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Physical Science
WGU ISC4 Physical Science - Simple Machines, Newton, Motion, and Energy
29
Physics
09/07/2009

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Term
Sound
Definition
waves in air are generally spherical waves that propagate outwards in many directions. Wave behavior is characterized by 4 phenomena – Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction and Displacement
Term
Light
Definition
made of waves composed of photons reflective (using a mirror), and refractive. Refraction is the bending of a wave caused by passing through a medium of different density than the surroundings (prism)
Term
Heat: Conduction
Definition
Movement of heat from molecule to molecule through direct contact; molecules themselves do not move
Term
Heat: Convection
Definition
When heat flow occurs in a fluid - oceans
Term
Heat: Radiation
Definition
Heat transferred through empty space via infrared radiation (microwave)
Term
Kinematics
Definition
allows you to describe the motion of objects
Term
Dynamics
Definition
allows you to understand why objects move the way they do
Term
Kinetic energy
Definition
the form of energy associated with motion
Term
Potential energy
Definition
stored energy (energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure – like water behind a dam) Potential energy is converted into kinetic energy
Term
Distance
Definition
scalar quantity which refers to "how much ground an object has covered" during its motion
Term
Displacement
Definition
vector quantity which refers to "how far out of place an object is"; it is the object's change in position (point “A” to point “B”), and in which direction
Term
Scalar VS Vector/Distance VS Displacement
Definition
To understand the distinction between distance and displacement, you must know the definitions and also know that a vector quantity such as displacement is direction aware and a scalar quantity such as distance is ignorant of direction. When an object changes its direction of motion, displacement takes this direction change into account; heading the opposite direction effectively begins to cancel whatever displacement there once was.
Term
Speed
Definition
scalar quantity which refers to "how fast an object is moving"
Term
Velocity
Definition
vector quantity which refers to "the rate at which an object changes its position”. So an airplane moving towards the west with a speed of 300 mi/hr has a velocity of 300 mi/hr, west
Term
Scalar VS Vector/Speed VS Velocity
Definition
Note that speed has no direction (it is a scalar) and velocity is simply the speed with a direction
Term
Acceleration
Definition
vector quantity which is defined as "the rate at which an object changes its velocity." An object is accelerating if it is changing its velocity
Term
Gravity
Definition
Causes objects to fall; every object near the surface of the earth experiences a downward force, called its weight, the strength of which is exactly proportional to its mass
Term
Newton's 1st Law
Definition
an object in motion will remain in motion and an object not in motion will remain not in motion unless it is acted on by a force
Term
Newton's 2nd Law
Definition
Force is defined as the change in momentum of a body over time
Term
Newton's 3rd Law
Definition
every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Term
Electromagnetism
Definition
Electricity is a property of matter that results from the presence or movement of electric charge. Together with magnetism, it constitutes the fundamental interaction known as electromagnetism. Electricity is responsible for many well-known physical phenomena such as lightning, electric fields and electric currents, and is put to use in industrial applications such as electronics and electric power
Term
Magnetism
Definition
a force that acts at a distance and is caused by a magnetic field. A magnetic field consists of imaginary lines of flux coming from moving or spinning electrically charged particles
Term
Electric Current
Definition
the flow of electric charge. Natural examples include lightning and the solar wind, the source of the polar aurora
Term
Static Electricity
Definition
phenomena involving objects with a net charge; typically referring to charged objects with voltages of sufficient magnitude to produce visible attraction, and sparks
Term
Series Circuit
Definition
components such as light bulbs connected in a circuit along the same wire in a manner that requires energy to flow through each component before it can return to point A
Term
Parallel Circuit
Definition
components that are added to bypassable loops along the circuit
Term
Lever
Definition
rigid object that is used in conjunction with a fulcrum to apply force
Term
Ramp
Definition
reduces the amount of force needed to raise an object (the load) upwards by moving it along at a small angle from the ground. The secret to the work done by ramps is that they decrease the force required, but increase the distance over which the it is done, thus keeping the total amount of work the same
Term
Pulley
Definition
wheel with a groove in the edge which holds a cable. When used is series, pulleys can reduce the amount of force required to lift a load by increasing the distance over which the work is done