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Oceans Systems
Final Exam Review
195
Geology
11/27/2007

Additional Geology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
The Boundaries of the North Atlantic Ocean are clearly defined by international treaty.
Definition
False
Term
Out Gassing is presonsible for nearly all oxygen in Earth's atmosphere
Definition
False
Term
The Crab Nebula is the remains of a star whose supernova stage was witnessed, and the position marked, by Chinese astronomers in A.D. 1054
Definition
True
Term
The "oxygen Revolution" began approximately 4.5 Billion Years Ago as bacteria began photosynthesis
Definition
False
Term
Convecting mantle material is the promary means of re-distributing heat within planet Earth
Definition
True
Term
The outer core behaves as a plastic/elastic material becasue approximately 2% of it is melted
Definition
False
Term
Relative age dating is the process of determining the specific age of rocks ( e.g- this rock is 1.4 million years old)
Definition
False
Term
The Earth's cruse floats on the asthenosphere because the crust is denser
Definition
False
Term
Oceanic Plates that are the oldest will be colder and more dense. Therefore, they are the most likely to resist subduction
Definition
Fasle
Term
There are approximately 120 Hot Spots around Planet Earth
Definition
True
Term
The "P-wave Shadow Zone, " as observed and described by Oldham, is one piece of evidence supporting the existence of the outer core
Definition
True
Term
Earth's early atmosphere ( 4.5 Billion Years Ago) was able to support life as it exists today
Definition
False
Term
Earthquake foci depth that increase with distance away from a deep- ocean treanch, such as under Japan, delineated (marked or located) arease of subducting plate motion
Definition
True
Term
The Velocity of a seismic wave, in general, decreases with depth
Definition
False
Term
" S- waves" Travel readily though any solid, liquid or gas
Definition
False
Term
Island Arc Systems form on the over-riding plate while Ocean Trenches form parallel to the lsland arc system on the subducting plate
Definition
True
Term
The molten magma from the asthenosphere that fills the gap created at a spreading ridge is composed of basalt-like material which makes new ocean sea-floor
Definition
True
Term
Lithospheric plates become older away from spreading ridges
Definition
True
Term
All the material in a subduction zone penetrates to the core/mantle boundary
Definition
False
Term
Technology developed during World War II proved to have limited applicability to Bathymetric Mapping
Definition
False
Term
A magenotometer is used to measure the amount and direction of residual magnetism in a rock sample
Definition
True
Term
Island arc systems always form in association with Transform Plate Boundaries
Definition
False
Term
Paleomagnetic patterns in the Pacific off the coast of canada and Alaska provided one piece of evidence that the theory of "Sea Floor Spreading" may be operating there
Definition
True
Term
Guyots are flat-topped seamounts formed by wave action
Definition
True
Term
The collision of the India Plate with the Continental Asian Plate has formed the Himalayan Mountians
Definition
True
Term
The chain of seamounts located northwest of Hawaii shows that the Pacific plate has steadily been moving to the south east for millions of years
Definition
False
Term
It would be best to use a chart with a "Ginomonic Projection" when doing exploration at the North 60 degree parallel (Canada)
Definition
False
Term
Lines of latitude are parallel, so they are always the same distance apart around the globe
Definition
True
Term
Longitude can be easily calculated by the "star" method
Definition
False
Term
Iceland is one of a few places where oceanic crust is found above sea level becuase of the superposition of a mantle plume (hot spot) and a convergent plate boundary
Definition
False
Term
John Harrison did little to help solve the problem of finding latitude
Definition
True
Term
Hydrothermal vents may be possible areas for chemosynthesis, and thereby, be areas where life may have originated
Definition
True
Term
Radioactive decay is the major source of heat in the Earth
Definition
True
Term
Earth's Moon was formed as a meteorite and was captured into orbit by Earth's gravity
Definition
False
Term
The Big Bang, thought to be the beginnings of our Universe, occurred sometime around 4.5 Billion Years ago when earth was formed
Definition
False
Term
Marine science ( Oceanography) is the study of the geological aspects of the planet's oceans, rivers, lakes, groundwater and glaciers
Definition
False
Term
The Hawaiian Island Chain formed as basaltic lava oozed up along a large transform fault located in the middle of the Pacific Plate
Definition
False
Term
The United States is a world leader in creating sustainable fisheries
Definition
True
Term
More than 95% of all U.S. foreign trade passes though a U.S. port or harbor
Definition
True
Term
California is cut by the huge San Andreas Transform Fault. This means that California will eventually be cut of from the United States and "Fall into the sea"
Definition
False
Term
The Star Polaris  is used world wide to determine latitude
Definition
False
Term
It is thought that mars previously had active plate tectonics, but that the planet has cooled down to the point where there is no longer sufficient heat to drive the process, and plate tectonics has become inactive
Definition
True
Term
The average land elevation is 4 1/2 times greater than the average ocean depth
Definition
False
Term
The Library of Alexandria, which was established in the third century BCE (before common era), was the locus for the study of marine science in the western hemisphere
Definition
True
Term
The "Scientific method" could be described as all of the following EXCEPT:
Definition
Something only scientists can use
Term
The "Theory of "Continental Drift" and the "Theory of Seafloor Spreading" are:
Definition

