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Nutrition Practice Midterm
Nutrition Midterm practice test
160
Biology
03/30/2013

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Cards

Term

A serving of bleu cheese dressing containing 23 grams of fat would yield _____ kilocalories from fat.  

A.  161 

B.  92 

C.  207

D.  255 

 
Definition

C.  207

(23 x 9 =  207)

 

Term

In 2001 nearly 12% of children and adolescents were overweight, whereas in 2010 nearly ________ of children and teens fell into these categories.  

A.  15% 

B.  20% 

C.  one-third 

D.  one-half 

 
Definition
C.  one-third 
Term

Which of the following nutrients can directly supply energy for human use?  

A.  Lipids and oils 

B.  Fiber 

C.  Vitamins 

D.  Minerals 

 
Definition
A.  Lipids and oils 
Term

4.  Which of the following is characteristic of lipids?  

A.  Supply 4 kcalories per gram 

B.  Add structural strength to bones and muscles 

C.  Supply a concentrated form of fuel for the body 

D.  Add sweetness to food 

 
Definition
C.  Supply a concentrated form of fuel for the body 
Term

A large hamburger (e.g., Whopper) sandwich contains 628 kilocalories and 36 grams of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed by fat?  

A.  23% 

B.  52%  

C.  19% 

D.  41% 

 
Definition

 

B.  52% 

(36 x 9 = 324, then 324/628 = 52%)

Term

Which of the following is true about the North American diet?  

A.  Most of our protein comes from plant sources. 

B.  Approximately half of our carbohydrates come from simple sugars. 

C.  Most of our fats come from plant sources. 

D.  Most of our carbohydrates come from fibers. 

 
Definition
B.  Approximately half of our carbohydrates come from simple sugars.
Term

The "Freshman 15" is the 

A. typical waist circumference of college students after freshman year.

B. typical body fat percentage of college students after freshman year.

C. amount of weight (in pounds) typically gained during freshman year of college.

D. typical BMI of college students after freshman year.

 
Definition
C. amount of weight (in pounds) typically gained during freshman year of college.
Term

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamins?  

A.  Provide energy 

B.  Become structural components of the body 

C.  Enable chemical processes in the body 

D.  Made in sufficient quantities by the body 

 
Definition
C.  Enable chemical processes in the body 
Term

Fibers belong to the class of nutrients known as  

A.  carbohydrates. 

B.  protein. 

C.  lipids. 

D.  minerals. 

 
Definition
A.  carbohydrates. 
Term

Which of the following terms describes psychological influences that encourage us to find and eat food?  

A.  Appetite 

B.  Hunger 

C.  Satiety 

D.  Obsession 

 
Definition
A.  Appetite 
Term

A recent study found that a low-risk lifestyle protected women from sudden cardiac death.  The low-risk lifestyle was considered as  

A.  no alcohol consumption, not overweight, exercising 60 minutes/day or longer, and following a vegan diet.

B.  not smoking, not overweight, exercising 30 minutes/day or longer, and following the Mediterranean Diet. 

C.  drinking one glass of red wine/day, exercising 20 minutes/day or longer, and following a low-carbohydrate diet.

D.  not overweight, exercising 45 minutes/day or longer, and following the Ornish Diet.

 
Definition
B.  not smoking, not overweight, exercising 30 minutes/day or longer, and following the Mediterranean Diet. 
Term

12.  A warning sign or symptom of alcohol poisoning is  

A.  semiconsciousness or unconsciousness. 

B.  rapid breathing. 

C.  skin that is hot to the touch. 

D.  insomnia. 

 
Definition
A.  semiconsciousness or unconsciousness. 
Term

Which of the following does not regulate body processes? 

A. Proteins

B. Carbohydrates

C. Water

D. Vitamins

 
Definition
B. Carbohydrates
Term

Which of the following is not true about water?  

A.  Provides energy

B.  Provides a way to transport nutrients and waste 

C.  By-product of cell chemical reactions 

D.  Dietary need of approximately 9-13 cups per day 

 
Definition
A.  Provides energy
Term

Minerals can  

A.  provide energy. 

B.  be destroyed during cooking. 

C.  be degraded by the body. 

D.  become part of the body structural systems. 

 
Definition
D.  become part of the body structural systems. 
Term

Which of the following includes all energy-yielding substances? 

