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Psych Final
80 Questions, Multiple choice & 50 Questions on test
78
Psychology
12/16/2008

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Term
Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of ______ developement
Definition
Cognitive
Term
According to Piaget schemas are...
Definition
People's conceptual frameworks
Term
Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called..
Definition
Assimilation
Term
Olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Olivia is clearly in Piaget's ______ stage.
Definition
Sensory Motor stage
Term
The egocentrisim of preschoolers was most strongly emphasized by:
Definition
Piaget
Term
According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to:
Definition
Belief that everyone see's things as you do.
Term
The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called:
Definition
Attachment
Term
Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to:
Definition
Secure Attachment
Term
A critical period is a phase during which:
Definition
Certain have a particularly strong impact on development
Term
Which of the following is an example of imprinting?
Definition
Fly away home
Term
One-year-old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers being held by her mother than by anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates:
Definition
Secure Attachment
Term
Children’s sense that their parents are trustworthy and dependable is most indicative of:
Definition
Secure
Term
Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatrician’s waiting room, little Sandra tenaciously clings to her mother’s skirt. Sandra most clearly shows signs of:
Definition
Insecure Attachment
Term
In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with a secure maternal attachment are most likely to:
Definition
Secure base
Term
When placed in strange situations without their artificial mothers, Harlow’s infant monkeys demonstrated signs of:
Definition
Insecure Attachment
Term
Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between human infants and their mothers?attachment are most likely to:
Definition
Responsive Parenting
Term
Some mothers feed their infants when they show signs of hunger, whereas others fail to respond predictably to their infants’ demands for food. These different maternal feeding practices are most likely to contribute to differences in infant:
Definition
Attachment
Term
Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatrician’s waiting room, little Sandra tenaciously clings to her mother’s skirt. Sandra most clearly shows signs of:
Definition
Insecure Attachment
Term
According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to:
Definition
Abstract Reasoning
Term
Already at 15 months of age, Justin strongly senses that he can rely on his father to comfort and protect him. This most clearly contributes to:
Definition
Trust (Basic Trust)
Term
For several months following a sudden and unexpected divorce, Henry was excessively preoccupied with thoughts of his ex-wife. His reaction resulted from the disruption of:
Definition
Disruption of Attachment
Term
Two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they demonstrate:
Definition
Low levels of responsiveness, high levels of control
Term
Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be:
Definition
Authortative
Term
Authoritative parents are likely to have children who:
Definition
Self-Reliant, High self-esteem
Term
Compared to authoritarian parents, authoritative parents are likely to be:
Definition
More Responsive
Term
The importance of schemas was most clearly highlighted by:
Definition
Piaget
Term
Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are suddenly judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a:
Definition
Sense of Conservation
Term
A child’s realization that others may have beliefs which the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of:
Definition
A theory of mind
Term
The process of imprinting occurs during a brief developmental phase known as:
Definition
Critical Period
Term
Adolescence extends from:
Definition
Puberty
Term
The body structures that enable reproduction are the:
Definition
Primary sex characteristics
Term
The first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as ________ is to an adolescent girl.
Definition
Menarche
Term
The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development.
Definition
Formal Opervational
Term
Piaget is to cognitive development as Kohlberg is to ________ development.
Definition
Moral
Term
According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents a ________ morality.
Definition
Pre-Conventional
Term
Even though smoking marijuana would reduce the pain associated with her chronic medical condition, Juanita believes it would be morally wrong because it is prohibited by the laws of her state. Kohlberg would suggest that Juanita demonstrates a(n) _______ morality.
Definition
Conventional
Term
According to Kohlberg, postconventional morality involves:
Definition
You define what is, Self-Define, Affirmationi Ethics
Term
According to Erikson, trust is to ________ as identity is to ________.
Definition
Infancy (0-1 1/2), Adloscents
Term
According to Erikson, isolation is to intimacy as role confusion is to:
Definition
Identity
Term
According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the:
Definition
Adolescents
Term
Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for:
Definition
Intimacy
Term
Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates ________ morality.
