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Patho Test #2
Neurological System
69
Pathology
01/19/2012

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Term
One function of the somatic nervous system that is not performed by the autonomic nervous system is conduction of impulses:
Definition
c. to skeletal muscles
Term
A neuron with a single dendrite at one end of the cell and a single axon at the other end of the cell body would be classified as:
Definition
d. bipolar
Term
Neurons that carry impulses away from from the CNS are called:
Definition
c. efferent neurons
Term
Neurons are specialized for the conduction of impulses, whereas neuroglia:
Definition
a. support nerve tissue
Term
There is one-way conduction at a synapse because:
Definition
c. only the presynaptic neuron contains neurotransmitters
Term
Which contains the thalamus and hypothalamus?
Definition
a. diencephalon
Term
Which is not a protective covering of the CNS?
Definition
a. cauda equine
Term
The compostion of cerebrospinal fluid is:
Definition
c. a plama-like liquid with glucose, salts, and proteins.
Term
An autonomic ganglion can be described as:
Definition
a. the site of synapse between visceral efferent neurons.
Term
Endorphines:
Definition
b. decrease pain sensations
Term
Referred pain from upper abdominal diseases involves:
Definition
c. T8, L1, and L2
Term
In the gate control theory of pain:
Definition
b. stimulation of large A fibers "closes the gate"
Term
Which is not a neuromodulator of pain?
Definition
e. heparin
Term
Increased serum levels of epinephrine increase the body temperature by:
Definition
c. increasing heat production
Term
In heatstroke:
Definition
c. core temperature increases as the regulatory center fails.
Term
In hypothermia:
Definition
b. acidosis can develop
Term
Although non-REM and REM sleep are defined by electrical recordings, they are characterized by physiologic events. Which does NOT occur?
Definition
d. during non-REM, levels of corticosteroids increase.
Term
Meniere disease:
Definition
b. disrupts both vestibular and hearing functions
Term
Acute otitis media (AOM):
Definition
b. displays a tympanic membrane progressing from erythema to opaqueness with bulging.
Term
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD):
Definition
c. exhibits retinal detachment and loss of photoreceptors.
Term
Vestibular nystagmus:
Definition
a. is the constant, involuntary movement of the eyeball caused by ear disturbances.
Term
Supratentorial processes reduce arousal by:
Definition
b. displacement of the brain stem.
Term
An individual shows flexion in upper extremities and extension in lower extremeties. This is:
Definition
a. decorticate posturing
Term
Cerebral death:
Definition
b. permits normal internal homeostasis
Term
Precipitating causes of seizures include all of the following EXCEPT:
Definition
c. hyperglycemia
Term
Which epileptic seizure is characterized by temporal lobe spikes in the EEG?
Definition
e. psychomotor
Term
Postictal sleeping can be seen in _____ seizures.
Definition
d. grand mal
Term
Alzheimer disease:
Definition
b. is most prevalent as a late-onset dementia
Term
Dystonia:
Definition
a. abnormal posture maintained by muscular contractions.
Term
An individual with increased intracranial pressure from a head injury shows small and reactive pupils, widened pulse pressure, and slowed breathing. Which stage of ICP exists?
Definition
c. Stage 3
Term
Infratentorial herniation occurs with:
Definition
c. shifting of the cerebellum
Term
In cerebral vasogenic edema:
Definition
c. plasma proteins leak into extracellular spaces
Term
Which statement is NOT true regarding increasing intracellular pressure?
Definition
a. Accumulating CO2 causes vasoconstriction
Term
In blunt head trauma:
Definition
b. only local injury occurs
Term
In an automobile accident, an individual's forehead struck the windshield. The coup/contrecoup injury would be in the:
Definition
d. occipital/frontal region
Term
Most spinal cord injuries occur in the:
Definition
b. cervical and lumbar injuries
Term
Injury of the cervical cord may be life threatening because of:
Definition
e. diaphragmatic impairment
Term
Autonomic hyperreflexia is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
Definition
a. hypotension
Term
Intervetebral disk herniation:
Definition
b. in the lumbosacral area causes pain over the gluteal region and into the calf or ankle.
Term
Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) are:
Definition
c. focal neurologic deficits that develop suddenly.
Term
Which most typically characterizes the victims of a cerebral embolic stroke?
Definition
middle-aged individuals with a history of heart disease
Term
Ruptured aneurysms are most likely in ____ cerebrovascular accidents.
Definition
d. hemorrhagic
Term
Which is NOT a primary intracerebral neoplasm?
Definition
b. meningioma
Term
In bacterial meningitis, the CSF has:
Definition
c. neutrophilic infiltration
Term
Multiple sclerosis involves:
Definition
b. activation of the syncytin gene
Term
In a complete fracture:
Definition
a. the fracture crosses or involves the entire width or thickness of the bone.
Term
In an oblique fracture, the energy or force is:
Definition
b. compressive and at an angle
Term
Which is a definite sign of a fracture?
Definition
d. unnatural alignment
Term
The most common cause of osteomyelitis is:
Definition
c. direct contamination of an open wound.
Term
Osteoporosis pathogenesis involves:
Definition
c. alteration in the OPG/RANKL/RANK system
Term
Bone tumors may originate from all of the following EXCEPT:
Definition
a. epithelial tissue
Term
In benign bone tumors, there is:
Definition
a. a uniform and well-defined lytic area
Term
An osteosarcoma is a(n):
Definition
e. osteogenic, malignant tumor
Term
A major symptom of bone cancer is a:
Definition
b. persistant pain that worsens at night.
Term
Giant cell tumors:
Definition
d. have high recurrence rates
Term
Rheumatoid arthritis begins with:
Definition
a. destruction of the synovial membrane and subsynovial tissue.
Term
A muscle contracture is:
Definition
b. muscle shortening possible because of CNS injury.
Term
Myotonia is all of the folling EXCEPT:
Definition
d. unresponsiveness to neural stimulation.
Term
Myotonia is all of the folling EXCEPT:
Definition
d. unresponsiveness to neural stimulation.
Term
Which of the following best describes successive, rapid, impulses received from a single neuron on the same synapse?
Definition
A. Temporal Summation
Term
Which of the following is invloved in pain transmission?
Definition
b. Substancia gelatinosa
Term
Which of the following is responsible for structural support within a cell?
Definition
c. microfilaments
Term
Which of the following is NOT a part of the meninges surrounding the brain?
Definition
b. Anterior Fossa
Term
Which of the following is TRUE regarding the cerebellum?
Definition
B. Maintains balance and posture
Term
Which of the following is NOT a classification of acute pain?
Definition
b. Pleuritic
Term
What is the appropriate definition of perceptual dominance?
Definition
b. pain at one location that may cause an increase in threshold at another location.
Term
Which of the following is TRUE regarding the specificity theory of pain?
Definition
c. relates the amount of pain to the amount of soft tissure injury.
Term
Which two systems regulate the complex emotional responses to pain?
Definition
b. Limbic and reticular system
Term
Which term describes a patient who is experiencing a loss of comprehension or production of language?
Definition
A. Dysphasia