calculated, spills into our space, based on observation


domestic interior, secular


crinkled folds – very angular/diagonal, Ars Nova style – produces illusion of body bearing mass


COMPOSITION


normative gender roles reinforced


woman placed closer to bed, confined to domestic sphere


man placed near open window, implies access to the outside world


oranges by window – import, sign of wealth


CONTENT


possible marriage certificate


artist’s name signed on wall as witness “van Eyck was here"


included his reflection in mirror on wall


holding hands, suggesting oath of marriage


single candle – God’s all seeing eye, God is present when oath is being taken


takes place in bed chamber, bed – future consummation


St. Margaret carved into bedpost – patron saint of childbirth


swollen womb


light floorboards – analyzed as holy ground


shoes on floor – removed clogs, oath is being taken on holy ground. also symbol of sex


other scholars argue it is an oath, but not an oath of marriage

o   maybe he is allowing wife to oversee business endeavors while husband is away

·      dog (Fide) – symbol of loyalty, fidelity


CONTEXT


work was acquired by National Gallery of Art in 1842


goes by many different names, widely disputed


believed to be proof of marriage  

 

Term
[image]
Definition

Rogier van der Weyden, Deposition, 1435

FORM


shallow perspectile space – worshipper can have direct relationship with these figures


emphasis on drapery – illusions of folds, figures are three dimensional, light and shade; diagonal folds – clue to Ars Nova


CONTENT


Christ being removed from cross; Christ is in center, emphasized


Christ’s & virgin’s bodies are parallel; limp, contours


virgin – struck by grief, fallen and being supported


artist added layer of drama/emotion to scene – novel at time


no real sense of setting; gold leaf back drop


patrons included in scene are individualized, look completely different – readable as portraits; not idealized – receding hairlines, wrinkles; emphasis on capturing ones’ likeness unlike in Italy where figures are idealized


skull – Adam’s skull, Christ was crucified where Adam was buried; also reminder of mortality


CONTEXT


student of Campin


patrons were members of a guild who made crossbows

Term
[image]
Definition

Donatello, David, c. 1440 – 1460

FORM


pose – contrapposto, hand on hips, bent knees


CONTENT


depicted here as victorious, stands on head of Goliath


reintroduction to classical nude, attention to rendering musculature, curved/sinuous lines


appears very confident


gaze looking downward, because he is on a pedestal


not very muscular, appears very thin/sensual – possibly to emphasize his youth

o   short, only stands a little over 5’ though would seem more monumental due to pedestal

·      helmet – hair was originally covered in gold, symbol of family’s wealth


CONTEXT


commission by Medici family for their courtyard at home – stood on high pedestal; cast in bronze


David – slayed Goliath


young man, underdog – took on brutal warrior named Goliath & defeated him against all odds

Term
[image]
Definition

Filippo Brunelleschi, Santo Spirito, 1434 – 1436


FORM


vaulted nave, comes to point


revival of delicate columns, rounded arches, flat ceiling, coffered ceiling – recessed and decorated, Corinthian capitals


CONTENT


plain looking, reduces ornamentation


enter from West, altar located on East wall, so nave is facing East

·       

CONTEXT


very different from Gothic architecture – reviving features of Roman architecture

Term
[image]
Definition

Donatello, St. Mark, 1411 – 1413


FORM


free-standing sculpture


is it a relief?


based on antiquity – folds, style of garments, emphasis on age (based on Roman portrait sculptures)


contrapposto pose allow body to appear lifelike; artists did not want to depict body as rigid – but rather flexible, moving continuously by shifting its weight from one supporting leg to the other, its constituent parts moving in agreement


CONTENT


St. Mark sculpted for an alcove on Or San Michele in Florence


CONTEXT


one of the patron saints


Donatello is notable because he spends good amount of time travelling through Italy studying ancient sculpture

- revives techniques and forms commonly found in Greek & Roman sculpture


St. Mark is one of the four Evangelists – wrote the Bible

Term
[image]
Definition

Masaccio, Tribute Money, 1424 – 1427


FORM


fresco paintings on walls


2 figures in contrapposto poses


Masaccio was studying from ancient sculpture because his poses & expressions were taken from ancient sculptures


shadows – first real shadows in renaissance – suggest light source from right


spatial recession – landscape extends back into space, doesn’t feel like we’re on a stage, building is rendered in believable perspective; calculated one-point perspective - one point takes us to Christ’s head


atmospheric perspective – items in background are depicted with less clarity than items in foreground


CONTENT


gospel of Matthew


Christ & disciples come to pay taxes


Christ in center


instructing Peter to go to water & pull coin from mouth of a fish


this coin is to be used to pay tax collector


tax collector is wearing much shorter garment, contemporary style


can see thru gestures that Peter is getting the coin from the fish


3 parts of narrative are in this one composition


part 1 – Christ telling Peter, part 2 – Peter getting coin, part 3 – paying tax collector


CONTEXT

sponsored by Brancacci family

 

 

Term
[image]
Definition

Paolo Uccello, Battle of San Romano, 1455


secular


Medici commission for their bedroom in palace

 

Term
[image]
Definition

Sandro Botticelli, Primavera (Spring), 1482

·      oranges – often found in Medici commissions, mela medica (medicinal fruit)

Term
[image]
Definition

Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, c. 1495-98


still on wall, climate control glass doors, few individuals in space at once


was once in dining hall


experiment with fresco painting; true fresco – painting on wet plaster; this is called fresco seco – painted directly on wall (dry fresco)


within a few years had already been compromised by ~50%


conserved hardcore over years; humidity from bodies around it can cause chipping


front & center: Christ


surrounded by 12 disciples, made so monumental in scale that they don’t fit at table; scrunched together in groupings of 3


istoria – Christ announces: one of you will betray me; depicts disciples’ responses saying “brrruuuuhhh"


novel: complex reactions; range of responses


Judas: with bag of money he received in exchange for identifying Christ; his reaction is most controlled in composition; most neutral pose


John: left of Christ


relievo, sfumato, Albertian perspective – looks box like, lines of one-point pers. lead to Christ’s head


coffered ceiling


window behind Christ – heavens surrounding his head – almost serves as halo – compositional strategy

Term
[image]
Definition

Leonardo da Vinci, Virgin and Child with St. Anne, 1501-1513

 

 

Term
[image]
Definition

Raphael, Madonna in the Meadow, 1505 – 1506

·      not Mimetic because figures are idealized and too large

Term
[image]
Definition

Raphael, Disputa (Theology), 1509-1511


mixture of Christian & humanist themes – religious work influenced by humanism


in a library


taking cues from past – emphasized harmony, order


often depicts book in his work – love & passion for study – humanism


4 murals - Theology is one of the murals


divided into two parts – upper and lower portion


upper portion is in heaven, lower is on Earth


TOP


center: holy trinity – holy spirit represented by dove


Christ – hands out – shows stigmata (wounds on Christ’s body from crucifixion)


flanked by Virgin & John the Baptist


flanked by two groupings of figures – 6 figures in each group

three from Old Testament, three from New


angels holding up text – four texts – four Gospels


balance in composition


BOTTOM


altar – directly below Christ – atop altar is Eucharis – wafer & wine which is transformed into body & blood of Christ when consumed


transubstantiation – literal belief in this transformation


depicts argument of whether transubstantiation is legit or not – transformation is literal or symbolic


relievo, istoria


Albertian one-point perspective – seen in floor, grid marks

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