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Pathophysiology chapter 3
Test 2
74
Nursing
08/31/2011

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Cards

Term

 

 

 

 

Steps for Humoral mediated immunity

Definition

 

 

1. Lymphoblasts

2.  Bone marrow

3.  B Cells

4. Migrate to lymph nodes

 

Term

 

 

 

 

After Antigen stimulation what happens to Humoral mediated immunity

Definition

 

 

 

become plasma cells

1.  Antibody
2. memory B cells

Term

 

 

 

 

Steps for Cell mediated immunity

Definition

 

 

1. Lymphoblast

2. Thymus

3. T Cells

4. Migrate to lymph nodes

Term

 

 

 

 

After antigen stimulation what happens to T cells

Definition

 

 

 

1. become Helper T cells

2.  Memory T cells

 

Term

 

 

 

 

B lymphocytes

Definition

 

 

 

 

Humoral immunity-activated cells becomes antibody-producting plasma cells or a B memory cell

Term

 

 

 

 

Plasma Cells

Definition

 

 

 

Develop from B lymphocytes and

secrete specific antibodies

Term

 

 

 

 

T lymphocytes

Definition

 

 

 

 

White blood cells;

cell-mediated

Term

 

 

 

 

Cytotoxic or

Killer T cells

Definition

 

 

cancer cells,

virus-infected cells

Term

 

 

 

 

IgG

Definition

 

 

 

Most common antibody

Crosses placenta, creates passive immunity in newborns

Term

 

 

 

 

IgM

Definition

 

 

 

First to increase in the immune response,

involved in blood ABO type incompatibility

Term

 

 

 

 

IgA

Definition

 

 

 

 

found in mucous membranes,

and in colostrum to provide protection for newborns

Term

 

 

 

 

IgE

Definition

 

 

 

 

linked to allergens

Term

 

 

 

 

IgD

Definition

 

 

 

 

Attached to B cells

Term

 

Types of acquired immunity

 

 

Natural active

 

Mechanism

Definition

 

 

 

 

Pathogens enter body and cause illness;

antibodies form in host

Term

 

Types of acquired immunity

 

 

Natural active

 

Memory?

Definition

 

 

 

Yes

Term

 

Types of acquired immunity

 

 

Natural active

 

 

Example?

Definition

 

 

 

Person has chickenpox once

Term

 

Types of acquired immunity

 

 

Artificial active

 

Mechanism

Definition

 

 

 

Vaccine is injected into person.

No illness results, but antibodies form

Term

 

Types of acquired immunity

 

 

Artificial active

 

Memory?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Yes

Term

 

Types of acquired immunity

 

 

Artificial active

 

 

Example?

Definition

 

 

 

Person has measles vaccine and gains immunity

Term

 

Types of acquired immunity

 

 

Natural passive

 

Mechanism

Definition

 

 

 

Antibodies passed directly from mother to child to provide temporary protection

Term

 

Types of acquired immunity

 

 

Natural passive

 

Memory?

Definition

 

 

 

No

Term

 

Types of acquired immunity

 

 

Natural passive

 

 

Example?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Placental passage during pregnancy or

ingestion of breast milk

Term

 

Types of acquired immunity

 

 

Artificial passive

 

Mechanism

Definition

 

 

 

Antibodies injected into person to provide temporary protection or minimize severity of infection

 

Term

 

Types of acquired immunity

 

 

Artificial passive

 

Memory?

Definition

 

 

 

 

No

Term

 

Types of acquired immunity

 

 

Artificial passive

 

Example?

Definition

 

 

 

Gammaglobulin if recent exposure to microbe

Term

 

Types of Hypersensitivities

 

Type I

 

example

Definition

 

 

 

hay fever;

anaphylaxis

Term

 

Types of Hypersensitivities

 

Type I

 

Mechanism

Definition

 

 

 

IgE bound to mast cells

release of histamine and chemical mediators

Term

 

Types of Hypersensitivities

 

Type I

 

Effects

Definition

 

 

 

Immediate inflammation and pruritus

Term

 

Types of Hypersensitivities

 

Type II

 

Example

Definition

 

 

 

ABO blood incompatibility

Term

 

Types of Hypersensitivities

 

Type II

 

Mechanism

Definition

 

 

 

IgG or IgM reacts with antigen on cell

complement activiated

Term

 

Types of Hypersensitivities

 

Type II

 

Effects

Definition

 

 

 

 

Cell lysis and phagocytosis

Term

 

Types of Hypersensitivities

 

Type III

 

 

Example

Definition

 

 

 

 

Autoimmune disorders:

SLE, Glomerulonephritis

Term

 

Types of Hypersensitivities

 

Type III

 

Mechanism

Definition

 

 

 

 

Antigen-antibody complex deposits in tissue

complement activated

Term

 

Types of Hypersensitivities

 

Type III

 

 

Effects

Definition

 

 

 

Inflammation, vasculitis

Term

 

Types of Hypersensitivities

 

Type IV

 

Example

Definition

 

 

 

 

Contact dermatitis:

transplant rejection

Term

 

Types of Hypersensitivities

 

Type IV

 

Mechanism

Definition

 

 

 

Antigen binds to T-lymphocyte

sensitized lymphocyte releases lymphokines

Term

 

Types of Hypersensitivities

 

Type IV

 

Effects

Definition

 

 

 

Delayed inflammation

Term

 

 

 

 

How do you diagnose

Systemic lupus erythematosus

 

Definition

 

 

 

ANA titer

Term

 

 

 

 

What dose ANA stand for?