A. Carbohydrates, lipids, protein

B. Vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, protein

C. Alcohol, carbohydrates, lipids, protein

D. Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, vitamins, minerals, water

 
Definition
A. Carbohydrates, lipids, protein
Term

A kilocalorie is a measure of  

A.  heat energy. 

B.  fat in food. 

C.  nutrients in food. 

D.  sugar and fat in food. 

 
Definition
A.  heat energy. 
Term

Recent surveys indicate that the most commonly purchased foods in America are  

A.  milk, ready-to-eat cereal, bottled water, soft drinks, and bread. 

B.  pizza, soft drinks, cheesburgers, and French fries. 

C.  tacos, bagels, bottled water, and ice cream. 

D.  fried chicken, ribs, beer, and donuts. 

 
Definition
A.  milk, ready-to-eat cereal, bottled water, soft drinks, and bread. 
Term

Which of the following is not a nutrition and weight status objective from Healthy People 2020?  

A.  Reduce the proportion of adults who are obese. 

B.  Increase the contribution of fruits to the diets. 

C.  Increase the contribution of whole grains to the diets. 

D.  Increase the consumption of protein. 

 
Definition
D.  Increase the consumption of protein. 
Term

What substances, present in fruits and vegetables, provide significant health benefits such as reducing the risk of cancer?  

A.  Phytochemicals 

B.  Beta blockers 

C.  Deoxidizers 

D.  Free radicals 

 
Definition
A.  Phytochemicals 
Term

21.  Which of the following accurately describes the term hypothesis?  

A.  A test made to examine the validity of an educated guess 

B.  An educated guess by a scientist to explain a phenomenon 

C.  A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups 

D.  An explanation for a phenomenon that has numerous lines of evidence to support it 

 
Definition
B.  An educated guess by a scientist to explain a phenomenon 
Term

Missy visits a doctor because she feels tired most of the time, is easily distracted, and feels chilled. As part of her examination, Missy has blood drawn to be tested for concentrations of nutrients and their by-products. This part of the examination is the  

A.  anthropometric assessment. 

B.  physical examination. 

C.  biochemical evaluation. 

D.  clinical examination. 

 
Definition
C.  biochemical evaluation. 
Term

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend which of the following?  

A.  Consume fewer foods with sodium (salt), saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, and refined grains. 

B.  Consume two alcoholic beverages per day 

C.  Eliminate oils and solid fats from the diet. 

D.  Decrease vegetable and fruit intake. 

 
Definition
A.  Consume fewer foods with sodium (salt), saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, and refined grains. 
Term

24.  Which of the following is true about the way we should eat to achieve good nutritional status?  

A.  Eat fruits and vegetables because we can get all the nutrients we need from these. 

B.  Do the best we can but take supplements to fill in the deficient areas. 

C.  Eat a wide variety of foods because no single natural food meets all human nutrient needs. 

D.  Eat only plant products because animal products are bad and generally filled with hormones for animal growth. 

 
Definition
C.  Eat a wide variety of foods because no single natural food meets all human nutrient needs. 
Term

Tina is consuming 15 mg of iron per day. Her RDA is 18 mg. She has no condition warranting a greater-than-normal need for iron. Which of the following statements is true about her consumption of this nutrient?  

A.  She is likely to be deficient in iron. 

B.  She will need to consume significantly more iron, above the RDA, to make up for her intake. 

C.  Only if her intake is consistently less than 70% of the RDA would she be at great risk of nutritional deficiency. 

D.  She couldn't possibly be getting enough iron for her needs. 

 
Definition
C.  Only if her intake is consistently less than 70% of the RDA would she be at great risk of nutritional deficiency. 
Term

26.  The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 classified vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and herbal remedies as  

A.  drugs. 

B.  foods. 

C.  supplements. 

D.  phytochemicals. 

 
Definition
B.  foods.
Term

The label on a package of Kool Aid indicates that it contains vitamin C. The amount listed is a percentage of the  

