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Physical Geo Exam 2
Exam TWO
118
Geography
03/22/2010

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Cards

Term
What evidence did Wegner use to support the existence of Pangaea?
Definition
The distribution of fossils and present day plant species along with the jigsaw fit of the continents.
Term
The oceanic crust is _____ and _____ than the continental crust
Definition
thinner; denser
Term
Permafrost is typically found in tundra environments and can extend to depths of
Definition
300-450 meters
Term
What type of tectonic phenomena leads to the creation of oceanic volcanic islands such as the Galapagos?
Definition
Hot spot
Term
Which type of plate boundary results from two or more plates coming together?
Definition
Convergent plate boundary
Term
A _____ is a fracture in the rock in which no appreciable movement has occurred
Definition
joint
Term
In what general direction are the Galapagos moving at a rate of about an inch or two per year?
Definition
Southeast
Term
Along continental rifts and hot spots, vast amounts of basaltic lava can flow from fissures, forming
Definition
flood basalts
Term
What does the word "Galapagos" mean?
Definition
"saddle" in Spanish
Term
Why are the Galapagos so rich in biodiversity?
Definition
They are at an intersection of warm and cold ocean currents
Term
What is the source of heat that drives mantle convection?
Definition
Radiogenic heat from the decay of isotopes
Term
______ are common features that develop in solid rock at the surface due to the release of pressure and can act as conduits for other weathering mechanisms
Definition
Joints
Term
The largest scale sand dunes are called
Definition
star dunes
Term
How do the oldest island and the youngest island, Fernandina, compare in age?
Definition
Fernandina: 40,000+ years old; Espanola: 3.5 million years old
Term
What type of bond forms the strongest chemical bonds and compounds that tend to be strong with great hardness?
Definition
covalent
Term
Approximately how old are the Galapagos islands?
Definition
5 million years
Term
_______ is the process of ice splitting rocks during freeze/thaw cycles.
Definition
Frost action
Term
Complete the following statement with the correct terms. Clay is _____ to lift from a surface, and/but ____ to keep suspended in the air.
Definition
difficult; easy
Term
A strike-slip fault can also be called a _____ fault.
Definition
transform
Term
The mechanism of wind erosion in which loose particles of sand and dust are picked up and removed, leaving behind only coarser pebbles, is called ______
Definition
deflation
Term
The continents and ocean basins are located in the
Definition
crust
Term
Which Galapagos island no longer has enough elevation to trigger cloud formation?
Definition
Espanola
Term
Foredunes are critical to the preservation of the integrity of many beaches, but they must maintain _______ o their surfaces to remain stable
Definition
plant cover
Term
A ____ dune forms from shifting wind directions and abundant sand
Definition
star
Term
What are the typical characteristics of loess deposits? Be sure to describe their process of formation and distribution.
Definition
1) yellowish to buff color 2) compact/uniform 3) easily eroded 4) formed by silt blown in by dust storms 4) distribution related to continental glaciers
Term
Felsic minerals tend to be
Definition
light-colored, less dense
Term
Some of the most highly elevated and tectonically active mountain ranges in the world are the result of
Definition
convergent tectonic plate boundaries
Term
According to high-resolution GPS satellites, lithospheric plates are moving at an average rate of
Definition
5-10com/2-4in per year
Term
In general, landscapes of great relief experience ____ rate(s) of landform change compared to those with low relief.
Definition
faster
Term
Coastal plain streams that run parallel to the shoreline and act as tributaries to larger bodies of water are described as
Definition
subsequent streams
Term
Sometimes rocks are grooved and polished by wind driven abrasion, these examples are often referred to as
Definition
ventifact
Term
Small scale crescent-shaped dunes are described as
Definition
parabolic dunes
Term
In which of the following regions of the US is wind driven erosion most effective?
Definition
Southwest
Term
What is the most common mineral found in rocks on Earth?
Definition
quartz
Term
Which particle sizes composes large dust storms that extend hundreds of meters off the ground?
Definition
Soil particles and course sand grains
Term
The Hawaiian Islands and Emperor Seamounts represent a hot-spot track that
Definition
is on a plate that is moving to the north-west
Term
When considering the process of wind erosion, the wind acts most similar to
Definition
water or a fluid
Term
_____ is the extremely slow downslope granular flow of regolith
Definition
soil creep
Term
What term best describes the rocky outer layer of the Earth?
