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Pathophysiology - Chapter 19
Chapter 19
97
Nursing
10/26/2011

Additional Nursing Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Surfactant

Definition

 

 

 

 

Detergent action that reduces surface tenstion, facilitaties inspiration and prevents total collapse of alveoli during expiration

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Inspiration

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

movement of air into the lungs

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Expiration

Definition

 

 

 

 

movement out of the lungs

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Compliance

Definition

 

 

 

 

Ability of lungs to expand

Term

 

 

 

 

Dead space

Definition

 

 

 

 

areas where gas exchange dose not take place

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Hypoxia

Definition

 

 

 

 

Decreased tissue oxygenation

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Hypoxemia

Definition

 

 

 

 

Deficient blood O2 as measured by low arterial O2 in arterial blood gases and low hemoglobulin saturation

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Hypercapnia

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

Increase CO2 in blood

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Eupnea

Definition

 

 

 

 

Normal breathing patteren

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Tachypnea

Definition

 

 

 

 

rapid breathing

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Bradypenea

Definition

 

 

 

 

slow breathing

Term

 

 

 

 

 

apnea

Definition

 

 

 

 

no breathing

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Kussmauls respirations

Definition

 

 

 

 

deep regular sighing respirations

with rapid breathing

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Cheyne Stokes

Definition

 

 

 

 

Periodic breathing with apnea,

usually signs of imminent death

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Stridor

Definition

 

 

 

 

high pitched crowing sounds

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Rales

Definition

 

 

 

 

light bubbly crackling sounds

associated with serous secretions

Term

 

 

 

 

 

 Rhonchi

Definition

 

 

 

 

deep harsher sounds associated with thick mucous

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

Definition

 

 

 

 

acute respiration associated with Lt CHF,

occurs during sleep when lying down

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Cyanosis

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

Bluish coloring of skin and mucous membranes

Term

 

 

 

 

 

hemoptysis

Definition

 

 

 

 

bright red streaks of blood in frothy sputum

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Orthopnea

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

difficulty breathing in a recumbent position

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What is the causes of chronic bronchitis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

chronic irritation, inflammation, and

infection of the larger airways

Term

 

With a tension pneumothorax, which factors contribute to severe hypoxia?

 

1. increasing compression of the inferior vena cava

2. more air leaving the pleural cavity on expiration that enters with inspiration.

3. Shift of the mediastinal contents towards the affected lung

4. Continually increasing pressure on teh unaffected lung

Definition

 

 

 

 

1, 4

Term

 

 

Which factors contribute to postoperative atelectasis?

 

1. decreased secretions in the airways

2. drug-related respiratory depression

3. abdminal distention and pain

4. deep breathing and coughing

Definition

 

 

 

 

2, 3

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Why does oxygen diffuse from the alveoli to the blood?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

Po2 is lower in the blood

Term

Select the statement related to tuberculosis:

 

a. the microbe is an acid-fast bacillus, resistant to many disinfectants

b. the infection is transmitted primarily by blood from an infected person

c. the microbe is present in the sputum of all patients with a positive TB skin test

d. the microbe is quickly distroyed by the immune response

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

a.

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What is the common soruce of a pulmonary embolus?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Thrombus froming in the femoral veins

Term

Choose the correct reason for severe hyposia occuring with pulmonary edema:

 

a. fluid in the pleural cavity prevents normal lung expansion

b. diffusion of oxygen into the pulmonary capillaries is impaired

c. increased concentration of CO2 impairs diffusion of O2

d. increased blood flow through the lungs prevents diffusion of gases

Definition

 

 

 

 

B.

Term

 

 

 

 

Which manifestation(s) of atelectasis is/are associated with airway obstruction?

Definition

 

 

 

 

decreased breath sounds on the affected side

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What confirms the presence of active (reinfection) tuberculosis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

identification of acid-fast bacilli in a sputum sample

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What causes the expanded A-P thoracic (barrel chest) in patients with emphysema?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Air trapping and hyperinflation

Term

 

 

 

 

The basic pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis is considered to be?

Definition

 

 

 

 

an abnormality of the exocrine glands

Term

During an acute asthma attack, why does respiratory obstruction occur?

 

1. relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle

 

2. edema of the mucosa

 

3. increased sectreation of thick, tenacious mucus

 

4. contraction of the elastic fibers

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

2, 3

Term

Which of the following are typical of chronic bronchitis?

 

a. formation of blebs or bullae on the lung surface

 

b. decreased activity of the mucous glands

 

c. overinflation of bronchioles and alveoli

 

d. fibrosis of the bronchial wall

Definition

 

 

 

 

d.

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What would result from hyperventilation?

Definition

 

 

 

 

respiratory alkalosis

Term

Which of the folliwing is typical of progressive emphysema?

 

a. residual lung volume increases

 

b. tidal volume increases

 

c. Vital copacity increases

 

d. Forced expiratory volume increases

Definition

 

 

 

 

A.

Term

 

 

Persistent thick mucus in the bronchioles of a child with cystic fibrosis may cause:

 

1. air trapping

2. atelectaisis

3. repeated infections

4. irreversible damage to tissue

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

all of them

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What is the basis for acute attacks of extrinsic asthma?

Definition

 

 

 

 

type 1 hypersensitivity reaction

Term

 

 

 

 

 

In which form is carbon dioxide primarily transported in the blood?

Definition

 

 

 

 

as bicarbonate ion

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Why does severe hypoxia develop with pneumonia?

Definition

 

 

 

 

oxygen diffusion is impaired by the congestion

Term

Which of the folliwing drugs in an inhaler would likely be careed by individuals to provide immediate control of acute asthema attacks?