A.  Daily Value. 

B.  RDA. 

C.  minimum requirement. 

D.  AI. 

 
Definition
A.  Daily Value. 
Term

The food grouping guidelines most recently released from the United States government are called  

A.  The Food Guide Pyramid. 

B.  The Basic Four Food Groups. 

C.  MyPyramid. 

D.  MyPlate. 

 
Definition
D.  MyPlate. 
Term

29.  The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid patterns dietary data from parts of the Mediterranean region that enjoy  

A.  the lowest recorded rates of chronic diseases. 

B.  the lowest adult life expectancy. 

C.  the highest intake of saturated fat. 

D.  the lowest intake of carbohydrates. 

 
Definition
A.  the lowest recorded rates of chronic diseases. 
Term

Which government agency is responsible for regulating most U.S. food labeling?  

A.  Food and Drug Administration 

B.  U.S. Department of Agriculture 

C.  Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms 

D.  Center for Science in the Public Interest 

 
Definition
A.  Food and Drug Administration 
Term

Which of the following most accurately describes the term epidemiology?  

A.  A test made to examine the validity of an educated guess 

B.  An educated guess by a scientist to explain a phenomenon 

C.  A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups 

D.  An explanation for a phenomenon that has numerous lines of evidence to support it 

 
Definition
C.  A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups 
Term

One serving of Raisin Bran cereal contains 50 percent of the 18 mg Daily Value for iron. How much iron will one serving of your cereal provide?  

A.  5 mg 

B.  9 mg 

C.  15 mg 

D.  36 mg 

 
Definition
B.  9 mg 
Term

According to MyPlate, an adult age 18 or older should consume how many cups of milk or milk equivalent per day on a 2,000-calorie diet?  

A.  1 

B.  2 

C.  3 

D.  4 

 
Definition
C.  3 
Term

Jeff, a world-class triathlete, visits a dietitian to obtain sports nutrition advice. During his visit, Jeff is asked to recall what he ate for the past 24 hours. Which part of a nutritional assessment is this?  

A.  Biochemical evaluation 

B.  Dietary assessment 

C.  Clinical examination 

D.  Menu planning 

 
Definition
B.  Dietary assessment 
Term

Which of the following is not a true statement about the MyPlate Fruit group?  

A.  Eat 2 cups every day for every 2000 kcal. 

B.  Eat a variety of fruit. 

C.  Include plenty of fruit juices for your fruit servings. 

D.  Choose fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruit. 

 
Definition
C.  Include plenty of fruit juices for your fruit servings. 
Term

Adequate Intakes (AI)  

A.  are established for nutrients for which there is not enough information to set RDAs. 

B.  are established for carbohydrate, total fat, and dietary fiber. 

C.  represent minimum nutrient needs. 

D.  are established for all vitamins and minerals. 

 
Definition
A.  are established for nutrients for which there is not enough information to set RDAs
Term

The RDAs for nutrients are set

A. to cover the needs of 97% - 98% of the population.

B. based on the dietary intakes of people who appear to be maintaining nutritional health.

C. by the FDA for food labeling purposes.

D. based on a person’s height and weight.

 
Definition
B. based on the dietary intakes of people who appear to be maintaining nutritional health.
Term

The term "Daily Values" on a food label refers to  

A.  a generic standard set at or close to the highest RDA value or related nutrient standard. 

B.  RDAs. 

C.  minimum requirements. 

D.  AIs. 

 
Definition
A.  a generic standard set at or close to the highest RDA value or related nutrient standard. 
Term

Measurements of height, weight, body circumferences, and body fat are called  

A.  sonography. 

B.  electrocardiography. 

C.  echocardiography. 

D.  anthropometry. 

 
Definition
D.  anthropometry. 
Term

Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms except  

A.  sustained absorption. 

B.  passive absorption. 

C.  active absorption. 

D.  facilitated absorption. 

 
Definition
A.  sustained absorption. 
Term

All of the following are features of the epiglottis except which one? 

