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Patho final exam
FINAL
245
Pathology
04/23/2013

Additional Pathology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

 

 

 

Muscular Atrophy

Definition

 

 

 

involves the decrease in muscle size

Term

 

 

 

Living cells are divided into...

Definition

 

 

 

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Term

 

 

What will happen to muscle cells as workload increases?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Cardiac myocardial cells will increase in size

Term

 

 

 

 

Metaplasia

Definition

 

 

 

Reversible replacement of one mature cell type for another

Term

 

 

 

Compensatory hyperplasia

Definition

 

 

 

 

adaptive mechanism that enables certain organs to regenerate

Term

 

 

 

Electrolytes

Definition

 

 

 

electrically charged molecules

Term

 

 

 

Major functions of connective tissue

Definition

 

 

 

support and binding

Term

 

 

 

Irreversible cellular injury is usually due to:

Definition

 

 

 

Increased intracellular calcium

Term

 

 

 

Gas Gangrene

Definition

 

 

 

special type of gangrene caused by infection of injured tissue by Clostridium 

Term

 

 

 

Rigor mortis

Definition

 

 

 

Muscular stiffening that occurs within 6-14 hours after death

Term

 

 

 

An 86 year old female patient has the wasting syndrome of aging, making her vulnerable to falls, funcional decline, disease, and death.  What does the nurse know?

Definition

 

 

 

This patient is experiencing frailty

Term

 

 

 

What confirms somatic death?

Definition

 

 

 

Complete cessation of respiration and circulation

Term

 

 

 

Hypertrophy

Definition

 

 

 

commonly seen in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue

Term
Definition
Term

 

 

 

Inherent maximum life span of humans

Definition

 

 

 

 

80-100 years

Term

 

 

 

Basic components of DNA

Definition

 

 

 

 

phosphate molecule, deoxyribose, and four nitrogenous bases

Term

 

 

 

Nondisjuction

Definition

 

 

 

is when homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis

Term

 

 

 

 

Partial trisomy

Definition

 

 

 

is a condition in which an extra portion of a chromosome is present in each cell

Term

 

 

 

 

Maternal translocations

Definition

 

 

 

The most common cause of Down syndrome

Term

 

 

 

Down syndrome is a trisomy and not due to...

Definition

 

 

 

 

Fetal exposure

Term

 

 

 

A 13 year old has a karyotype that reveals an absent homologous X chromosome with only a single X chromosome present.  What will the nurse observe on the chart?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Turner syndrome

Term

 

 

 

Individuals with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome have what syndrome?

Definition

 

 

 

Klinefelter's syndrome

Term

 

 

 

A person with severe mental retardation caused by a deletion of a part of chromosome 5 has what syndrome?

Definition

 

 

 

Cri du chat syndrome

Term

 

 

 

Cystic fibrosis is causes by what?

Definition

 

 

 

an autosomal recessive gene

Term

 

 

 

What can contribute to variations in traits?

Definition

 

 

 

Both genes and environment

Term

 

 

 

Where is blood plasma located?

Definition

 

 

 

intravascular fluid comparments

 

 

 

Term

 

 

 

A 35 year old male weighs 70 kg.  How much is intracellular fluid?

Definition

 

 

 

42 L 

Term

 

 

 

Osmotic forces...

Definition

 

 

 

determine water movement between the intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid compartments.

Term

 

 

 

Water balance is closely related to...

Definition

 

 

 

Sodium balance

Term

 

 

 

What does the secrection of aldosterone result in?

Definition

 

 

 

increased blood volume

Term

 

 

 

Natriuretic hormones disrupt the balance of...

Definition

 

 

 

Sodium

Term

 

 

 

Dehydration leads to hypernatremia because...

Definition

 

 

 

an increase in sodium occurs with a net loss in water.

Term

 

 

 

The most common cause of pure water deficit is...

Definition

 

 

renal water loss

Term

 

 

 

Hyperkalemia causes...