 

a. a glucocorticoid

b. cromolyn

c. a beta- 2= adrenergic agent

d. epinephrine

Definition

 

 

 

 

c

Term
Definition
Term

 

 

 

 

 

Yellow-green-cloudy sputum

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

bacterial infection

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Rusty or dark sputum

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

associated with pneumonia

Term

 

 

 

 

Purulent (pus) sputum with a foul odor

Definition

 

 

 

 

bronchiectasis

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Thick tenacious sputum

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

in people with asthma or

cystic fibrosis

Term

 

 

 

 

Hemoptysis sputum

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

blood tinged

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Glucocorticoids

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

anti-inflammatory

antiallergic

Term

 

 

 

 

 

examples of glucocorticoids

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

beclomethasone (inhaler)

prednisone (oral)

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Bronchodilators

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

stimulate beta-2 adrenergic receptors

to open bronchioles

Term

 

 

 

 

 

example of bronchodilators

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

theophylline (oral)

 

Term

 

 

 

 

 

 

analgesics

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

reduce pain

Term

 

 

 

 

 

examples of analgesics

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

acetaminophen

codeine

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Antitussives

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

reduce cough reflex

Term

 

 

 

 

 

example of antitussives

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

codeine,

dextromethorphan (DM)

Term

 

 

 

 

 

expectorants

Definition

 

 

 

 

thin respiratory secretions for easier removal

Term

 

 

 

 

 

 an exmple of expectorant

Definition

 

 

 

 

guaifenesin

Term

 

 

 

 

 

decongestant

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

vasoconstriction in nasal mucosa,

reduce edema

Term

 

 

 

 

 

An example of decongestant

Definition

 

 

 

 

pseudoephedrine

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What is oxygen treatment is for?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

to improve oxygen supply to all body cells

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What is chest physiotherapy for?

Definition

 

 

 

 

remove thick secretions and reduce infections

Term

 

 

 

 

Cystic fibrosis in the lungs causes 3 things,

what are they?

Definition

 

 

Obstruction of airways and frequent infections

 

Fibrosis

 

cor pulmonale

Term

 

 

 

 

Cystic Fibrosis in the digestive tract does two things,

what are they?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Obstruction of pancreatic duckts

 

obstruction of bile ducts in liver

Term

 

 

 

 

Obstuction of both the pancreatic and bile ducts in liver do to cystic fibrosis do what?

Definition

 

 

 

 

cause malabsorption

malnutrition

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Definition
Term

 

 

 

 

In cystic fibrosis, obstruction of the pancreatic duct leads to two things.

 

What are they?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Fibrosis

 

diabetes mellitus

Term

 

 

 

 

 

In cystic fibrosis, obstruction of the bile duct leads to?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

bilary cirrhosis

Term

 

 

 

 

In cystic fibrosis, the reproductive tract has two things happen to it.

 

What are they?

Definition

 

 

 

 

obstruction of vas deferens

 

cervical mucus

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What is the end result from cystic fibrosis effect on the reproductive tract?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

infertility

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Cysitc Fibrosis in the sweat glands will do thee things.

 

What are they?

Definition

 

 

 

Excess Na+ and Cl- content

 

electrolyte imbalance 

 

dehydration

Term

 

 

 

 

Etiology of emphysema

Definition

 

 

 

 

smoking

genetic

Term
Definition
Term

 

 

 

 

Etiology of Chronic Bronchitis

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

smoking,

 

air pollution

Term

 

 

 

 

Etiology of Astma - acute

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

hypersensitivity type I

 

hyperresponsive tissue

Term

 

 

 

 

Location of emphysema

Definition

 

 

 

 

alveoli

Term

 

 

 

 

Locaton of chronic bronchitis

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

bronchi

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Locatoin of Asthema- acute

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

small bronchi

bronchioles

Term

 

 

 

 

Pahtophysiology of emphysema

Definition

 

 

destruction of alveolar walls

 

loss of elasticity

 

imparied expiration, Barrel chest

 

hyperinflation

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Pahtophysiology of chronich bronchitis

Definition

 

 

increased mucous glands and secretion

 

inflammation

 

infection

 

obstruction

Term

 

 

 

 

Pahtophysiology of Asthma-Acute

Definition

 

inflammation

 

broncho-constriction

 

increased mucus produced

 

obstruciton

 

repeat attacks lead to damage

Term

 

 

 

 

Is there caugh or dyspnea in emphysema?

Definition

 

 

 

 

some coughing

 

marked dyspnea

Term

 

 

 

 

Is there caugh or dyspnea in chronic bronchitis

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

early, constant cough

 

some dyspnea

Term

 

 

 

 

Is there caugh or dyspnea in Asthma-Acute

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

cough and dyspnea

 

wheezing

Term

 

 

 

 

Is there sputum in emphysema?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

no

Term

 

 

 

 

Is there sputum in chronic bronchitis

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

large amount, purulent

Term

 

 

 

 

Is there sputum in Asthema - Acute

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

Thick

 

tenacious mucus

Term

 

 

 

 

Is there cyanosis in emphysema?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

no

Term

 

 

 

 

Is there cyanosis in chronic bronchitis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

yes

Term

 

 

 

 

Is there cyanosis in asthma- acute

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

yes if status asthmaticus

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Are there infections in emphysema and asthema?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

some

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Are there infections in chronic bronchitis?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

yes

Term

 

 

 

 

 

is there Cor Pulmonale in emphysemia

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

perhaps late

Term

 

 

 

 

 

is there Cor Pulmonale in chronic bronchitis

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

common

Term

 

 

 

 

 

is there Cor Pulmonale in asthma-acute

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

rare

Term

 

 

 

 

tidal valume is how much?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

500 mL

Term

 

 

 

 

 

Vital capacity is how much?

Definition

 

 

 

 

4600 mL

Term

 

 

 

 

 

total lung capacity is how much?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

5800 mL