A. It covers the opening of the trachea.

B. It prevents food from entering the windpipe during swallowing.

C. It guides food down the esophagus.

D. It is the first GI tract sphincter.

 
Definition
D. It is the first GI tract sphincter.
Term

Which large blood vessel is the first to receive most recently eaten nutrients, transporting them to the liver? 

A. Portal vein

B. Mesenteric vein

C. Subclavian vein

D. Hepatic vein

 
Definition
A. Portal vein
Term

Which of the following is a function of sphincter muscles? 

A. Breaks apart food particles

B. Controls passage of food through the GI tract

C. Controls peristalsis

D. Releases enzymes and hormones into the GI tract

 
Definition
B. Controls passage of food through the GI tract
Term

A recurrent and more serious form of heartburn, also known as acid reflux, is called 

A. gastroesophageal reflux disease.

B. cardiovascular reflux disease.

C. esophageal ulceritis.

D. gastric distress.

 
Definition
A. gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Term

Which of the following, upon digestion, is not normally absorbed directly into the bloodstream?  

A.  Minerals 

B.  Fats 

C.  Carbohydrates 

D.  Proteins 

 
Definition
B.  Fats 
Term

Where are most digestive enzymes produced? 

A. Pancreas and small intestine

B. Liver and large intestine

C. Pancreas and large intestine

D. Liver and pancreas

 
Definition
A. Pancreas and small intestine
Term

Most digestion takes place in the 

A. stomach.

B. small intestine.

C. pancreas.

D. large intestine.

 
Definition
B. small intestine.
Term

All of the following are characteristics of heartburn except which one? 

A. It is a gnawing pain in the upper chest.

B. It is caused by a backflow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus.

C. It can damage the esophagus because it has no mucus lining to protect the esophagus.

D. It subsides when a person relaxes and lies down after a meal.

 
Definition
D. It subsides when a person relaxes and lies down after a meal.
Term

What is the function of mucus in the stomach? 

A. Emulsifies fats

B. Neutralizes stomach acid

C. Digests food

D. Protects stomach cells from gastric juices

 
Definition
D. Protects stomach cells from gastric juices
Term

In passive absorption, nutrients enter the cell 

A. with a carrier.

B. with the expenditure of energy.

C. from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration.

D. from an area of lower concentration to one of higher concentration.

 
Definition
C. from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration.
Term

Which of the following is not a sphincter? 

A. Duodenal

B. Esophageal

C. Pyloric

D. Ileocecal

 
Definition
A. Duodenal
Term

The ___________________________ system is made up of several glands that act in the regulation of metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and many other functions.  

A.  endocrine

B.  cardiovascular 

C.  lymphatic 

D.  urinary 

 
Definition
A.  endocrine
Term

Which of the following is an important dietary recommendation for avoiding heartburn? 

A. Eat smaller meals that are lower in fat.

B. Eat large meals.

C. Eat meals low in carbohydrate.

D. Avoid fluids.

 
Definition
A. Eat smaller meals that are lower in fat.
Term

Which hormone functions in the regulation of the body's metabolic rate?  

A.  insulin 

B.  glucagon 

C.  vitamin D 

D.  thyroid hormone 

 
Definition
D.  thyroid hormone 
Term

What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow? 

A. Epiglottis

B. Tongue

C. Tonsils

D. Esophagus

 
Definition
A. Epiglottis
Term

Transmission of nerve impulses relies on the concentrations of ______ in the neuron.    

A.  B vitamins 

B.  cholesterol 

C.  calcium and magnesium 

D.  sodium and potassium 

 
Definition
D.  sodium and potassium 
Term

Which of the following body organs produces bile? 

A. Stomach

B. Salivary glands

C. Pancreas

D. Liver

 
Definition
D. Liver
Term

Which of the following act as a code book for synthesizing specific proteins required to perform specific body tasks?  

A.  RNA 

B.  Cells 

C.  Organs 

D.  DNA 

 
Definition
D.  DNA
Term

Which pH best describes the environment of the stomach when stimulated? 