Definition
lithosphere
Term
Explosive or voluminous eruptions may cause the volcano to collapse into the floor of the empty magma chamber below, producing a very large depression called a
Definition
caldera
Term
________ divides most ocean basins roughly in half
Definition
Midoceanic ridge
Term
Under what environment conditions would physical weathering by freeze-thaw be most effective?
Definition
In arctic and high mountain environments
Term
Peat, coal, lignite, and natural gas are all examples of
Definition
fossil fuels
Term
A _____ may result from the suspension of fine particles of sediment by wind over significant distances
Definition
dust storm
Term
Marble forms as a metamorphic product of what original rock?
Definition
limestone
Term
What kind of conditions would limit the effectiveness of wind erosion
Definition
Moisture
Term
What kind of anthropogenic activities can induce mass wasting?
Definition
Excavation, adding water to slopes, extracting mineral resources, explosives, and scarfication
Term
The steepest portion of a desert sand dune is on the ____ side
Definition
leeward
Term
In permafrost terrains, the term active layer refers to:
Definition
the shallow surface layer above the permafrost table which thaws and freezes with the changing seasons
Term
Sandstone pillars are features that can be found in the southwestern US, but are unusual in the southeastern US. What explanations best account for this?
Definition
The southeast is more humid
Term
What is a caldera?
Definition
Large, crater-like depression left when a stratovolcano blows its top off
Term
If Earth's history was represented by one 24-hour day, how long has life proliferated on the planet?
Definition
2 hours and 50 minutes
Term
New construction can lead to the degradation of tundra environments as a result of
Definition
thermal erosion
Term
The smallest particle that retains all of the chemical properties of an element is called a(n)
Definition
atom
Term
Why do some islands support lush forests on one side and arid deserts on another side?
Definition
rain shadow effect
Term
Basaltic lavas differ from felsic lavas in that they
Definition
tend to be much less viscous that felsic lavas
Term
_____ involve the massive displacement of rock or sediment straight down a steep slope
Definition
Landslides
Term
What fundamental force is responsible for the layering most distinctive of sedimentary rock deposits?
Definition
gravity
Term
The formation of salt deposits in the bottoms of dry lake beds (i.e. Bonneville Salt Flats, UT) is a result of which process?
Definition
Streams bring dissolved solids into the lake, and since evaporation removes only pure water, the salts remain behind
Term
Why are smaller particles of sedimentary material often hard for wind to move?
Definition
Larger fragments become closely fitted together, concealing the smaller particles that lie beneath them
Term
Fine grained deposits of windblown material called _____ have accumulated in thick layers in the midlatitude regions of the world and provide fertile soil for agriculture
Definition
loess
Term
Desert pavements are best characterized by
Definition
closely fitted rock fragments with smaller particles beneath
Term
Why do desert sand dunes take on several specific shapes?
Definition
It depends on the direction of the prevailing winds and the amount of sand
Term
When considering the destructive potential of a tsunami, it is important to consider that a cubic meter of water weighs approximately:
Definition
1000 kilograms/2200 pounds
Term
Crescent-shaped dunes that are stabilized by vegetation growth are called
Definition
parabolic dunes
Term
What is required to induce mass movements along the Palos Verdes Hill of Los Angeles, California and other similar developments in steep hillside settings?
Definition
weathering
Term
What term best describing the individual lifting and transportation of individual particles by wind?
Definition
deflation
Term
Stone polygons can alter to stone stripes as a result of
Definition
downsloping
Term
When sedimentary particles move in series of short bounces, the process is termed
Definition
saltation
Term
The availability of _____ is most critical to weathering processes.
Definition
water
Term
The disintegration and dissolution of rocks at or near the surface of the Earth is described as
Definition
weathering
Term
Landscapes with a large amount of relief tend to increase the ____ of materials, causing them to have more _____ energy when they are weathered and transported downhill.
