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Public Speaking
Chapter 14
22
Debate/Speech
12/05/2011

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Term
1. Persuasion
Definition
process of changing or reinforcing a listener’s attitudes, beliefs, values or behavior
Term
2. Attitudes
Definition
learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably towards something; likes and dislikes
Term
Belief
Definition
way we structure reality to accept something as true or false
Term
Value
Definition
enduring concept of good and bad, right and wrong
Term
3. Ethos
Definition
speaker’s credibility
Term
Logos
Definition
formal system of using rules to reach a conclusion
Term
Pathos
Definition
appeals to human emotion
Term
4. Elaboration likelihood model of persuasion
Definition
– theory that people can be persuaded by logic, evidence, and reasoning, or through a more peripheral route that may depend on the credibility of the speaker, the sheer number of arguments presented, or emotional appeals
Term
Direct persuasion route
Definition
occurs when audience members critically examine evidence and arguments
Term
Indirect persuasion route
Definition
occurs as a result of factors peripheral to a speaker’s logic and argument, such as the speaker’s charisma or emotional appeals
Term
5. Techniques to Motivate Listeners
Definition
a. Use cognitive dissonance
b. Use listener’s needs
c. Use positive motivation
d. Use negative motivation
Term
6. Cognitive dissonance
Definition
sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns
Term
Coping with Cognitive Dissonance – they might
Definition
a. Try to discredit you – you need to be competent and trustworthy.
b. Reinterpret your message – you need to be sure it’s clear.
c. Seek other info – you need to make your info convincing.
d. Stop listening – you need to make your message interesting.
e. Be persuaded.
Term
7. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
Definition
a. Physiological needs – air, water, food.
b. Safety needs – feel safe, secure and protected.
c. Social needs – feel loved, valued.
d. Self-esteem needs – think well of ourselves.
e. Self-actualization needs – self-actualization
Term
8. Positive motivation
Definition
a. Emphasize positive values
b. Emphasize benefits, not just features
Term
9. Negative motivation
Definition
a. Strong threat to loved one more effective than to audience members
b. The more competent, trustworthy, or respected the speaker, the more likely that a fear to appeal will work.
c. More effective if you can convince your listeners that threat is real and will probably occur unless they take action you are advocating.
d. Increasing intensity of fear appeal increases chances that fear appeal will be effective.
e. More successful when you convince listeners that they have power to make a change that will reduce the fear-causing threat.
Term
10. Social Judgment Theory
Definition
categorizes listener responses to a persuasive message according to the latitude of acceptance, rejection or noncommitment (yes, they made this word up)
Term
11. Proposition
Definition
statement that summarizes the ideas with which a speaker wants an audience to agree.
Term
12. Propositions of fact
Definition
focuses on whether something is true or false or whether it did or didn’t happen.
Term
Propositions of value
Definition
calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something
Term
Propositions of policy
Definition
advocates change in a policy, procedure or behavior
Term
Persuasive propositions vs. Imformative Central Idea
Definition
Persuasive propositions are trying to get the audience to agree with what the speaker proposes while and informative central idea is simply giving the audience information. (I made this up because it didn’t say anything in the book)