Definition

 

 

 

an increase in resting membrane potential with an increased excitability of cardiac muscle

Term

 

 

 

Acute acidosis can cause...

Definition

 

 

 

hyperkalemia

Term

 

 

 

Primary hyperaldosteronism can cause...

Definition

 

 

 

 

hypokalemia

Term

 

 

 

Physiologic pH is maintained around 7.4 because...

Definition

 

 

 

carbonic acid and bicarbonate exist in a ratio of 20:1

Term

 

 

Excessive loss of chloride causes...

Definition

 

 

 

one to be most prone to metabolic alkalosis

Term

 

 

 

Renal failure is present when...

Definition

 

 

 

hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis are also present

Term

 

 

A 54 year old male with a long history of smoking complains of excessive tiredness, shortness of breath, and overall ill feelings.  Lab results reveal decreased pH, increased CO2, and normal bicarbonateion.  These finding help to confirm the diagnosis of...

Definition

 

 

 

 

respiratory acidosis

Term

 

 

 

When blood tests reveal an elevated pH, decreased PCO2, and slightly decreased HCO3...

Definition

 

 

 

respiratory alkalosis with renal compensation is the most likely diagnosis

Term

 

 

 

Elevated levels of natruiretic peptides involve...

Definition

 

 

 

the heart

Term

 

 

 

Innate immunity is gained...

Definition

 

 

 

at birth

Term

 

 

The pain assiciated with an injury is related to..

Definition

 

 

kinins and prostaglandins

Term

 

 

 

Margination occurs when...

Definition

 

 

 

phagocytes begin to stick avidly to capillary walls

Term

 

 

 

During inflammation, the liver in stimulated to release plasma proteins, collectively known as...

Definition

 

 

 

 

acute phase reactants

Term

 

 

 

An ascorbic acid deficiency could directly affect...

Definition

 

 

 

healing

Term

 

 

 

Antigens are responsible for initiatin...

Definition

 

 

 

clonal selection

Term

 

 

 

When the immunoglobulins crosses the placenta, the fetus recieves....

Definition

 

 

 

passive immunity

Term

 

 

 

The most abundant class of antibody in the serum is...

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

IgG

Term

 

 

 

The primary role of IgA1 is...

Definition

 

 

 

 

to prevent infections in the blood

Term

 

 

 

What tests are used to best determine immunity?

Definition

 

 

 

titer

Term

 

 

 

Where are pure monoclonal antibodies produced?

 

Definition

 

 

 

Laboratories

Term

 

 

 

Cytotoxic cells sould be...

Definition

 

 

 

isolated

Term

 

 

 

To prevent rabies infection after being bitten by a rabid dog what should be administered?

Definition

 

 

immune globulin

Term

 

 

 

Active immunity occurs...

Definition

 

 

 

after either natural exposure to an antigen or after immunization

Term

 

 

 

A 20 year old male shoots his hand with a nail gun while replacing roofing shingles.  _________ would be the first to aid in killing bacteria to prevent infection in his hand.

Definition

 

 

 

 

Neutrophils

Term

 

 

 

Hypersensitivity can best be defined as: 

Definition

 

 

 

a response of the immune system to a sensitizing antigen

Term

 

 

 

When the maternal immune system becomes sesitized against antigens expressed by the fetus, an...

Definition

 

 

 

alloimmune reaction occurs

Term

 

 

 

Seasonal allergic rhinitis is expressed through...

Definition

 

 

 

IgE-mediated reactions

Term

 

 

A 10 year old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard.  He begins itching and develops pain, swelling, redness, and respiratory difficulties.  He is suffering from ___________.

Definition

 

 

 

Anaphyaxsis

Term

 

 

 

Edema is a common response to when _____ is released in the body.

Definition

 

 

 

Histamine

Term

 

 

 

________ hypersensitivity reactions involve an antibody response. 

Definition

 

 

 

 

Type IV

Term

 

 

 

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an example of ___________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

an autoimmune disease

Term

 

 


An example of an immune-complex-mediated disease is ____________.

