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Patho - Chapter 18
Chapter 18
48
Nursing
10/11/2011

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Cards

Term

 

 

 

 

The pathophysiology of Buerger's disease is best descrbed as?

Definition

 

 

 

 

inflammation and thrombus formation

Term

 

 

 

 

Which of the following is most likely to cause left-sided congestive heart failure?

Definition

 

 

 

 

uncontrolled essential hypertension

Term

 

 

 

 

Which event causes the QRS wave on an ECG tracing

Definition

 

 

 

 

ventricular depolarization

Term

 

 

 

 

When comparing angina with myocrardial infarction (MI), which statement is true?

Definition

 

 

 

 

angina pain is relieved by rest and intake of nitroglycerin; pain of MI is not

Term

 

 

 

 

What is considered to be the basic pathophysiologic change in essential hypertension?

Definition

 

 

 

 

increased systemic vasoconstriction

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What confirms the presence of a myocardial infarction?

Definition

 

 

 

 

Characteristic patterns for serum isoenzymes and the ECG

Term

 

 

 

 

Which of the following are significant signs of right-sided congestive heart failure?

Definition

 

 

 

 

edematous feet and legs with hepatomgaly

Term

 

 

 

 

where is uncontrolled hypertension most likely to cuase ischemia and loss of function?

Definition

 

 

 

 

kidneys, brain, and retinas

Term

 

 

 

 

what is the characteristic change in the cardiovascular system with Raynaud's syndrom?

Definition

 

 

 

 

intermittent severe vasoconstriction in the digits

Term

 

 

 

 

Which of the following represents the pathophysiologic changes in the heart in cases of rheumatic fever?

Definition

 

 

 

 

an abnormal immune response causing acute inflammation in all layers of the heart

Term

 

 

 

 

Common signs of rheumatic fever include all of the following except?

Definition

 

 

 

 

arthritis causing deformity of the small joints in the hands and feet

Term

 

 

 

 

What is the primary reason for amputation of gangrenous toes or feet in patients with peripheral vascular disease?

Definition

 

 

 

 

prevent spread of infection and reduce pain

Term

 

 

 

 

When stroke volume decreases, which of the following could maintain cardiac output?

Definition

 

 

 

 

increased heart rate

Term

 

 

 

 

The size of the necrotic area resulting from myocardial infarction may be minimized by all tof the following except.

Definition

 

 

 

 

removing the predisposting factors to atheroma development

Term

 

 

 

 

What does the term preload refer to?

Definition

 

 

 

 

volume of venous return

Term

 

 

 

 

What does the term intermittent claudication refer to?

Definition

 

 

 

 

ischemic muscle pain in the legs, particularly with exercise.

Term

 

 

 

 

What is atherosclerosis in the iliac arteries likely to cause?

Definition

 

 

 

 

gangrenous ulcers in the legs

intermittent claudication

Term

 

 

 

 

an atheroma develops from

Definition

 

 

 

 

accumulated lipids, cells, and fibrin where endothelial injury has occured

Term

 

 

 

 

the right side of the heart would fail first in the case of

Definition

 

 

 

 

large infarction in the right ventricle

advanced COPD

Term

 

 

 

 

Which of the following would confirm the diagnosis of a myocardial infarction?

Definition

 

 

 

 

specific changes in the ECG

elevation of cardiac isoenzymes in serum

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What kind of congestion is associated with Right-sided heart failure?

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

systemic venous congestion

Term

 

 

 

 

What kind of congestion is associated with left-sided heart failure?

Definition

 

 

 

 

pulmonary congestion

Term

 

 

 

 

What does reduced blood flow to the kidney's cause?

Definition

 

 

 

 

increased renin and aldosterone

Term

 

 

 

 

What does an increase in renin and aldosterone cause?

Definition

 

 

 

more blood to heart (preload) and vasoconstriction (increased afterload)

Term

 

 

 

 

more blood to heart (preload) and vasoconstriction (increased afterload) causes what to the heart?

Definition

 

 

 

 

causes more workload for the heart

Term

 

 

 

 

SNS increases the heart rate, but that may decrease the efficiency.  What is likely to happen?

Definition

 

 

 

 

increase workload

Term

 

                 
 
 
 Chambers of heart dilate, heart muscle hypertrophies (cardiomegaly). 
   What happens to the demand for blood supply?
Definition

 

 

 

 

more demand for blood supply

Term

 

 

 

 

With more demand for blood supply due to hypertrophies (cardiomegaly). Can the heart do this?

Definition

 

 

 

 

can’t do it so get some cell death

 which is replaced with fibrous tissue

Term

 

 

 

 

What happens to the cardiac output and stroke volume due to hypertrophies?

Definition

 

 

 

 

decreases

Term

 

 

 

 

What are the backward effects of left ventricular failure?

Definition

 

 

Dyspnea on exertion

Orthopnea

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

Cyanosis

Basilar crackles

Term

 

 

 

 

What are the forward effects of left and right ventricular failure?

Definition

 

 

Fatigue

Oliguria

Increased Heart Rate

Faint Pulses

Restlessness

Confusion

Anxiety

Term

 

 

 

 

What are the backward effects of right ventricular failure?

Definition

 

 

Hepatomegaly

Ascites

Splenomegaly

Anorexia

Subcutaneous edema

Jugular vein distention

Term

 

 

 

 

Where does left-sided failure back into? 

Definition

 

 

 

 

the lungs

Term


 

 

 

Where does right-sided failure back into?

Definition

 

 

 

 

the tissues

Term

 

 

 

 

What is the compensation for left-sided failure?

Definition

 

 

 

 

tachycardia

Term

 

 

 

 

 

What is the compensation for right-sided failure?

Definition

 

 

 

 

tachycardia, pallor

Term

 

 

 

 

What kind of lung sounds will you hear with left-sided failure?

Definition

 

 

 

Rales

 

(bubbly sound of fluid in lungs, hemoptysis (blood-tinged (bright red), frothy)

Term

 

 

 

 

Where will peripheral edema happen in right-sided failure?

Definition

 

 

 

 

feet

 

(dependent edema in legs, buttocks)

Term

 

 

 

 

Orthopnea

Definition

 

 

 

 

difficulty breathing lyaing down

Term

 

 

 

 

Why is it defficult to breath with orthopnea?

Definition

 

 

 

 

fluid accumulates in the lungs and

you cough from the fluid

Term

 

 

 

 

When does Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea occur?

Definition

 

 

 

 

during sleep

Term

 

 

 

 

What happens due to the increase of fluid in the alveoli?

Definition

 

 

 

 

interferes with O2 exchange

Term

 

 

 

 

What happens due to the interfearance of the O2 exchange?

Definition

 

 

 

 

panic due to the struggle for air

Term

 

 

 

 

What is one thing that happens in right-sided failure that is a s/s that is not present in left-sided failure?

Definition

 

 

 

 

mental status changes

Term

 

 

 

 

With diagnosing heart failure use FACES.  What does FACES stand for?

Definition

                                 Fatigue

 

                                 Activity limitation

 

                                 Congestion

 

                                 Edema

 

                                 Shortness of breath

Term

 

 

 

 

What is a common cause of right-sided failure?

Definition

 

 

 

 

left sided failure

Term

 

 

 

 

What happens as left heart failure progresses?

Definition

 

 

 

 

left ventricular preload increases

Term
Definition