D. Both B and C

 

B. Similar but different theories

 

C. Supported by many of the same observation 

Term
The present- day atmosphere is composed mostly of:
Definition
Nitrogen and oxygen
Term
Red- Giants burn out to form:
Definition
B. a white dwarf
Term
Outgassing is responsible for;
Definition
B. The Atmosphere and Ocean
Term
The inner core of the Earth is compose of:
Definition
C. Iron and Nickel
Term
Stars primarily burn what element?
Definition
D. Hydrogen
Term
Life most likely originated in:
Definition
B. Water
Term
Isostacy is the reason that:
Definition

D, A,B,C

 

A. Mountains have roots

 

B. Icebergs Float

 

C. Heavy metal ships can float  

Term
P- Waves:
Definition
B. Are the first to arrive at a seismic station
Term
The " Theory of Sea Floor Spreading" states that:
Definition
C. New Crust cools, shrinks, and becomes denser as it moves away from the Mid-Ocean Ridge
Term
The "S-wave Shadow Zone" proves that:
Definition
A. the outer core must be liquid
Term
James Hutton (the father of geology) developed the theory of:
Definition
E. Uniformitarianism
Term
The "Theory of Continental Drift" includes evidence of:
Definition
A. apparent shoreline fit of the continents
Term
The "Ring of Fire" defines a world-wide pattern around the Pacific Ocean that explains the location of:
Definition

D. Both A & C

 

A. Earthquakes 

 

C. Volcanoes

Term
S- waves;
Definition
Travel as transverse (shear) waves
Term
The Red Sea is a :
Definition
B. Divergent Plate Boundary
Term
The "Active Portion" of a transform fault is located'
Definition
D. Between the offset ridge creats of a divergent plate boundary
Term
Ocean Sediment is:
Definition

E. Both A & C

 

A. Thinner( if there at all) over Mid-Ocean Ridges

 

C. Older and thicker at the edges of the ocean basin near the continents  

Term
The presence of strips of high and low intensity magnetization in the sea floor is caused by:
Definition

Both A & C

 

A. Polar reversals during creation of new oceanic crust at spreading centers

 

C. Divergent plate motion  

Term
How many years will it take to bathymetrically map the world's ocean using the latest multi-spread echo sounding equipment towed by a research vessel traveling at 12 knots
Definition
D. 125 years
Term
The Miller- Urey Experiment was the first to determine:
Definition

D. Both B & C

 

B. the amino acids could be produced from the early atmosphere

 

C. the water was a necessary ingredient for the formation of life  

Term
Which of the following is an example of Uniformitarianism
Definition
B. Sediment being carried downstream by a river
Term
The Core of the Earth is due to:
Definition
C. Density Stratification
Term
The deepest point in the world ocean, as presently mapped, is in the...
Definition
D. Pacific Ocean
Term
James Hutton
Definition
Uniformitarianism
Term
Harry Hess
Definition
D. Sea- Floor Spreading
Term
Alfred Wegener
Definition
E. Continental Drift
Term
James Runcorn
Definition
A. Polar Wandering
Term
J. Tuzo Wilson
Definition
C. Plate Tectonics
Term
continental, Divergent Plate Boundary
Definition
B. East- African Rift Zone
Term
Transform Plate Boundary
Definition
E. San Andreas Fault
Term
Ocean/ Continent Plate Convergence
Definition
C. Cascade Mountian Range
Term
Continent/ Continent Plate Convergence
Definition
A. Northern Italian Apls
Term
Ocean/ Ocean Plate Convergence
Definition
D. Aleutian Island Arc
Term