Definition

 

 

 

Serum sickness

Term

 

 

 

____________________ bacteria produce endotoxins. 

Definition

 

 

 

Gram negative

Term

 

 

 

________ replicate their genetic material inside host cells. 

Definition

 

 

 

Viruses

Term

 

 

 

Fungi causing deep or systemic infections are commonly _____________.

Definition

 

 

 

Opportunistic

Term

 

 

 

Most viral vaccines contain_________.

Definition

 

 

 

Attenuated viruses

Term

 

 

 

Most bacterial vaccines contain ____________.

Definition

 

 

 

Dead bacteria

Term

 

 

 

Bacteria become resistant to antimicrobials by _________.

Definition

 

 

 

mutations

Term

 

 

Bacteria become resistant to antimicrobials by ________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

Mutations

Term

 

 

 

Infectivity allows pathogens to.....

Definition

 

 

 

invade and multiply in the host

Term

 

 

 

A tumor that arises from or forms ductal or glandular structures is named ________________.

Definition

 

 

 

Adenocarcinoma

Term
Definition
Term

 

 

 

When a cancer cell loses differentiation it is called _______.

Definition

 

 

 

 

Anaplasia

Term

 

 

 

In cancer, angiogenic factors stimulate _______________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

new blood vessel growth

Term

 

 

 

_________________ are the most common genetic lesions that cause cancer. 

Definition

 

 

 

Point mutations

Term

 

 

 

The most common route of metastasis is through the blood vessels and ___________.

Definition

 

 

 

Lymphatics

Term

 

 

 

The most important environmental factor for cancer is __________________.

Definition

 

 

 

exposure to cigarette smoke.

Term

 

 

 

An organism's developement is contigent on its environment is called ____________________.

Definition

 

 

 

Developmental plasticity

Term

 

 

 

Chromosome aberrations and mutations in cells that were not directly irradiated are reffered to as ______________.

Definition

 

 

bystander effects

Term

 

 

Physical activity was shown to reduce _____________.

Definition

 

 

 

Colon cancer

Term

 

 

 

_____________ is likely to develop seondary to occupational hazards.  

Definition

 

 

 

Mesothelioma

Term

 

 

A person with a light complexion, light eyes, and fair hair, is at greater risk for ____________________.

Definition

 

 

 

basal cell carcinoma

Term

 

 

The most common malignancy that occurs in children is ____________.

Definition

 

 

 

leukemia

Term

 

 

The most common tissue type of cancer occurring after adolescence is ___________.

Definition

 

 

 

Carcinoma

Term

 

 

 

The role of physical activity in the prevention of colon cancer is identified by _________________________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

increasing guy motility thereby decreasing the time the bowel is exposed to mutations. 

Term
Definition
Term

 

 

 

Radiation induces genomic instability by _______________________.

Definition

 

 

 

facilitating new mutations.

Term

 

 

_________________ is controlled by somatic nerves.

Definition

 

 

 

Skeletal muscle

Term

 

 

 

An increase in intracranial pressure can result in ___________________.

Definition

 

 

 

brain tissue hypoxia

Term

 

 

 

After suffering a closed head injurt and all four extremities are in rigid extension, the forearm is hyperpronated, and the legs are in plantar extension.  This is considered _______________.

Definition

 

 

 

decerebate posturing

Term

 

 

 

The region responsible for the motor aspects of speech is _________________.

Definition

 

 

Broca's area

Term

 

 

 

The primary visual cortex in the brain is located in the ______________.

Definition

 

 

 

occipital lobe.

Term

 

 

 

The __________ maintains homeostasis, body temperature, and instictive behavioral patterns.

Definition

 

 

 

hypothalamus

Term

 

 

 

Paralysis of both legs is _________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

paraplegia

Term

 

 

 

_______ pain is when the pain has laster longer than 3-6 months. 

Definition

 

 

 

Chronic 

Term

 

 

 

A vegetative state is ______________ with the cerebellum.