Definition

 

 

 

 

antinuclear antibodies

Term

 

 

 

What are three treatments for

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Definition

 

 

 

Steroids

glucocorticoid-reduce inflammation

NSAIDs

Term

 

 

 

 

What is ESR?

Definition

 

 

 

erythocyte sedimentation rate

Term

 

 

 

 

What dose a high

erythocyte sedimentation rate indicate?

Definition

 

 

 

 

inflammation

Term

 

 

 

Where would you find a large number of autoantibodies be found in Systemic lupus erythematosus

Definition

 

 

 

 

Large # of autoantibodies againset DNA, platelets, RBC, antinuclear antibodies

Term

 

 

 

 

What tissue are the immune complexes deposited in Systemic lupus erythematosus

Definition

 

 

 

 

Connective

Term

 

 

 

 

What dose activateing complement after immune complexes deposited in Systemic lupus erythematosus do?

Definition

 

 

 

 

causes inflammation and necrosis

Term

 

 

 

 

What 5 organs become inflamed in Systemic lupus erythematosus

Definition

 

 

kidneys

lungs

heart

skin

joints

Term

 

 

 

 

What is Primary immunodeficiency?

Definition

 

 

 

 

involves basic developmental failure

usually genetic

Term

 

 

 

 

 What is secondary immunodeficiency?

Definition

 

 

 

 

due to specific cause ie infection-viral, spleenectomy, malnutrition, radiation, drug treatment-prednisone

Term

 

 

 

 

Name two opportunistic infections associated with immunodeficieny?

Definition

 

 

 

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

and tuberculosis

Term

 

 

 

Which cells dose the HIV  virus destroy?

Definition

 

 

 

 

T cells (CD4) and

T-helper lymphocytes

Term

 

 

 

 

Transmission of HIV

Definition

 

 

 

IV drug users

multiple sex partners

unprotected sex

Term

 

 

 

Diagnosis of HIV

Definition

 

 

 

Blood test

ELISA blood test

 

Term

 

 

 

 

What dose a CD-4 count of less than 499 an indicator of?

Definition

 

 

 

 

AIDS

Term

 

 

 

 

Antigen

Definition

 

 

 

 

Immunogen, considered foreign material by the body, also called pathogens

Term

 

 

 

 

Neutrophil

Definition

 

 

 

 

WBC, phagocytic, non specific defense, 1st on scene during inflammation

Term

 

 

 

 

Basophil

Definition

 

 

 

 

WBC, releases histamine in anaphylaxis

Term

 

 

 

 

Monocytes

Definition

 

 

 

 

WBC,

Term

 

 

 

 

Eosinophil

Definition

 

 

 

 

WBC, see with allergic reactions

Term

 

 

 

 

Macrophage

Definition

 

 

 

 

WBC, Phagocytic, engulfs antigens and presents to lymphocytes for the immune response to begin

Term

 

 

 

 

Antibody

immunoglobulin are also antibodies

Definition

 

 

 

 

Specific protein produced in humoral response to bind with antigens

Term

 

 

 

 

complement

Definition

 

 

 

 

Is a group of inactive protiens in the circulation, when activated causes release of chemical mediators promoting inflammation, chemotaxis and phgocytosis

Term

 

 

 

 

Titer

Definition

 

 

 

 

measurement of specific antibodies to check if one antibody is circulating in the body

Term

 

 

 

 

Hemolysis

Definition

 

 

 

 

Destruction of RBC's

Term

 

 

 

 

Purritis

Definition

 

 

 

 

Itching caused by histamine release

Term

 

 

 

 

When an allergen binds with IgE antibodies on mast cells, resulting in release of chemical mediators, this reaction is called:

Definition

 

 

 

 

Type I hypersenstivity

Term

 

 

 

 

Which of the following characteristics apply to HIV?

1. it contains 2 strands of DNA

2. it tends to mutate frequently to form new strains

3. Its incubation period is extremely short

4. it is inactivated by heat and many disinfectants

Definition

 

 

 

 2, 4

Term

 

 

 

 

CD4 - positive helper T-cells funtion by:

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

facilitating all immune system activity

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Cytokines act to:

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

Activate and stimulate proliferation of B and T lymphocytes

Term

 

 

 

 

A patient experienced an episode of influenza 6 months ago.  A recent exposure to a mutated form of the same virus would result in:

Definition

 

 

 

 

Primary immune response

Term

 

 

 

 

Incompatible blood transfusions result in?

Definition

 

 

 

 

hemolysis of erythrocytes

Term

Which of the following statements is true regarding a patient who is HIV positive?

 

a. Antibodies are present, controlling the virus and preventing transmission to others at this time

 

b. No medication is required until T4 cells count drops below normal range

 

c. the patient will not show any effects of the infection for many years

 

d. antibodies in blood indicate presence of virus and possible transmission to others.

Definition

 

 

 

 

d. Antibodies in blood indicate presence of virus and possible transmission to others

Term

 

Which cells are required to process and present antigens from foreign material as the initial step in the immune response?

a. macrophages

b. T-helper cells

c. monocytes

d. eosinophils

Definition

 

 

 

 

macrophages

Term

 

 

 

 

The role of memory cells is to

Definition

 

 

 

 

Support the immune response by recognizing certain antigens

Term

 

 

 

 

Distinguished clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus include?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Inflammation in multiple organs