Planets

Pluto

Neptune

Uranus

Saturn

Jupiter

Asteroid Belt

Mars

Earth

Venus

 Mercury  

Definition
Term
Most oil pollution of the world ocean is cause by:
Definition
C. Shipping
Term
The best way to clean-up an oil soaked beach is:
Definition
E. Do nothing at all
Term
The "Dead Zone", an area of anoxic conditions on the continental shelf off southern Louisiana, is the result of:
Definition
B. Eutrophication cause by extra nutrients from wastewater treatment plants, factory effluent, soil erosion, and farmland fertilizer runoff
Term
The main source of pollutants to the ocean is from---
Definition
D. large-ship operations
Term
An example of an invasive species that clogs the outflow pipes of industry that empty into Lake Michigan is the--
Definition
D. Zebra Mussel
Term
Biological Amplification can turn seemingly minor pollution issues into very large, major polluation problems
Definition
True
Term
Low Quantity , High Toxicity, and High Persistence are the characteristics of pollution due to Heavy Metals
Definition
true
Term
Two hydrogen atoms are bonded to one oxygen atom in a molecule of water by strong covalent bonds
Definition
True
Term

The temperature of maximum density and the freezing temperature of water are the same (-1.33 degrees C or 29.61 degrees F) when salinity reaches 24.7%

 

Definition
True
Term
Hydrogen bonds between the polar water molecules give water the property of cohesion which results in unusually high surface tension
Definition
True
Term
Energy, produced by the random vibration of atoms or molecules, causes heating and expansion of the material
Definition
True
Term
Heat Capacity is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of material by 1 degree Celisus and is the same for all materials
Definition
False
Term
Pure water is most denst at 3.98 degree Celisus
Definition
True
Term
The latent heat of vaporization is much greater than the latent heat of melting for water
Definition
True
Term
It takes the input of 80 calories of heat (energy) to change 1 gram of ice into liquid water
Definition
True
Term
The tendency of a substance to resist change in temperature with the gain or loss of heat energy is called latent heat
Definition
True
Term
Water's high heat capacity makes it an ideal fluid to equalize the polar-tropic heat imbalance
Definition
True
Term
The deep zone is also known as the pycnocline
Definition
False
Term
There is a sharp increase in temperature through the thermocline from the sufrace layer to the deep layer
Definition
False
Term
typical temperature profiles from polar, tropical, and mid-latitude regions indicate that the thermocline is primarily a low latitude phenomenon
Definition
True
Term
The speed of sound through water increases with decreases in temperature and pressure
Definition
False
Term
The bending of light waves as they travel from the atmosphere into the ocean is called reflection
Definition
False
Term
Light is rapidly scattered and absorbed as it penetrates seawater making evertying appear dimmer than normal
Definition
True
Term
Long Wavelength light rays of the visible spectrum (near the IR range) are 71% absorbed in seawater at just 1 meter ( 3.3 feet) deep, so the color red quickly "fades out"
Definition
True
Term
The ocean is a highly acoustic environment and animals that live there have had to dull their acoustic senses  to survive the constant sound impulses
Definition
False
Term
The SOFAR layer is a zone where sound travels at a very high rate of speed but can be heard for only short distances
Definition
False
Term
Nitrogen makes up 48% of the atmosphere but accounts for 78% of the dissolved gasses in ocean water
Definition
False
Term
Because of photosynthesis, concentration of oxygen is low in the sufrace layer whereas concentration of CO2 is much higher
Definition
False
Term
The composition of the salts in the ocean is identical to those contained in water entering from rivers; therefore, we know that the continents are the source for all the oceanic salts
Definition
False
Term
Georg Forchhammer first noted that the ratio between various types of salts in the oceans remained constant despite veriations of salinity, and this became known as " The Principle of Constant Proportions"
Definition