A. Neutral

B. Both acidic and basic

C. Acidic

D. Basic

 
Definition
C. Acidic
Term

Amylose is 

A. a long, straight glucose chain.

B. branched glucose chains.

C. a long, straight fatty acid chain.

D. branched amino acid chains.

 
Definition
A. a long, straight glucose chain.
Term

The major storage sites for glycogen are 

A. muscles and liver.

B. kidney and muscles.

C. liver and kidney.

D. liver and pancreas.

 
Definition
A. muscles and liver.
Term

When eating a high-fiber diet, one should  

A.  restrict fluid intake. 

B.  not be concerned about consuming large amounts. 

C.  avoid foods that are not whole grain. 

D.  increase fluid intake. 

 
Definition
D.  increase fluid intake. 
Term

Major fructose sources include  

A.  milk and cheese. 

B.  fruits and high fructose corn syrup. 

C.  fruits and vegetables. 

D.  nuts and seeds. 

 
Definition

B.  fruits and high fructose corn syrup. 

Term

Which of the following is a major source of lactose? 

A. Skim milk

B. Broccoli

C. Apples

D. Honey

 
Definition
A. Skim milk
Term

After absorption, galactose is converted to ________ in the liver. 

A. glucose

B. fructose

C. glycogen

D. lactose

 
Definition
A. glucose
Term

Medical conditions related to metabolic syndrome are  

A.  type 1 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and cancer. 

B.  type 1 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke. 

C.  type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke. 

D.  type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and cancer. 

 
Definition
C.  type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke. 
Term

Which of the following is not characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus?  

A.  Arises most commonly in adulthood 

B.  Associated with a tendency to develop ketosis 

C.  Sometimes caused by viral infection 

D.  Has a genetic link 

 
Definition
A.  Arises most commonly in adulthood 
Term

When insulin is released, it causes 

A. the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood.

B. muscle and fat cells to increase glucose uptake.

C. fat breakdown in fat tissue.

D. the liver to make glycogen from protein.

 
Definition
A. the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood.
Term

Viscous (soluble) fibers 

A. increase stool size significantly.

B. are not readily fermented by intestinal bacteria.

C. do not dissolve in water.

D. can lower blood cholesterol.

 
Definition
A. increase stool size significantly.
Term

Glycogen is 

A. a highly branched polysaccharide.

B. stored in the absence of dietary carbohydrate.

C. a straight chain of glucoses linked together.

D. a hormone for blood glucose regulation.

 
Definition
B. stored in the absence of dietary carbohydrate.
Term

What is the minimum number of grams of carbohydrate, per day, humans must consume to avoid ketosis?  

A.  75 

B.  100 

C.  130 

D.  250 

 
Definition
C.  130 
Term

Which of the following foods would have the most fiber? 

A. Kidney beans

B. English muffins made with enriched flour

C. Orange juice

D. Corn flakes

 
Definition
A. Kidney beans
Term

What is the fate of disaccharides not digested in the small intestine? 

A. They pass into the colon and are absorbed.

B. They pass into the colon and are fermented by bacteria.

C. They are absorbed and converted to glycogen.

D. They are absorbed and converted to fat.

 
Definition
B. They pass into the colon and are fermented by bacteria.
Term

Which organ will first receive sugars after they are absorbed into the blood? 

A. Kidney

B. Heart

C. Liver

D. Pancreas

 
Definition
C. Liver
Term

You are on a diet and eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrate per day. The claim made in the diet educational materials is that carbohydrate is the main culprit in being overweight, so it must be restricted. Which of the following will happen as a result of this low carbohydrate diet?  

A.  Proteins in muscles, heart, and other vital organs will be broken down into amino acids to make needed glucose, over time weakening the muscles and organs.

B.  Fat will be broken down and used as the exclusive fuel, leading to considerable fat loss and little health risk. 

C.  Ketones will be produced from partial protein metabolism to be used for energy. 

D.  Fat will be broken down and converted to glucose that will be used as the primary energy source. 

 
Definition
A.  Proteins in muscles, heart, and other vital organs will be broken down into amino acids to make needed glucose, over time weakening the muscles and organs.
Term

Which of the following hormones is released during stressful times to increase blood glucose levels, making more energy available for use? 