Definition

 

 

 

 

not associated

Term

 

 

 

Breathing that is sustained, dep, rapid, but a regular pattern of breathing is considered ____________.

Definition

 

 

 

central neurogenic hyperventalation. 

Term

 

 

 

Brain death is defined as ______________.

Definition

 

 

 

cessation of brain function

Term

 

 

 

When thought content and arousal level are intact but a patient cannot communicate, the patient has ____________________.

Definition

 

 

 

locked in syndrome

Term

 

 

 

A ______ may be referred to as an explosive, disorderly discharge of cerebral neurons. 

Definition

 

 

 

seizure

Term

 

 

 

An _____ is used to describe a peculiar sensation that immediately precedes a seizure.

Definition

 

 

 

aura

Term

 

 

 

________ is characterized by loss of recent and remote memory.

Definition

 

 

 

Dementia

Term

 

 

A ________ is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. 

Definition

 

 

 

concussion

Term
Definition
Term

 

 

Momentary confusion and retrograde amnesia after 5-10 minutes of suffering a diffuse brain injury could be categorized as a _______________.

Definition

 

 

Grade II

Term

 

 

The main source of bleeding in extradural hematomas is ___________. 

Definition

 

 

 

aterial

Term
Definition
Term

 

 

What is the initial assessment finding associated with an acute spinal cord injury?

Definition

 

 

 

Loss of voluntary control below the injury.

Term

 

 

 

What is a paient experiencing with symptoms of paralysis and flaccidity in muscles, absence of sensation, loss of bladder control, transient drop of blood pressure, and poor venous circulation?

Definition

 

 

 

Autonomic hyperflexia

Term

 

 

 

The majority of invertebral disk herniations occur between the vertebral levels _______.

Definition

 

 

 

L4-S1

Term

 

 

 

A 72 year old male demonstrates left sided weakness of upper and lower extremeties.  The symptoms lasted 4 hours and resolved with no evidence of infarction.  The patient most likely experienced a ________________.

Definition

 

 

transient ischemic attack

Term

 

 

With a ________________, meningeal irritation occurs which then leads to nuchal rigidity.

Definition

 

 

 

subarachnoid hemorrhage

Term

 

 

 

A 25 year old female presents to her primarary care provider reporting fever, headache, nuchal rigidity, and decreased consciousness.  She was previously treated for sinusitis.  Her liely diagnosis is __________________.

Definition

 

 

 

bacterial meningitis 

Term

 

 

 

Most causes of encephilitis are ________.

Definition

 

 

 

Viral

Term

 

 

Early symptoms of multiple sclerosis are tiredness, weakness, and visual changes.  This is caused by _____________________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

demyelination of nerve fibers in the CNS

Term

 

 

 

The most common symptom of brain abscess is _______.

Definition

 

 

 

headache

Term

 

 

 

____________________ and __________ are classic assessment findings that support the diagnosis of ALS.

Definition

 

 

 

 

muscle weakness/atrophy

 

Term

 

 

___________ is an anterior midline defect of a neural tube closure in infants.

Definition

 

 

 

Cyclopia

Term

 

 

 

An _____________ is a herniation of brain and meninges through a defect in the occipital area of the skull in a newborn. 

Definition

 

 

 

encephalocele

Term

 

 

Decreased ____________ accompanies an elevated thyroxine production. 

Definition

 

 

 

thyroid-stimulating hormone

Term

 

 

Prolactin-inhibiting factor's target tissue is the ________________.

Definition

 

 

 

anterior pituitary

Term

 

 

 

The ______________ secretes ADH and oxytocin.

Definition

 

 

 

posterior pituitary

Term

 

 

 

ADH is important to the body's _____________________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

water balance and urine concentration

Term

 

 

 

_________________________ primarily regualte insulin.

Definition

 

 

 

serum glucose levels

Term

 

 

 

__________ is the most potent naturally occurring glucocorticoid.

Definition

 

 

 

Cortisol

Term

 

 

 

_______ can cause ACTH to be released.

Definition

 

 

 

Stress

Term

 

 

 

Inappropriate ADH secretion results in _____________.

