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Operating Systems CH9
Operating Systems Chapter 9
53
Computer Science
11/02/2012

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Term
Assigning Applications
Definition
A feature in Windows Server operating systems that enables an Active Directory group policy to be set up so that a particular version of software is automatically started on a client (Windows XP, Vista, or 7) through a desktop shortcut, via a menu selection, or by clicking a file with a specific file extension.
Term
APIPA
Automatic Private IP Addressing
Definition
A process supported in Windows XP/Vista/7, server 2003/Server 2003 R2, and Server 2008/Server 2008 R2. When you select to use automatic addressing, but there is no DHCP server on the network to assign an IPv4/IPv6 address, then the operating system assigns the IPv4/IPv6 address, such as from the reserved ranges of 169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254 for IPv4.
Term
Backbone
Definition
A main connecting link or highway between networks, such as between floors in a building or between buildings. Main internetworking devices, such as routers and switches, are often connected via the network backbone.
Term
Binding
Definition
A process that enables the NIC to format data for a protocol, and identify the most efficient methods for transporting it.
Term
Bridge
Definition
A network device that connects two or more segments into one, or extends an existing segment. Standalone bridges are mostly obsolete and have been replaced by switches in networking.
Term
Bus Topology
Definition
A network that is designed with a single central cable, to which all computers and other network devices attach. This has two endpoints. each endpoint has a terminator to keep the electronic data signal from reflecting back along the path it just traveled.
Term
CSMA/CA
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance
Definition
A variation of CSMA/CD and the most prevalent transmission control method used in a wireless LAN.
Term
CSMA/CD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with collision Detection
Definition
A transmission control method used by Ethernet.
Term
Cell
Definition
Format for a unit of data that is transported over a high speed network, usually at speeds of 155 Mbps to more than 10Gbps.
Term
Certificate Services
Definition
Server services that issue and manage digital certificates to verify that a user or entity (such as a file) is trustworthy.
Term
CIDR
Classless Interdomain Routing
Definition
A way to ignore IPv4 address class designation by using addressing that puts a slash (/) after the dotted decimal notation.
Term
Client Operating System
Definition
Operating system on a computer, such as a PC, that enables the computer to process information and run applications locally, as well as communicate with other computers on a network.
Term
Coaxial Cable or Coax
Definition
A type of communications cable consisting of copper wire surrounded by several layers: a layer of insulating material, a layer of woven or braided metal, and a plastic outer coating.
Term
Ethernet
Definition
A network transport protocol that uses CSMA/CD communications to coordinate frame and packet transmissions on a network.
Term
Fiber-Optic Cable
Definition
In physical networks, an alternative to metal working that consists of dozens or hundreds of thin strands of glass or plastic that transmit signals using light.
Term
Firewall
Definition
Software or hardware that secures data from being accessed outside a network and that can also prevent data from leaving the network through an inside source.
Term
Firmware
Definition
Software logic that consists of one or more programs, which reside in a programmable chip on a card.
Term
Frame
Definition
A data unit sent over a network that contains source and destination, control, and error-detection information, as well as the data.
Term
Hub
Definition
A device used in a bus, star, and star-bus hybrid LAN's to connect computers or devices to a local network. These have mostly been replaced by switches in networking.
Term
HFC Cable
Hybrid Fiber/Coax Cable
Definition
A cable that consists of a single sheath containing a combination of fibers and copper cables.
Term
IP
Internet protocol
Definition
Used in combination with TCP, this protocol handles addressing and routing for transport of packets.
Term
IP Address
Definition
Used to identify a computer or network device and the network it is on.
Term
LAN
Local Area Network
Definition
A series of interconnected computers, printing devices, and other computer equipment in a service area that is usually limited to a given office area, floor, or building.
Term
Loopback Address
Definition
An address used internally by a computer for diagnostics and testing and is usually 127.0.0.1 ( or in the range 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.2555) for IPv4 or 0:0:0:0:0:0:1 for IPv6.
Term
MAC
Media Access Control Address
Definition
A unique hexadecimal address assigned by the manufacturer, called a device or physical address, which identifies a NIC to the network.
