Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Physical Science
WGU ISC4 Physical Science - Simple Machines, Newton, Motion, and Energy
29
Physics
09/07/2009

Term
 Sound
Definition
 waves in air are generally spherical waves that propagate outwards in many directions. Wave behavior is characterized by 4 phenomena – Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction and Displacement
Term
 Light
Definition
 made of waves composed of photons reflective (using a mirror), and refractive. Refraction is the bending of a wave caused by passing through a medium of different density than the surroundings (prism)
Term
 Heat: Conduction
Definition
 Movement of heat from molecule to molecule through direct contact; molecules themselves do not move
Term
 Heat: Convection
Definition
 When heat flow occurs in a fluid - oceans
Term
Definition
 Heat transferred through empty space via infrared radiation (microwave)
Term
 Kinematics
Definition
 allows you to describe the motion of objects
Term
 Dynamics
Definition
 allows you to understand why objects move the way they do
Term
 Kinetic energy
Definition
 the form of energy associated with motion
Term
 Potential energy
Definition
 stored energy (energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure – like water behind a dam) Potential energy is converted into kinetic energy
Term
 Distance
Definition
 scalar quantity which refers to "how much ground an object has covered" during its motion
Term
 Displacement
Definition
 vector quantity which refers to "how far out of place an object is"; it is the object's change in position (point “A” to point “B”), and in which direction
Term
 Scalar VS Vector/Distance VS Displacement
Definition
 To understand the distinction between distance and displacement, you must know the definitions and also know that a vector quantity such as displacement is direction aware and a scalar quantity such as distance is ignorant of direction. When an object changes its direction of motion, displacement takes this direction change into account; heading the opposite direction effectively begins to cancel whatever displacement there once was.
Term
 Speed
Definition
 scalar quantity which refers to "how fast an object is moving"
Term
 Velocity
Definition
 vector quantity which refers to "the rate at which an object changes its position”. So an airplane moving towards the west with a speed of 300 mi/hr has a velocity of 300 mi/hr, west
Term
 Scalar VS Vector/Speed VS Velocity
Definition
 Note that speed has no direction (it is a scalar) and velocity is simply the speed with a direction
Term
 Acceleration
Definition
 vector quantity which is defined as "the rate at which an object changes its velocity." An object is accelerating if it is changing its velocity
Term
 Gravity
Definition
 Causes objects to fall; every object near the surface of the earth experiences a downward force, called its weight, the strength of which is exactly proportional to its mass
Term
 Newton's 1st Law
Definition
 an object in motion will remain in motion and an object not in motion will remain not in motion unless it is acted on by a force
Term
 Newton's 2nd Law
Definition
 Force is defined as the change in momentum of a body over time
Term
 Newton's 3rd Law
Definition
 every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Term
 Electromagnetism
Definition
 Electricity is a property of matter that results from the presence or movement of electric charge. Together with magnetism, it constitutes the fundamental interaction known as electromagnetism. Electricity is responsible for many well-known physical phenomena such as lightning, electric fields and electric currents, and is put to use in industrial applications such as electronics and electric power
Term
 Magnetism
Definition
 a force that acts at a distance and is caused by a magnetic field. A magnetic field consists of imaginary lines of flux coming from moving or spinning electrically charged particles
Term
 Electric Current
Definition
 the flow of electric charge. Natural examples include lightning and the solar wind, the source of the polar aurora
Term
 Static Electricity
Definition
 phenomena involving objects with a net charge; typically referring to charged objects with voltages of sufficient magnitude to produce visible attraction, and sparks
Term
 Series Circuit
Definition
 components such as light bulbs connected in a circuit along the same wire in a manner that requires energy to flow through each component before it can return to point A
Term
 Parallel Circuit
Definition
 components that are added to bypassable loops along the circuit
Term
 Lever
Definition
 rigid object that is used in conjunction with a fulcrum to apply force
Term
 Ramp
Definition
 reduces the amount of force needed to raise an object (the load) upwards by moving it along at a small angle from the ground. The secret to the work done by ramps is that they decrease the force required, but increase the distance over which the it is done, thus keeping the total amount of work the same
Term
 Pulley
Definition
 wheel with a groove in the edge which holds a cable. When used is series, pulleys can reduce the amount of force required to lift a load by increasing the distance over which the work is done
Supporting users have an ad free experience!