Definition

 

 

 

hyponatremia

Term

 

 

 

Lab tests for Grave's Disease would result in _______________________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

high levels of circulating thyroid-stimulation antibodies

Term

 

 

 

The basal metabolic rate is usually low with ___________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

hypothyroidism

Term

 

 

 

Immune destruction of the _______ is one cause of type 1 DM.

Definition

 

 

 

pancreas

Term

 

 

 

_____________________ are the classic symptoms of type 1 DM.

 

Definition

 

 

Polydipsia, polyuria, poluphagia, and weight loss

Term

 

 

_____________________ are classic symptoms of Cushing's syndrome.

Definition

 

 

 

Truncal obesity and moon face

Term

 

 

 

The most common cause of Addison's disease is __________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

an autoimmune reaction

Term

 

 

________________________ are common neurologic disturbances that occur with a pituitary adenoma.

Definition

 

 

 

visual disturbances

Term

 

 

 

The most abundant cells in the blood are ___________.

Definition

 

 

 

erythrocytes

Term

 

 

 

The predominant phagocyte of early inflammation is the ___________.

Definition

 

 

 

neutrophil

Term

 

 

 

During an infection, the lymph nodes enlarge and become tender because _____________________.

Definition

 

 

 

lymphocytes are rapidly dividing

Term

 

 

_________________ is a congenital intrinsic factor deficiency.

Definition

 

 

 

Pernicious anemia

Term

 

 

 

The likely cause of macrocytic, normochromic anemia is ______________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

defective DNA synthesis

Term

 

 

Vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies cause anemia because ________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

blood cells have a shoter life span

Term

 

 

 

In addition to fatigue and weakness, _____________ would be exhibited with iron deficiency anemia.

Definition

 

 

 

spoon-shaped nails

Term

 

True or false?

 

 

Siderblastic anemia is due to ineffective iron uptake and hemoglobin production.

Definition

 

 

TRUE

Term

 

 

True or false?

The symptoms of PV are due to increased blood viscosity, and there will be decreased blood flow to the tissue and organs. 

Definition

 

 

 

TRUE

Term

 

 

Leukocytosis can be defined as ____________.

Definition

 

 

 

a high leukocyte count

Term

 

 

The most likely cause of infectious mononucleosis is the ________________.

Definition

 

 

 

Epstein-Barr virus

Term

 

 

 

Multiple myeloma can be defined at as a ______________.

Definition

 

 

 

neoplasm of B cells

Term

 

 

True or false?

Sickle cells undergo hemolysis in the spleen or become sequestered there, causing blood pooling and infarction of splenic vessels.

Definition

 

 

 

TRUE

Term

 

 

 

A 3 year old child presents with buising on the legs and trunk and a petechial rash.  The mother also reports frequent nosebleeds.  Lab tests reveal a decreased platelet count.  _______________________ is the most likely diagnosis the nurse will see documented in the chart.

Definition

 

 

 

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

Term

 

 

The most common childhood cancer is ________________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

acute lymphlblastic leukemia (ALL)

Term
Definition
Term
Definition
Term

 

 

The ________ is a membranous sac that encloses the heart.

Definition

 

 

pericardium

Term

 

 

The _____________ is the chamber of the heart that generates the highest pressure.

Definition

 

 

 

left ventricle

Term

 

 

The primary pacemaker of the heart is the _________.

Definition

 

 

 

sinoatrial node

Term

 

 

The _______________ conducts action potentials down the atrioventricular septum. 

Definition

 

 

 

bundle of His

Term

 

 

 

Depolarization of a cardiac muscle cell occurs __________________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

as the result of the rapid movement of ions across the cell membranes.