True

Term
Ocean water tends to be slightly more basic (higher PH) in the deep ocean
Definition
False
Term
The concentration of carbon dioxide increases below the photic zone due to a decrease in photosynthesis
Definition
True
Term
Materials with a PH measurement of 7 are considered to be strongly alkaline (base)
Definition
False
Term
The latent heat of melting for water is much greater than the latent heat of vaporization, therefore, ice (as icebergs) transfers much more heat (per unit of mass) than liquid water
Definition
False
Term
The latent heat of melting for water is much greater than the latent heat of vaporization, therefore, ice (as icebergs) transfers much more heat (per unit of mass) than liquid water
Definition
False
Term
Because of the "Principle of Constant Proportions," scientists can easily measure the salinity of seawater by measuring chlorinity and multiplying that value bye 1.80655
Definition
True
Term
Gas Hydrates are the largest carbon sink on Earth and represent the possible future for energy supplies from the ocean
Definition
True
Term
Ascending air cools at it expands
Definition
True
Term
Moist, humid air is less dense than dry air
Definition
True
Term
The abrupt buldge of water driven ashore by a tropical cyclone or frontal storm is called a "storm surge."
Definition
True
Term
The "Coriolis Effect" will deflect a cannon ball shot from the equator toward the North Pole toward the right (clockwise)
Definition
True
Term
The Ferrel atmospheric circulation cells are located between the Hadley Cells and the Polar Cells
Definition
True
Term
The meteorological equator (ITCZ) coincides with the geographical equator
Definition
False
Term
Monsoons occur as winds change directions due to the seasonal shift of the ITCZ and change of "Coriolis Effect" from northern to southern hemisphere
Definition
True
Term
Low atmospheric pressure at the center of a hurricane produces a dome of seawater that can reach a height of 1 meter (3.3 feet) in the open sea
Definition
True
Term
Due to the coriolis effect, hurricanes (cyclones) rotate clockwise in the northern hemisphere
Definition
False
Term
Blue Whales are commercially extinct
Definition
True
Term
Addition of salt to pure water lowers its "point of maximum density" and its "freezing point"
Definition
True
Term
Biology plays a big role in regulating the amounts of dissolved gasses found at various depth in the ocean
Definition
True
Term
Areas where the winds are primarily vertical (rising or falling) are areas where the horizontal winds tend to be calm (the doldrums and horse latitudes)
Definition
True
Term
The release of latent heat during the phase change from water vapor to liquid water provides the energy to drive hurricanes
Definition
True
Term
Whalers from Norway and Japan have stopped taking whales since the International Whaling Commission an organization of whaling countries established to manage whale stocks, placed a moratorium on the slaughter of large whales
Definition
False
Term
The "White Cliffs of Dover" must have formed deep in the ocean below the "Calcium Carbonate Compensation Depth" (CCD)
Definition
False
Term
Guyots are flat-topped seamounts modified by wave action
Definition
True
Term
Approximately 20% of all the oil and gas found on Earth is located under the seas
Definition
True
Term
Ocean basins are bethtub shaped, The continents drop off steeply just beyond the surf zone then deepen to their deepest point somewhere in the middle of the basin
Definition
Flase
Term
Submarine canyons are a direct result of offshore seismic activity and tectonic movement
Definition
False
Term
Abyssal plains are flat featureless expanses of sediment-covered ocean floor found in nearly all the world's oceans
Definition
True
Term
Marine sediments on the ocean floor are as old as four billion years, the same age as the ocean itself
Definition
False
Term
Terrigenous sediments are the most abundant. The largest terrigenous deposits are found near continental margins
Definition
True
Term
Other than petroleum and natural gas, sand and gravel are the most valuable sedimentary resource acquired from the ocean
Definition
True
Term
Overfishing occurs when so many fish have been harvested that there no longer exists enough breeding stock left to replenish the species. MOst marine species are overfished
Definition
True
Term
Tomatoes with a pH of about 4 have about --- times as much H+ as seawater with a pH of about 8
Definition
E. 10,000
Term
Latent heat causes
Definition
B. No change in temperature
Term
Ice Floats becuase
Definition
A. It is less dense than water
Term
When the temperature of pure water is decreased (gets colder);
Definition
D. the density of water increases to a maximum of 1g/cm3 at 3.98 degrees C
Term
The zone of salinity change between the mixed zone and the deep zone is termed the
Definition
B. Halocline
Term
San Francisco and NOrfolk are at the same latitude but san francisco has wamer winters and cooler summers becuase:
Definition

E. all above

A. Winds blow west to east

B. Winds blow over the pacific ocean before reaching San Francisco but blow over land before reaching Norfold

C. The Pacific Ocean doesn't warm as much as the land during summer

D. The Pacific ocean doesn't cool as much as the land during winter

Term
It would take a rise of ---feet of sea level to down all the major cities of the U.S. east coast
Definition
B. 20 Feet
Term
Ocean sediment is:
Definition

E. Both A & C

 

A. thinner (if there at all) over Mid- Ocean Ridges

 