A. Insulin

B. Epinephrine

C. Glycogen

D. Progesterone

 
Definition
B. Epinephrine
Term

What is the major monosaccharide found in the body? 

A. Glucose

B. Fructose

C. Galactose

D. Sucrose

 
Definition
D. Sucrose
Term

In the U.S. diet, carbohydrate supplies approximately what percentage of total kilocalories?  

A.  15% 

B.  35% 

C.  50% 

D.  75% 

 
Definition
C.  50%
Term

The major symptoms of lactose intolerance are 

A. gas, abdominal pain, and distention.

B. a rash, sneezing, and stuffy nose.

C. a headache and chest pain.

D. nausea and vomiting.

 
Definition
A. gas, abdominal pain, and distention.
Term

The body stores excess protein as 

A. muscle.

B. glucose.

C. triglycerides.

D. amino acids.

 
Definition
C. triglycerides.
Term

After chylomicrons leave the intestinal cells, they are transported via what system? 

A. Vascular

B. Lymphatic

C. Capillary

D. Venous

 
Definition
B. Lymphatic
Term

A desirable total serum cholesterol level is less than ____ milligrams per deciliter.  

A.  100 

B.  200 

C.  300 

D.  400 

 
Definition
B.  200 
Term

Which of the following would you buy if you wanted the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid content? 

A. Stick margarine made with canola oil

B. Semisolid shortening made with olive oil

C. Soft margarine in a tub, made from corn oil

D. Liquid, squeezable margarine, made from safflower oil

 
Definition
D. Liquid, squeezable margarine, made from safflower oil
Term

The three-carbon structure to which fatty acids are attached in triglycerides is called 

A. glycerol.

B. glucose.

C. lipoprotein.

D. sterol.

 
Definition
A. glycerol.
Term

Hydrogenation produces what kinds of fat?  

A.  High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) 

B.  Cis fatty acids 

C.  Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) 

D.  Trans fatty acids 

 
Definition
D.  Trans fatty acids 
Term

Olive oil contains abundant amounts of which type of fatty acid? 

A. Saturated

B. Monounsaturated

C. Polyunsaturated

D. Partially hydrogenated

 
Definition
B. Monounsaturated
Term

Which of the following is true about cholesterol? 

A. It is an essential nutrient.

B. It is found in plant and animal foods.

C. It is found only in plants.

D. It is found only in animal products.

 
Definition
D. It is found only in animal products.
Term

Which of the following contains a rich supply of omega-3 fatty acids? 

A. Broccoli

B. Sirloin

C. Salmon

D. Chicken breast

 
Definition
C. Salmon
Term

How many carbons do long-chain fatty acids contain? 

A. 4 to 6

B. 6 to 8

C. 10 or more

D. 12 or more

 
Definition
D. 12 or more
Term

All of the following are true of lecithin except 

A. it is a phospholipid.

B. the body synthesizes it.

C. it is consumed in the diet.

D. it has sterol-like functions.

 
Definition
D. it has sterol-like functions.
Term

Which of the following is an essential fatty acid? 

A. Oleic

B. Linoleic

C. Palmitic

D. Stearic

 
Definition
B. Linoleic
Term

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend getting no more than ______ percent of your total kilocalories from fat.  

A.  20 

B.  25 

C.  30 

D.  35 

 
Definition
D.  35 
Term

Which of the following contains the greatest percentage of calories from fat (in a typical serving size)? 

A. T-Bone steak

B. Margarine

C. Whole milk

D. M&M candies

 
Definition
B. Margarine
Term

After absorption, long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides inside intestinal cells are 

A. converted to proteins.

B. converted to glucose.

C. reformed into triglycerides.

D. converted to cholesterol.

 
Definition
C. reformed into triglycerides.
Term

A diglyceride consists of 

A. 2 glycerol and 1 fatty acid.

B. 2 glucose and 1 fatty acid.

C. 1 glucose and 2 fatty acids.

D. 1 glycerol and 2 fatty acids.

 
Definition
D. 1 glycerol and 2 fatty acids.
Term

All of the following describe the characteristics of fat cells except 

A. the number of fat cells decreases when fat is lost from the body.

B. the storage capacity for fat depends on both fat cell number and fat cell size.

C. the number increases when storage capacity has reached its limit.

D. the body's ability to store fat is limitless.

 
Definition
A. the number of fat cells decreases when fat is lost from the body.
Term

Phospholipids differ from triglycerides in which of the following ways? 