Term

 

 

 

As stated by the ______________, there is a direct relationship between the _____________ in the heart at the end of diastole and _______________ during the nect systole. 

Definition

 

 

Frank-Starling law/volume of blood/the force of the contraction

Term

 

 

_______________ is found by multiplying the heart rate times the stroke volume. 

Definition

 

 

 

Cardiac output

Term

 

 

 

Atherosclerosis is caused by ___________________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

abnormal thickening and hardening of vessel walls

Term

 

 

 

Normal blood pressure has a _____________________.

Definition

 

 

 

systolic pressureless than 120 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure less than 80 mm Hg

Term

 

 

In order to prevent severe symptoms, individuals with Raynaud disease need to be _____________________.

Definition

 

 

 

counseled to avoid cold exposure

Term

 

 

The patent opening between the aorta and pulmonary artery in a fetus is called ________________.

 

Definition

 

 

 

ductus ateriosus

Term

 

In _________________ the valve opening is constricted and narrowed becuase the valve leaflets, or cusps, fail to open completely. 

Definition

 

 

valvular stenosis

Term

 

 

In __________________, the heart rate and SVR increase, boosting both cardiac output and tissue perfusion pressures.  Interstitial fluid moves into the vascular compartment. 

Definition

 

 

 

hypovolemic shock

Term

 

 

_________________________ are symptoms specifically related to right heart failure. 

Definition

 

 

 

Significant edema to both lower legs and feet

Term

 

 

For an infection to progress to septic shock, ____________________________.

Definition

 

 

bacteria must enter the bloodstream

Term

 

 

The pleural membranes are explamples of _________.

Definition

 

 

 

serous membranes

Term

 

 

The receptors in the lung that decrease ventilatory rate and volume are called _____________.

Definition

 

 

 

stretch receptors

Term

 

 

The lung receives parasympatheic innervation by the _________.

Definition

 

 

 

vagus nerve

Term

 

 

 

During inspiration, muscular contraction of the diaphragm causes air to move into the lung.  The mechanisms that drive air movement during inspiration _____________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

increase the size of the thorax and decrease the intrapleural pressure. 

Term

 

 

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is mainly transported _____________________________.

Definition

 

 

in the blood in the form of bicarbonate

Term

 

 

____________ is defined as " a subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity."

Definition

 

 

 

Dyspnea

Term

 

 

 

A 30 year old female received a severe head injury in a motor vehicle accident.  She is experiencing respiratory abnormalities characterized by alternating periods of deep and shallow breathing with periods of apnea.  This is called ____________________.

Definition

 

 

 

Cheyne-Stokes

Term

 

 

Coughing up bloody secrections is called ___________.

Definition

 

 

 

hemoptysis

Term

 

 

The most common cause of pulmonary edema is __________________.

Definition

 

 

 

left heart failure

Term

 

 

Pus in the pleural space is called __________.

Definition

 

 

 

empyema

Term

 

 

 

 

A 50 year old male with a 30 year history of smoking was diagnosed with lung cancer.  He was previously exposed to air poolution, asbestos, and radiation at his job.  What had the greatest impact on the development of his cancer?

Definition

 

 

 

Cigarette smoke

Term

 

 

________________________ is most likely associated with SIDS.

Definition

 

 

Frequent respiratory infections

Term

 

 

A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome.  The newborn may have atelectasis because of _____________________.

Definition

 

 

 

a lack of surfactant.

Term

 

 

Aspiration of gastric contents into the lungs may result in ___________.

Definition

 

 

 

pneumonia

Term

 

 

While planning care for a child with asthma, ____________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

prolonged expirations are a characteristic of asthma

Term

 

 

The _______ of the kidneys contains the glomeruli.

Definition

 

 

 

cortex

Term

 

 

Plasma proteins should be absent from the urine because the _____________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

negative charge of the glomerular filtration membrane repel the plasma proteins

Term

 

 

The portion of the male urethra that is closest to the bladder is the __________.

