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Pathophysiology - Chapter 21
Chapter 21
50
Nursing
11/28/2011

Additional Nursing Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What action does hydrochlorothiazide (Hydro DIURIL) have?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

Inhibits reabsorption of Na+ and water

in distal tuble

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What use does hydrochlorothiazide (Hydro DIURIL) have?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

increase excretion of fluid in hypertension,

CHF,

edema

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What action does Furosemide (Lasix) have?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Decreases reabsorption of Na+ and water in the proximal and distal tubules and the loop of Henle

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What use does Furosemide (Lasix) have?

Definition

 

 

 

reduce body fluids in

Hypertension

CHF

edema

renal disease

liver disease

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What action does spironolactone (Aldactone) have?

Definition

 

 

 

 

blocks reabsorption of Na+ and K+ in distal tubule

Term

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What use does spironolactone (Aldactone) have?

 

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

decrease Na+ and water in body, but conserve K+ in CHF, hypertension, liver disease

Term

 

 

 

 

Why are urinary cast present with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

inflamed tubules mold RBCs and protein into a typical mass

Term

 

 

 

 

Pyelonephritis may be distinguished from cystis by the presence in pyelonephritis of?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

urinary cast and flank pain

Term

Which olf the following would likely cuase chronic renal failure?

 

a) obstruction by a renal calculus

 

b) circlatory shock

 

c) unilateral pyelonephritis

 

d) persistent glomerulonephritis

Definition

 

 

 

 

persistent glomerulonephritis

Term

 

 

 

 

What causes the dark urine associated with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

increased glomerular permeability allowing gross hematuria

Term

 

 

 

 

What would be the effect of chronic infection or inflammation of the kidneys?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

gradual necrosis, fibrosis, and development of uremia

Term

Which pathophysiologic process applies to acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis?

 

a) iscemic damage occurs in the tubules, causing obstruction and decreased GFR

b) increased glomerual permeability for unknown reasons

c) streptococcal infection affects both the glomerual and tubule functions

d) immune compleses deposit in glomerual tissue, cuasing inflammation

Definition

 

 

 

 

immune complexes deposit in glomerular issue, causing inflammation

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What indicates the early stage of acute renal failure?

Definition

 

 

 

 

very low GFR and incrased serum urea

 

 

 

 

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What is the cause of most cases of pyelonephritis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

an ascending infection by E. coli

Term

Which of the following indicate a decreased GFR?

 

a) urine with low specific gravity and dark color

 

b) albuminuria and hematuria

 

c) increased serum urea and decreased serum bicarbonate

 

d) hyponatremia and hypokaemia

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

albuminuria and hematuria

Term

 

 

 

 

Which disease is manifested by dysuria and pyruia?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Cystitis

Term

 

 

 

 

What is a BUN?

Definition

 

 

 

 

it is protien in the blood

Term

 

 

 

 

what is a normal BUN lvl?

Definition

 

 

 

 

10 - 20

Term

 

 

 

 

What lab is the gold standered for kidney functioning?

Definition

 

 

 

 

creatinine

Term

 

 

 

 

what is Pyleonephritis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

infection of kidney medulla or cortex

Term

 

 

 

 

How do you get pyleonephritis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

by E-coli ascending the urinary tract ending up in the kidney

Term

 

 

 

 

What are some causes of pyleonephritis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

pregnacy

placement of urinary catheters

urinary tract obstruction

neurogenic bladder

Term

 

 

 

 

Clinical manifestations for pyleonephritis

Definition

 

 

 

 

fever

chills

flank pain

Term

 

 

 

 

What two things would you use to determin the diagnosis of pyleonephritis

Definition

 

 

 

 

UA

urine culture

Term

 

 

 

 

What would show up in a urin culture to determin pyleonephritis

Definition

 

 

 

 

E-coli

Term

 

 

 

 

What would show up in a UA to determin pyleonephritis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

WBC casts

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What does a WBC cast reflect?

Definition

 

 

 

 

damage to renal tubules

Term

 

 

 

 

What are the s/s of pyleonephritis that indicate an infection?

Definition

 

 

 

pyuria

bacteriuria

dysuria

frequency

urgency

Term

 

 

 

 

How do you tell if there is kidny involvement with pyleonephritis?

Definition

 

 

 

urinary cast

flank pain

more severe fever

leukocytosis

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What bacteria is involved with pyleonephritis?

 

Definition

 

 

 

 

E-coli

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What bacteria is involved with glomerulonephritis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

streptococcus Beta hemolytic

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Where does streptococcus Beta hemolytic A originate from?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

strep throat

Term

 

 

 

 

What happens after the immune response is initated by strep that leads to glomerulonephritis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

damages the basement membrane of the kidneys

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What kind of immune resonse happens with the inflammatory cells in glomerulonephritis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Type 3

Term

 

 

 

 

Where does the damage ocurr in the kidney during glomerulonephritis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

glomerular wall

Term

 

 

 

 

What is the significance of the damage to the glomerular wall?

Definition

 

 

 

 

makes them more permeable

Term

 

 

 

 

 

what is the effect of corticosteriods in glomerulonephritis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

to treat the immune based pathologic process

Term

Types of stones

 

 

 

 

calcium

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

when Ca lvls in urine are high from hypercalcemia or inadequate fluid intake.

Term

Types of stones

 

 

 

uric acid stones

Definition

 

 

 

 

end product of metabolism or

high purine diet

Term

Types of stones

 

 

 

 

Oxalate

Definition

 

 

 

 

from certain vegetarian diets

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What is the difference between ARF and CRF?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

time

Term

ARF

 

 

 

 

Prerenal

Definition

 

 

 

 

before do to hypertention

Term

ARF

 

 

 

 

Intrarental

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

inside - poly & glumerulonephritis

Term

ARF

 

 

 

 

Postenal

Definition

 

 

 

 

after - kidney stones

Term

 

 

 

 

 

List the two s/s not assosiated with BUN for ARF

Definition

 

 

 

 

Oliguria

 

Anuria

Term

 

 

 

 

name the two s/s in ARF that are assosiated with BUN

Definition

 

 

 

 

Azotemia

 

Uremia

Term

 

 

 

 

name two drugs that can cause Prerenal ARF

Definition

 

 

 

 

captoprial

 

lisinopril

Term

 

 

 

 

 

list 5 common causes of prerenal ARF

Definition

 

Shock

 

trauma

 

sepsis

 

hemorrhage

 

dehydration

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What is the most common cause of intrarenal ARF?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

ATN (acute tubular necrosis)

Term

 

 

 

 

Most common cause of postrenal ARF?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Obstruction