A. A compound containing phosphorus replaces at least one fatty acid.

B. Phospholipids do not contain glycerol.

C. Phospholipids do not contain fatty acids.

D. A compound containing nitrogen replaces at least one fatty acid.

 
Definition
A. A compound containing phosphorus replaces at least one fatty acid.
Term

Immediately after a meal, newly absorbed dietary fats appear in the blood as 

A. high density lipoproteins.

B. low density lipoproteins.

C. chylomicrons.

D. cholesterol.

 
Definition
C. chylomicrons.
Term

One of the richest plant sources of omega-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid, and also a good source of plant sterols is  

A.  cranberries. 

B.  walnuts. 

C.  tomatoes. 

D.  avocados. 

 
Definition
B.  walnuts. 
Term

Which of the following is a food that provides all of the essential amino acids? 

A. Wheat

B. Peanut butter

C. Navy beans

D. Milk

 
Definition
D. Milk
Term

All of the following are true of the alteration of the three-dimensional structure of a protein except 

A. it tends to be rigid and retains its structure.

B. it can be caused by heat, acid, or base.

C. it is called denaturation.

D. it usually destroys its physiological function.

 
Definition
A. it tends to be rigid and retains its structure.
Term

If the carbohydrate content of the diet is insufficient to meet the body's needs for glucose, which of the following can be converted to glucose? 

A. Urea

B. Fatty acids

C. Amino acids

D. Ketones

 
Definition
C. Amino acids
Term

Proteins are digested in which areas of the body? 

A. Mouth and stomach

B. Mouth and small intestine

C. Stomach and small intestine

D. Small and large intestines

 
Definition
C. Stomach and small intestine
Term

In the case of sickle cell anemia, the slight alterations in the DNA of red blood cells lead to 

A. defects in the membranes of these cells.

B. changes in the structure of the protein hemoglobin.

C. poor use of glucose for energy.

D. inability of the cells to make protein.

 
Definition
B. changes in the structure of the protein hemoglobin.
Term

All of the following describe the fate of excess protein except  

A.  used for energy. 

B.  made into glucose. 

C.  made into fat. 

D.  stored as muscle protein. 

 
Definition
D.  stored as muscle protein. 
Term

Johnny is 10 years old. He has had minimal protein intake for the last two years. He has just recently had surgery. What are the likely results of his deficient protein intake? 

A. His surgical wound will heal quickly and effectively, but he won't grow effectively.

B. His surgical wound will not heal quickly and effectively, but he will grow effectively.

C. The size of his vital organs, including his heart, liver, and muscles, will decrease.

D. His surgical wound will heal effectively and he will grow normally because he can live off fat stores.

 
Definition
C. The size of his vital organs, including his heart, liver, and muscles, will decrease.
Term

The American Institute for Cancer Research promotes "The New American Plate," which includes plant-based foods covering __________________ of the plate and meat, fish, poultry, or low-fat dairy covering __________________ of the plate.  

A.  one-half; one-half 

B.  three-quarters (or more); one-quarter (or less) 

C.  two-thirds (or more); one-third (or less) 

D.  one-third (or less); two-thirds (or more) 

 
Definition
C.  two-thirds (or more); one-third (or less) 
Term

A hereditary condition caused by an incorrect amino acid in the amino acid sequence of a protein chain is 

A. kwashiorkor.

B. sickle cell anemia.

C. marasmus.

D. edema.

 
Definition
B. sickle cell anemia.
Term

Marasmus usually is associated with a deficiency of  

A.  kilocalories. 

B.  protein. 

C.  carbohydrate. 

D.  fat. 

 
Definition
B.  protein. 
Term

The child with kwashiorkor has all the following conditions except 

A. moderate weight deficit.

B. some visible fat stores.

C. edema in the abdomen and legs.

D. a skin-and-bones appearance.

 
Definition
D. a skin-and-bones appearance.
Term

Which of the following is not true about an incomplete protein source? 