Definition

 

 

prostatic portion

Term

 

 

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is directly related to the ___________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

perfusion pressure in the glomerular capillaries

Term

 

 

The descending segment of the loop of Henle primarily _________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

allows for water reabsorption

Term

 

 

 

The hormone _______ is synthesized and secreted by the kidneys to stimulate bone marrow production of red blood cells. 

Definition

 

 

 

creatnine

Term

 

 

The most common type of renal stone is __________________.

Definition

 

 

 

composed of calcium

Term

 

 

A 28 year old female presents with fever, chills and flank pain.  She is diagnosed with pyelonenephritis.  The patient's infection is located in the ______________.

Definition

 

 

 

renal pelvis

Term

 

 

 

A 42 year old male is involved in a motor vehicle accident during which he loses a lot of blood.  His acute renal failure is caused by ______________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

inadequate renal blood flow

Term

 

 

 

Lab values of _________________________ are most consistant with renal failure. 

Definition

 

 

 

elevated plasma creatnine levels

Term

 

 

High levels of _________ cause Pruritus.  Pruritus is seen in patients with end stage renal disease. 

Definition

 

 

 

calcium

Term

 

 

A newborn female has chronic renal failure caused by a lack of development of one of the kidneys.  This condition is called ___________________.

Definition

 

 

 

renal angenesis

Term

 

 

 

_____________________ is most likely related to a post-strep infection. 

Definition

 

 

 

Glomerulonephritis

Term

 

 

The glomerulus and Bowman's capsule together is referred to as the ____________.

Definition

 

 

renal corpuscle

Term

 

 

 

Wilms tumors are found in the _________.

Definition

 

 

kidneys

Term

 

 

The major hormonal deterinant of sexual differentiation in utero is ____________.

Definition

 

 

 

testosterone

Term

 

 

The thick middle layer of the uterine wall is called the ______________.

Definition

 

 

 

myometrium

Term

 

 

The duct that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus is the __________________.

Definition

 

 

 

fallopian tube

Term

 

 

The usual site of fertilization is the _____________________.

Definition

 

 

 

ampulla of the fallopian tubes. 

Term

 

 

Having ejected a mature ovum, the ovarian follicl the develops into a _____________.

Definition

 

 

 

corpus luteum

Term

 

 

 

 

Sex hormone production in males ______________.

Definition

 

 

 

is relatively constant

Term

 

 

 

________________ are paired glands that lie posterior to the male urinary bladder. 

Definition

 

 

 

Seminal vesicles

Term

 

 

 

An 18 year old female is diagnosed with dysmenorrhea.  She is most likely to experience __________________.

Definition

 

 

 

painful menstration

Term

 

 

A 25 year old female presents with amenorrhea and hirsutism.  She is diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)  Lab testing will most likely reveal _____________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

hyperinsulinemia

Term

 

 

A 35 year old female is diagnosed with endometriosis.  ____________________ would be the most appropriate medical treatment for this disease. 

Definition

 

 

 

 

supressing ovulation

Term

 

 

______________ is inflammation of the glans penis. 

Definition

 

 

 

Balanitis

Term

 

 

 

A 21 year old female is infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) following unprotected sexual intercourse with a male she recently met.  She is now at ________________________________.

Definition

 

 

a higher risk of developing cervical cancer

Term

 

 

 

An important risk factor for the development of benign prostic hypertrophy (BPH) is _____________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

increased age

Term

 

 

A 35 year old female presents with infertility and gradual blindness.  She reports that she has overwise been healthy.  History reveals that she was promiscuous and had unprotected sexual intercourse several times when she was younger.  She now has neurological involement.  The sexually transmitted infection (STI) she most likely has is _________.

Definition

 

 

 

syphilis

Term

 

 

 

Symptoms of prostatitis are similar to symptoms of a _________________.

Definition

 

 

 

urinary tracy infection

Term

 

 

Digestion begins in the mouth with salivary-amylase (ptyalin) that initiates the digestion of __________.