Term
Multicast
Definition
A transmission method in which a server divides recipients of an application, such as a multi-media application, into groups. Each data stream is a one time transmission that goes to one group of multiple addresses, instead of sending a separate transmission to each address for every data stream. The result is less network traffic.
Term
Network
Definition
A system of computing devices, computing resources, and communication devices that are linked together by communications cable or radio waves.
Term
NDIS
Network Device Interface Specification
Definition
Special elements, which programmers call "hooks" in the operating system kernel (program code) that enable the operating system to interface with a network and NIC.
Term
NIC
Network Interface Card
Definition
A device used by computers and internetworking devices to connect to a network.
Term
Packet
Definition
A data unit sent over a network that contains source and destination, routing, control, and error-detection information, as well as data (related to the network layer of network data communications between two stations).
Term
Payload
Definition
That portion of a frame, packet or cell that contains the actual data, which might be a portion of an email message or word processing file.
Term
Protocol
Definition
A set of formatting guidelines for network communications, like a language, so that the information sent by one computer can be accurately received and decoded by another.
Term
Publishing an Application
Definition
Available in Windows Server systems, setting an Active Directory group policy so that Windows clients, such as Windows XP/Vista/7, can install preconfigured software from a central server.
Term
RIS
Remote Installation Services
Definition
Services in Windows 2000 server, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Server 2003 R2 that enable clients to download an operating system over the network, such as downloading and installing Windows XP Professional on a client computer via RIS on a Windows Server 2003 R2 Server.
Term
Ring Topology
Definition
A topology in which the data-carrying signal goes from station to station around the ring until it reaches the target destination. There is no beginning or end point, so there are no terminators.
Term
Router
Definition
A device that joins networks and can route packets to a specific network on the basis of a routing table it creates for this purpose.
Term
Server Operating System
Definition
A computer operating system that enables client workstations to access shared network resources such as printers, files, software applications, or DVD/CD-ROM drives, and allows administrators to manage the network.
Term
Star-Bus Hybrid Topology
Definition
A network design that combines the logical communications of a bus with the physical layout of a star
Term
Star Topology
Definition
All of the computers or devices (nodes) on the network connect to a central device such as a switch. The switch sends a message from from one computer onto a specific segment that has the recipient computer. Every segment is terminated inside the switch at one end and inside the computer at the other end.
Term
SoH
Statement of Health
Definition
A certification issued by a Windows server that verifies a client is secure and is current on operating system updates.
Term
Static IP Address
Definition
AN IP address that is manually assigned and remains in use until it is manually changed.
Term
Subnet Mask
Definition
A designated portion of an IP address that is used to divide a network into smaller subnetworks (or subnets) as a way to manage traffic patterns, enable security, and relieve congestion.
Term
Switch
Definition
Anetwork device that connects LAN segments and forwards frames or packets to the appropriate segment or segments.
Term
Terminal
Definition
A device that has a keyboard and monitor but no CPU or storage and is used to access and run programs on a maintenance or a terminal server, such as a Windows server 2008R2.
Term
Topology
Definition
The physical design of a network and the way in which a data-carrying signal travels from point to point along the network.
Term
TCP
Transmission Control protocol
Definition
A communications protocol that is used with IP; it facilitates reliable communications between two stations by establishing a window tailored tot he characteristics of the connection.
Term
Twisted Pair Cable
Definition
A cable consisting of one or more pairs of twisted copper wires bundled together within a plastic outer coating. the wires are twisted to reduce electromagnetic interference or noise.
Term
Unicast
Definition
A transmission method in which one copy of each packet is sent to every target destination, which can generate considerable network traffic compared to multicasting. when the transmission is a multimedia application.
Term
WAN
Wide Area Network
Definition
A system of networks that can extend across cities, states, and continents.
Term
Windows Deployment Services
Definition
Services in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 that enable clients to download an operating system over the network, such as downloading and installing Windows 7 on a client computer via WDS from a Windows server 2008 R2 server.
Term
Wireless Access Point
Definition
A connection device for wireless computers and that can be connected to a wired network for mutual wired and wireless communications.
Term
Wireless Media
Definition
Any form of communication that works where it is convenient, impractical, or impossible to install wires or cables.
Term
Workstation
Definition
A computer that has a CPU and usually storage to enable the user to run programs and access files locally.