Definition
slope; potential
Term
A subduction zone is often created when
Definition
an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate
Term
mafic lava is composed mostly of
Definition
silicates of magnesium and iron
Term
The small spaces between mineral grains are called
Definition
pores
Term
Continental rifting generates ______ faults
Definition
normal
Term
Deep oceanic trenches are associated with
Definition
diverging boundaries and subduction
Term
The process responsible for changing sediments into sedimentary rock, are compaction and
Definition
cementation
Term
Folding is the result of _________ plate tectonic processes
Definition
compressional/convergent
Term
Which elements are abundant in the crust?
Definition
O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg
Term
Which geologic era are we currently living in?
Definition
Cenozoic
Term
Geothermal energy is typically collected using
Definition
steam to power turbines
Term
A rock that is dark-colored and heavy is most likely composed of
Definition
mafic rock
Term
In order for material to move downslope, it must overcome which of the following forces?
Definition
Friction, steepness, cohesion, and material strength
Term
Due to the recent trend in rising global temperatures, scientists predict arctic temperatures will have risen ______ by the end of this century.
Definition
5 degrees celcius
Term
Flowing regolith that is not saturated with water is known as a _______
Definition
landslide
Term
Which element is the most abundant in Earth's crust?
Definition
oxygen
Term
What term best describes a local steepening in otherwise uniformly dipping layered rock?
Definition
monocline
Term
In a tundra environment _______ is the slow movement of saturated soil downhill, often forming mounds.
Definition
solifluction
Term
The formation of a pingo begins with the formation of _______ in the tundra
Definition
a shallow lake
Term
How does the ability of wind to transport materials compare to other mechanisms in the Earth system?
Definition
Greater than liquid because of the density in the atmosphere
Term
What is the primary difference between the earthflow and mudflow?
Definition
Mudflow is faster and wetter than earthflow
Term
What term best describes the driving force behind plate tectonics?
Definition
mantle convection
Term
Hydrocarbon deposits are classified as
Definition
fossil fuels
Term
The process by which landscapes are reduced and landforms rearranged is described best by the term
Definition
weathering
Term
The surface of the Earth is divided into individual rigid plates that move independently of one another on top of the
Definition
asthenosphere
Term
Because of the extreme heat and pressure required, metamorphic rocks are generated most often
Definition
at a substantial depth beneath the Earth's surface
Term
The reduction of land-surface elevation due to the lifting and removal of particles by wind is termed ______, while the aggressive act of sandblasting an exposed surface by the action of wind is described as _______
Definition
deflation; wind abrasion
Term
What is the oldest of the Galapagos islands?
Definition
Espanola
Term
When small pieces of rock are weathered, transported, deposited, and cemented, which of the following can be created?
Definition
sedimentary
Term
A(n) ______ involves a rotational and downhill movement of rock or regolith.
Definition
slump zone
Term
Loess deposits are typically composed of
Definition
wind-transported silt
Term
The Richter scale is used to express the
Definition
magnitude of earthquakes
Term
Since lithospheric plates move around, most mountain building activity occurs
Definition
at the converging continental boundaries
Term
A type of chemical weathering in which minerals react with dissolved oxygen in water is known as _______
Definition
oxidation
Term
Using changes in seismic wave velocities, we know that the Earth's inner core is stable in what phase?
Definition
solid
Term
Faulting is the result of __________ plate tectonic processes.
Definition
compressional and extensional
Term
Chemical weathering is most effective in environments with
Definition
warm, moist air and high annual rainfall
Term
The process of rock metamorphism can affect what types of rock?
Definition
sedimentary and igneous
Term
The lithosphere is composed of
Definition
crust and upper part of the mantle
Term
Which type of volcanic feature is most common around the Pacific Ocean basin?
Definition
stratovolcanoes
Term
Landforms generated in regions with no active volcanic or tectonic activity often form as a result of
Definition
weathering and erosion
Term
Globally, most active volcanoes are located along
Definition
plate boundaries
Term
When wind-blown particles act to sandblast a natural surface, this is best described as _________
Definition
wind abrasion
Term
In regions with an arid climate, table-topped plateaus that are bordered with cliffs on all sides are referred to as
Definition
mesas
Term
Characteristic fractures that form in bedrock when it cools and contracts are described as
Definition
joints
Term
The idea proposed by Alfred Wegener to explain the continental shapes and positions is known as
Definition
continental drift
Term
Magma that cools deep below the Earth's surface forms what type of rock
Definition
intrusive