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Ocean Systems EXAM 4
exam 4
83
Geology
04/25/2010

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Term
"habitats" are also called "niches"
Definition
false
Term
salt marsh areas display high biodiversity
Definition
true
Term
"euryhaline" organisms have a wide tolerance to salt
Definition
true
Term
the largest of all the biogeochemical cycles is the global carbon cycle
Definition
true
Term
most carbon found in ocean environments exists as fossil fuels-oil, gas, coal and related hydrocarbons
Definition
false
Term
nitrogen accounts for 48% of dissolved gasses in seawater; therefore, it is abundantly available for use in chemical reactions
Definition
false
Term
"evolution" simply means change
Definition
true
Term
a "species is a group of actually (or potentially) interbreeding organisms that is repoductively isolated from all other forms of living things
Definition
true
Term
Carolus Linnaeus developed the biological classification used today based upon hierarchy, grouping objects by degree of complexity, grade, or class
Definition
true
Term
Ocean water temperatures range considerably; however, they are usually much narrower than comparble ranges on land. Therefore, marine organisms are limited due to fewer possible habitats being available
Definition
false
Term
hydrostatic pressure from the constant weight of the water above them prevents most marine organisms from living in the depths of the ocean
Definition
false
Term
the larger the cell, the more efficiently materials can cross the outer cell membrane to be distributed through the interior
Definition
false
Term
"Primary Consumers" are organisms that produce food from simpler compounds by the careful manipulation of energy
Definition
false
Term
"chemosynthesis" is more common and more important than "photosynthesis"
Definition
false
Term
"autotrophs" are organisms that must consume other organisms because they are unable to synthesis their own food molecules
Definition
false
Term
each step up in the trophic pyramid stores 10% as much mass as the level directly below it. That means that at each step, 90% of the energy is lost as waste heat as organisms live and work to maintain themselves
Definition
true
Term
dinoflaggelates are the most abundant phytoplankton
Definition
false
Term
the "white cliffs of dover" in england consist largely of deposits of fossil coccolithophore ooze uplifted by geological forces
Definition
true
Term
diatoms are able to propel and position themselves with whiplike projections called flagella
Definition
false
Term
the "compensation depth" , where respirations equals photosynthesis, defines the base of the "photic Zone"
Definition
false
Term
"zooplankton" are heterothrops
Definition
true
Term
"algae" is a collective term for autotrophs possessing chlorophyll and capable of photosynthesis, but lacking vessels to conduct sap
Definition
true
Term
"krill" shrimp-like crustaceans, are nearly extinct due to overfishing
Definition
false
Term
kelp makes use of stem-like structures called "holdfasts" to support the sea as it reaches for the strongly illuminated surface water
Definition
false
Term
marine "angiosperms" include sea grass and mangrove trees
Definition
true
Term
any population growing at its maximal rate without facing any environmental resistance will grow along a J-shaped population growth curve
Definition
true
Term
any deep-water community that is relatively new and unstable is considered tobe a "climax community"
Definition
false
Term
the "deep sea scattering layer" is a relatively dense aggregate of fishes, squid, and other animals that live in the deepest portions of the ocean
Definition
false
Term
"mutalism" occurs wen the symbiont benefits from the symbiotic association but the host is harmed
Definition
false
Term
cells are simply "highly organized" forms of life
Definition
true
Term
organisms will not move into deeper environments due to osmosis limitations created by increased water salinity
Definition
true
Term
the process of photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide, water, a catalyst such as chlorophyll and light energy. Glucose (a simple carbohydrate) and oxygen are products
Definition
true
Term
the compensation depth is the depth at which the production of carbohydrates and oxygen by photosynthesis through a day's time will exactly equal the consumption of carbohydrates and oxygen respiration
Definition
true
Term
the polar regions are always rich in nutrients, therefore phytoplankton productivity is always high
Definition
false
Term
population density and distribution depend on community conditions. clumped community distribution is the rarest
Definition
false
Term
primary productivity in estuaries is often extraordinarily low because of the lack of nutrients, poor variety of organisms present, weak sunlight, and the small number of niches available for life to take hold
Definition
false
Term
transport of sediment in a zig-sag pattern along a beach is called "lateral sediment translation"
Definition
false
Term
"groins" are barriers built parallel to the beach to facilitate sand moving along the shore
Definition
false
Term
drowned river mouths along the east coast of the United States are called "estuaries"
Definition
true
Term
sea caves are a "late stage" feature formed during headland erosion
Definition
false
Term
the ultimate fate of most coastlines is to be straightened
Definition
true
Term
Barrier Islands are large and stable: therefore, they are excellent places to build homes