Definition

 

 

 

carbohydrates

Term

 

 

The ileum and jejunum are suspended by folds of the peritoneam known as the __________, which contains an extensive vascular and nervous network.

Definition

 

 

 

mesentary

Term

 

 

Absorption of nutrients from the intestine occurs initially through the ________. 

Definition

 

 

 

 

villi

Term

 

 

Parasympathetic stimulation to the pancreas will cause an __________________.

Definition

 

 

 

enzyme secretion

Term

 

 

____________________ is the most common disorder associated with upper GI bleeding. 

Definition

 

 

 

Esophageal varices

Term

 

 

A 50 year old male is experiencing reflux of chyme from the stomach.  He is diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux.  This condition is caused by _____________________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

the loss of muscle tone at the lower esophageal sphincter

Term

 

 

A 54 year old male is diagnosed with peptic ulcer disease.  This condition is most likely caused by _______________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

breaks in the mucosa and presence of corrosive secretions.

Term

 

 

 

A 50 year old male complains of frequently reoccuring abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bloody stools.  A possible diagnosis would be ____________.

Definition

 

 

 

ulcerative colitis

Term

 

 

 

 

_______________ would help a health care provider distinguish between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. 

Definition

 

 

 

Malabsorption

Term

 

 

 

_______________ is thought to contribute to the development of obesity.

Definition

 

 

 

Leptin resistance 

Term

 

 

 

A 13 year old female binge eats and induces vomiting to prevent weight gain.  This disease is referred to as ____________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

bulimia nervosa

Term

 

 

An increase in the rate of red blood cell breakdown causes _________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

hemolytic jaundice

Term

 

 

 

Examination of a newborn female reveals that the esophagus ends in a blind pouch.  This condition is referred to as _________________.

Definition

 

 

 

esophageal astresia

Term

 

 

 

Meconium ilues is associated with ____________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

cystic fibrosis

Term

 

 

 

Prolonged diarrhea is more serious in children than adults because ___________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

the fluid reserves are lower

Term

 

 

 

 

Symptoms of _________________ are clay-colored stool, jaundice, and failure to gain weight.  Testing will also reveal the absence of intrahepatic bile ducts. 

Definition

 

 

 

biliary atresia

Term

 

 

 

 

______________ is a componant of the bone matrix and also gives bone its tensile strength.

Definition

 

 

 

Collagen

Term

 

 

 

The elbow joint is an example of a __________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

diarthrosis joint

Term

 

 

 

The contractile unit of a muscle cell is called the ________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

myofibril

Term

 

 

 

_________________ directly control the contraction of muscles. 

Definition

 

 

 

 

calcium ions

Term

 

 

 

______________ is the main energy source or fuel for skeletal muscle contraction. 

Definition

 

 

 

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Term

 

 

 

A fracture that occurs straight across the bone is a ___________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

transverse fracture

Term

 

 

 

__________ is a disorder similar to osteomalacia that occurs in growing bones of children. 

Definition

 

 

 

Rickets

Term

 

 

 

Degeneration joint disease is characterized by _____________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

the loss of articular cartilage

Term

 

 

 

The expected treatment of choice for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is ________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

Methotrexate

Term

 

 

 

___________________________ are all symptoms of fibromyslgia, a chronic musculoskeletal disorder. 

Definition

 

 

 

Diffuse pain, fatigue, and tender points

Term

 

 

 

Myotonia is charaterized by ______________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

prolonged depolarization of muscle cell membranes

 

Term

 

 

A tumor of spongy bone is ________________.

Definition

 

 

 

chondrosarcoma

Term

 

 

 

A positive Ortolani click in indicative of ________________.

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

hip dysplasia

 

Term

 

 

 

A metastasizing malignant bone tumor is an __________________________.

Definition

 

 

 

osteosarcoma

Term

 

 

The treatment option for seropositive juvenile rheumatoid is termed ___________.

Definition

 

 

 

supportive