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Psychology Test Two
Flash Cards for Boyd Psychology 101 Test Two
60
Psychology
11/06/2007

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Term
Pavlov
Definition
The first experimental studies of an associative learning were conducted by
Term
CS (condition stimulate); USC (unconditional stimulate)
Definition

In classical condition, the __________ signals the impending occurrence of the ______.

Term
Food
Definition
In Pavlov’s experiments on the salivary condition of dogs, the UCS was ______.
Term
Unconditional response
Definition
In Pavlov’s experiments, the dos salivation triggered by the taste of food was a
Term
Enables us to adapt to our environment
Definition
According to the textbook, learning does ________.
Term

CS; UCS

Definition

Extinction occurs when a _________ is no longer paired with a ___________.

Term
Novel tastes
Definition

Rats easily learn to associate nausea producing radiation treatments with _____________.

Term
condition
Definition
A stimulace that aquires reinforcing power through association with another reinforcer is called a _____________ reinforcer.
Term
intermintent
Definition
resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ____________ reinforcement.
Term

 re appeareance after a rest pause of an extin

Definition
spontaneous recovery refers to the ____________________.
Term
may be produced through classical condition.
Definition
Watson and Rayners study of baby albert demonstrated how specific fears
Term
a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to gain reward
Definition
A skinner box is a __________.
Term
increasing: increasing
Definition
Positive reinforcers _______ the rate of operant responding and negative reinforcers __________ of operant responders.
Term
higher
Definition
Rates of operant responding are_________ for fixed ratios than for fixed interval schedules
Term
higher
Definition
Rates of operant responding are __________ for variable ratios than for variable interval schedules
Term
Response Stimulace: stimulace
Definition
Operant behavior is to __________ associations as respondant behavior is to ___________ associations.
Term
increase: decrease
Definition
Negative reinforcerrs ____________ the rate of operant response, and punishments ___________ the rate of operant respondants
Term
The law of effect
Definition
BF skinners work elaborated what EL thorndike had called ______________.
Term
a reinforcer
Definition
An event that increases the frequency of the behavior it follows  is an
Term
a physical state that usually triggers motivational elapses
Definition
a need refers to ___________.
Term
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal
Definition
Motivation is defined by psychologists as _____________.
Term
cognitive processes
Definition
studies of late learning highlight the importance of  ________________.
Term
observational learning
Definition
The ability to learn by witnessing and imitating the behavior of others illustrates
Term
bulimia
Definition

22 year old, hwama, is overweight and loves to eat. Fearful of  becoming really overweight she frequently takes laxatives followed binges. She clearly suffers from ____________.

Term
need;drive
Definition
Food deprivation is to hunger as ____________ is to ______________
Term
adequate clothing; self esteem
Definition
according to meslo, our need for ____________ must be met before our need for ______________
Term
the specific body weight maintained by most adults for long periods
Definition
the set point is ________
Term
the body’s tendency to maintain a constant internal state
Definition
homeostasis refers to __________.
Term
trait theorists
Definition
which theorists have been most directly criticized for underestimating the variability of behavior from situation to situation
Term
imperically derived
Definition
which of the following is true of the MMPI?
Term
personality
Definition
Walter Michelle’s studies of students conciencouness reveiled only a modest relationhip between being conciencous on one occasion and being similarily conciencousness on another. According to michelle this should make psychologists more cautios on _________.
Term
external locust of control
Definition
the perception that ones fate is determined by luck reflects blank
Term
learned helplessness
Definition
dogs strapped into a harness and given an unavoidable shocks develop ______
Term
past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities
Definition
the social cognitive perspective suggests that the best way to predict a political candidates performance after election is to assess that individuals ________
Term
spotlight effect
Definition
over estimating the extent to which others notice our appearance and performance is called ________
Term

criticize

Definition
a persons whose self esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to do what
Term
a self serving bias
Definition
Americans were more optimistic that they would go to heaven than would either Michael Jordan or bill Clinton. This best illustrates __________.
Term
individualistic
Definition
the importance of romance in marriage relationships is most likely to be emphasized in cultures that value _________.
Term

facilitate conversion of its blood glucouse to fat

Definition
destruction of eventromedial hypothalamus of a rat is most likely to
Term
imidiate reninforcers; delayed reienforcers
Definition
In Order to quickly teach a dog to roll over on command you would best be advised to use                 rather then                         
Term
ghrelie; blood glucouse
Definition
Increases in               increase hunger. Increase in                  decrease hunger.
Term
observational learning
Definition
Preschool children pounded a bo-bo doll that they had jus seen an adult pound, this illustrates
Term
Albert Banbura
Definition
who highlighted the importance of observational learning?
Term
reinforcer
Definition
An event that increase the frequency of the behavior that it follows is a
Term
enables
Definition
According to the text, learning                    us to adopt to our envirornment
Term
boys are most likely; phallic stage
Definition
According to Freud,                             likely to experience the Oddipus during the                         .
Term
super ego
Definition

Freud suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the development of the                 

Term
passive-dependancy
Definition
Freud suggested that orally fixated adults are esp. likely to exhibit                             
Term
ego to prevent threatening impulses from being conciously recognized.
Definition
According to Freud, defense mech. are used by the                                              
Term
conciously express feelings that are the opposite of unconcious unacceptable impulses.
Definition
Reaction formation refers to the process by which people                                                            
Term

pSYCHOLOGIST often dont agree on how to score the results of the test

Definition
The major reason for the unreliability Roorschach ink blot test is the fact that                                           .
Term
Karl Jung
Definition
Which neo-freudian theroist emphasized......
Term
childhood sexual instincts
Definition
Neo-fraudian personality therorist were most likely to disagree with freud about the importance of
Term
concious & gender identity form as children resolve the opedus complex
Definition
Contemporary pscychologist are least likely to agree with Freud that                                      
Term
repression
Definition
Survivors memoris of the Nazi death camp  experiences most clearly challenge Freuds concept of                   
Term
conforming
Definition
Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are least like to become highly                 
Term
Karl Rogers
Definition
Which theorist  emphasized that personal growth is promoted by assco. with others who are guiniue, accepting, and empathtic            
Term
traits
Definition
Charcteristic patterns of our  behavior & motivation are called           
Term
empirically dirived
Definition

A personality inventory that utilizes only those items that have been shown to differciate ppl is a                                   test

Term
bi-factor analysis
Definition
The big 5 trait demenscions were identified by means of