Definition
false
Term
coastal cells are sections of the coast that are in balance where sediment input equals sediment output
Definition
true
Term
uplifted, wave-cut platforms are a sign that the area is tectonically active, and that uplift is an ongoing process
Definition
true
Term
he east coast of the US is a submergent (or drowned) coastline
Definition
true
Term
the "coastline" is the place where the ocean water meets the continental land
Definition
false
Term
"sea arches" tend to form right after "sea stacks" develop
Definition
false
Term
"hooked spits" develop as beach drift is deposited into open bay areas downdrift from an eroding beach
Definition
true
Term
Barrier Islands tend to migrate over the foreshore area, moving sand farther out into the ocean basin
Definition
false
Term
the Mississippi River delta is typical of a wave dominated delta system
Definition
dddddddddddddddddddfalse
Term
San Francisco Bay is an example of a tectonically created estua
Definition
true
Term
water entering Chesapeake Bay moves toward the eastern shore because
Definition
coriolis effect
Term
light is an "important" trigger for:
Definition
all of the above: photosynthesis, body orientation in a deep-water fish, physiological rhythyms in phytoplankton, breeding times in some multicellular organisms
Term
the MAJOR chemical elements used by organisms in metabolism are:
Definition
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
Term
diffusion of a fluid through a membrane is called:
Definition
osmosis
Term
primary producers are also called:
Definition
autotrophs
Term
today, oceanic productivity can be observed from space by measure:
Definition
none of the above: oxygen content, krill population, heterotrophs, autotrophs
Term
almost 95% of a diatom's frustule (shell) is composed of:
Definition
silica
Term
HAB's are generated by ultra rapid growht of:
Definition
dinoflagellates
Term
chlorophyta, phaeophyta and rhodophyta are all types of:
Definition
algae
Term
communities of organisms with a broad optimal range to temperature are said to be:
Definition
stenothermal
Term
rocky, inter-tidal zones are biologically extremely rich and diverse despite:
Definition
all of the above: wave shock, tide rise and fall, drenching and drying cycles, wide ranging temperature fluctuations
Term
which of the following environments is the most difficult for organisms to inhabit:
Definition
black sand beaches in Hawaii
Term
some species of tropical marine photosynthesizer live at depths of over 250 meters because they were able to evolve specialized:
Definition
accessory pigments
Term
a community is:
Definition
all living things in a defined area
Term
eustatic sea level change is caused by variations in the:
Definition
all of the above: amount of water in the world ocean, shape of the world ocean basin, temperature of the ocean water
Term
salt wedge estuaries are influenced by:
Definition
both A and C: low to moderate tidal ranges, rapidly flowing large river entry
Term
estuaries can orginate as:
Definition
all of the above: drowned river mouths, fjords, bar-built sounds, tectonic bays
Term
winter beaches will:
Definition
all of the above: becoem steeper, be composed of coarser materials, erode
Term
the ____ environment produces greater net primary productivity (more biomass tonnage), while the _____ environment is more efficient at producing biomass (faster turnover time.)
Definition
terrestrial, marine
Term
which one of the following is a process which does not require light to create carbohydrates, but instead releases the energy held in the chemical bonds of hydrogen-and sulfur containing compounds in order to construct glucose from carbon dioxide:
Definition
chemosynthesis
Term
which one of the following must consume food from other organisms because they are unable to synthesize their own carbohydrates:
Definition
heterotrophs
Term
the most common producers of bioluminescence in the ocean are ___
Definition
dinoflagellates
Term
some species of anglerfish, such as Lasiongnathus saccostoma, the Western-Atlantic Deep-Sea Anglerfish is more famous for its ability to catch prey in zero-visibility conditions by using its
Definition
a bioluminescent "lure"
Term
what is the catalyst in photosynthesis:
Definition
chlorophyll
Term
zooplankton are:
Definition
animals
Term
of the following, which forms the base of the food chain for most ocean fish?
Definition
unicellular algae (like diatoms)
Term
How do oceans affect carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere?
Definition
by absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
Term
The ocean is deepest near the:
Definition
edge of the pacific
Term
Of these elements, which is least likely to form a chemical compound?
Definition
helium (He)
Term
in comparison to the amount of energy required to heat 1 gram of water by 1 degree celsius, how much energy is required to heat 1 gram of sand by 1 degree celsius?
Definition
it takes more energy to heat water than to heat sand
Term
autotroph producers generate 10,000 kilograms of biomass. Zooplankton eat the primary (autotroph) producers, small fish eat the zooplankton, mid-sized fish eat the small fish, and Tuna eat the mid-sized fish. How many grams of midsized fish will be generated according to this generalized trophic pyramid?
Definition
10 kilograms
Term
If I make tuna sandwhiches and use 100 grams (1/4 pound) of tuna per sandwich, how many sandwiches can I make i all the tuna I have is dependant upon the trophic pyramid presented in question 82 above?
Definition
1