C. Older and thicker at the edges of the ocean basin near the continents

Term
Sediment is classified in the "wentworth Scale" by:
Definition
B. Particle size
Term
Sodium- Chloride (salt) dissolves easily in water becasue the atoms are bonded  together by:
Definition
A. Ionic Bonds
Term
The water molecule is unique becasue :
Definition
B. it is an asymmetric polar molecule
Term
Seawater has a pH of:
Definition
C. 7.8-8.3
Term
How many years will it take to bathymetrically map the world's ocean using the latest multi-spread echo sounding equipment towed by a research vessel traveling at 12 knots
Definition
D. 125 years
Term
Of the following ocean basin features, the one with the greatest average angle of inclination (the speepest) is---
Definition
B. Continental slope
Term
Profiling and mapping the ocean bottom depends on an array of depth measurments. The most frequent technique for measuring ocean depth employs what medium?
Definition
C. sonic waves transmitted by a transducer
Term
What does the deep ocean floor cosist mainly of?
Definition
B. oceanic ridge systems and the adjacent sediment-covered plains
Term
The -- makrs the abrupt transition from contiental shelf to contiental slope
Definition
D. Shelf Break
Term
Most geologists believe that submarine cayons have been formed by---
Definition
C. Turbidity CUrrents
Term
A dilute mixture of sediment and water that periodically rushes down the contiental slope is a
Definition
C. turbidity current
Term
Calcareous ooze is formed from shells of ---
Definition

E. Both A and C

 

A. Foraminifera

 

C. Coccolithopres

Term
SHells of single-celled algae called diatoms form---
Definition
A. Siliceous ooze
Term
Each of the following are considered an inorganic physical resource except for---
Definition
D. crustaceans
Term
The marine acronym OTEC stands for---
Definition
B. Ocean Therminal Energy Conversion
Term
---is the term for unintended organisms killed while fishing for desirable ones (catching dolphins in tuna nets, or albatrosses in long lines, for example).
Definition
A. Bykill
Term
The country that is the number one harvester of marine life in 2004 was ---
Definition
D. china
Term
What is the name for the maximum abount of each type of fish, crustacean, and molluse that can be caught without impairing future populations
Definition
B. Maximum sustainable yield
Term
The neutral element zinc (ZN) with an atomic number of 30 and an atomic mass of 65 generally has about ---neutrons in its nucleus
Definition
C. 35
Term
The Carbonate ion (CO3) is held together by ---bonds
Definition
B. covalent
Term
Near the Amazon River delta the salinity of the Atlantic Ocean is ---
Definition
A. Raised
Term
The major components of seawater are all---
Definition
E. Ions
Term
The salts in seawater come from ---, volcanic gases and from hydrothermal vents
Definition
B. Rivers
Term
The salts in sewater come from ---, volcanic gases and from hydrothermal vents
Definition
B. Rivers
Term
Continental Shelf
Definition
B. Continental Extension
Term
Continental Slope
Definition
D. Transition between shelf and deep basin
Term
Continental Crust
Definition
Granite
Term
Contental Rise
Definition
E. Apron of accumulated Sediment
Term
Oceanic Crust
Definition
A. Basalt
Term
Terrigenous Sediments
Definition
B. Originates on contients and islands
Term
Biogenous Sediments
Definition
A. Siliceous and Calcareous Oozes
Term
Hydrogenous
Definition
C. Minderals precipitated directly from seawater
Term
Cosomogenous Sediments
Definition
D. Extraterrastrial Origin
Term
Pelagic Sediments
Definition
E. Deep Ocean Sediments
Term
Latent Heat of Vaporization for water
Definition
E. 540 cal/gram
Term
Latent Heat of FUsion for water
Definition
B. 80 cal/gram
Term
Freezing Point of water
Definition
A. O degrees Celsius
Term
Boiling Point of water
Definition
D. 100 Degrees Celisus
Term
The Heat Capacity of Water
Definition
C. 1 calorie/ gram/degree Celsius
Term
Hadley Cells 0- 30 degrees latitude
Definition
Trade Winds
Term
Ferrel Cells ( 30-60 degrees latitude)
Definition
C. Westerlies
Term
Convergence of Polar and Ferrel Cells (60 degrees latitude)
Definition
E. Jet Stream
Term
ITCZ (Equatorial Trough)
Definition
A. Doldrums
Term
Convergence of Hadley and Ferrel Cells ( 30 degrees latitude)
Definition
B. Horse Latitudes
Term
Definition