Definition
Post-Conventional
Term
Compared to a century ago, menarche occurs ________ in life and adult independence begins ________ in life.
Definition
Earlier, Later
Term
Female breasts are to ________ as male testes are to ________.
Definition
Secondary, Primary
Term
The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by:
Definition
Erikson
Term
Adolescence is typically a time of:
Definition
Deminishing parental influence, peer influence is growing
Term
According to Erikson, the central psychological challenges pertaining to adolescence, young adulthood, and middle age, respectively, are:
Definition
Formation of Identity, intimacy, generativity
Term
In preconventional morality, the person:
Definition
Avoids Punishment
Term
Among the hallmarks of growing up are a boy’s first ejaculation and a girl’s first menstrual period, which also is called:
Definition
Menarche
Term
Adolescence is marked by the onset of:
Definition
Puberty
Term
Whose stage theory of moral development was based on how people reasoned about ethical dilemmas?
Definition
Kohlberg
Term
In Erikson’s theory, individuals generally focus on developing ________ during adolescence and then ________ during young adulthood.
Definition
Identity, Intimacy
Term
Which of the following was not mentioned in the text as a criticism of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?
Definition
Culture Specific
Term
Sam, a junior in high school, regularly attends church because his family and friends think he should. Which stage of moral reasoning is Sam in?
Definition
Conventional
Term
After a series of unfulfilling relationships, 30-year-old Carlos tells a friend that he doesn’t want to marry because he is afraid of losing his freedom and independence. Erikson would say that Carlos is having difficulty with the psychosocial task of:
Definition
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Term
Personality is best defined as an individual’s:
Definition
Characteristic of thinking, feelings & acting
Term
Which of the following techniques was Freud most likely to use in an attempt to discover the hidden conflicts underlying his patient’s symptoms?
Definition
Psychoanalysis > free association, dreams, defense mechanisms
Term
Freud called his theory of personality and the associated treatment techniques:
Definition
Psychoanalysis
Term
According to Freud, thoughts that are too unsettling for people to acknowledge are:
Definition
Repressed
Term
Freud believed that our unconsciously repressed impulses express themselves in:
Definition
Dreams, defense mechanisms, slips of tounge
Term
The pleasure principle is to the __________ as the reality principle is to the__________.
Definition
Identity, Ego
Term
The superego is the part of the personality that:
Definition
Generates feelings of guilt
Term
According to Freud, the most important erogenous zone during earliest infancy consists of the:
Definition
Mouth
Term
Psychoanalytic theory suggests that the ego disguises threatening impulses and reduces anxiety by means of:
Definition
Defense Mechanisms
Term
A religious leader who attempts to overcome his hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual certainty illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of:
Definition
Reaction Formation
Term
Projection refers to the process by which people:
Definition
Put it on someone else
Term
Carl Jung emphasized the importance of _____ in personality functioning.
Definition
Collective unconscience
Term
Tests that present ambiguous stimuli designed to uncover hidden personality dynamics are called_____ tests.
Definition
Projective test
Term
According to Maslow, the psychological need that arises after all other “D” needs have been met is the need for:
Definition
Self-actualization
Term
Self-actualized people. As described by Maslow, are least likely to:
Definition
Experience an external locus of control
Term
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of:
Definition
Self-Determination
Term
Carl Rogers suggested that the_____is is a central feature of personality.
Definition
Self Concept
Term
Maslow most clearly interjected his own personal values into his study of self-actualized individuals by:
Definition
Selectively studying people with quailties he admired
Term
Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are especially likely to:
Definition
Be open & Spontenous
Term
Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development?
Definition
Rogers
Term
Carl Rogers suggested that those who fall far short of their ideal self experience:
Definition
A negative self-concept
Term
In promoting personality growth, the person-centered perspective emphasizes all but:
Definition
Altruism
Term
The school psychologist believes that having a positive self-concept is necessary before students can achieve their potential. Evidently, the school psychologist is an advocate of:
Definition
Humanist Persective; Humanism