A. It lacks one or more essential amino acids.

B. It cannot support body growth and maintenance by itself.

C. To adequately meet protein needs from incomplete protein sources, a person would have to eat two complementary proteins.

D. Lower quantities of this source could be eaten to get adequate quantities of essential amino acids.

 
Definition
D. Lower quantities of this source could be eaten to get adequate quantities of essential amino acids.
Term

Antibodies are 

A. hormones.

B. enzymes.

C. lipoproteins.

D. proteins.

 
Definition
D. proteins.
Term

Which of the following is not true about pepsin? 

A. Amino acid chains are the digestive products of its action.

B. Pepsin works best in an alkaline environment.

C. Acid activates pepsin.

D. Pepsin acts on food in the stomach.

 
Definition
B. Pepsin works best in an alkaline environment.
Term

The combination of plant foods that most often is used to provide complete protein is 

A. legumes and nuts.

B. legumes and grains.

C. vegetables and nuts.

D. vegetables and seeds.

 
Definition
A. legumes and nuts.
Term

Maggie has anorexia nervosa and regularly starves herself. She is likely to be in a state of 

A. protein equilibrium.

B. positive protein balance.

C. negative protein balance.

D. positive energy balance.

 
Definition
C. negative protein balance.
Term

Which of the following is not true about body proteins? 

A. They are in a state of breakdown, rebuilding, and repair.

B. They are static and change little after achievement of adult status.

C. Those in the bone marrow and intestine undergo the most change, in terms of breakdown and synthesis.

D. Their breakdown products, especially amino acids, can be recycled.

 
Definition
B. They are static and change little after achievement of adult status.
Term

What enzyme is released by the stomach to digest protein? 

A. Pepsin

B. Lipoprotein lipase

C. Amylase

D. Trypsin

 
Definition
A. Pepsin
Term

Which of the following is true about protein intake of people in the United States? 

A. Most do not consume enough protein.

B. Most consume approximately the amount needed to balance losses.

C. Athletes generally do not get enough protein without supplements.

D. Most consume more than is needed.

 
Definition
D. Most consume more than is needed.
Term

One would be likely to see positive protein balance in all of the following conditions except 

A. growth.

B. pregnancy.

C. starvation.

D. recovery from surgery.

 
Definition
C. starvation.
Term

Which of the following is not characteristic of a fad diet? 

A. It promotes quick solutions.

B. It uses scientific evidence, presenting pros and cons.

C. It limits food selections.

D. It recommends expensive supplements.

 
Definition
B. It uses scientific evidence, presenting pros and cons.
Term

When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for women warrants an obesity diagnosis. 

A. 25%

B. 20%

C. 35%

D. 30%

 
Definition
C. 35%
Term

Carol eats 800 kilocalories a day to lose weight. She is 40 years old. Carol has been walking briskly 60 minutes daily for the past 2 months. In her younger days she lifted weights, but she has lost considerable lean body mass over the years because of inactivity. Recently, Carol was diagnosed with hypothyroidism, which lowers metabolism. Which of the following factors increases Carol's energy output and promotes weight loss?  

A.  Her 800-kilocalorie diet 

B.  Her age 

C.  Her loss of lean body mass 

D.  Her walking routine 

 
Definition
D.  Her walking routine 
Term

The thermic effect of food  

A.  represents the calories needed to digest, absorb, and process ingested food. 

B.  represents approximately 20 percent of total energy expenditure. 

C.  is included in the measurement of basal metabolism. 

D.  refers to energy expended to produce heat in response to a cold environment. 

 
Definition
A.  represents the calories needed to digest, absorb, and process ingested food. 
Term

The best way to treat an underweight person is to advise him or her to  

A.  eat high-fat foods such as cream, cheeses, ice cream, and ground beef. 

B.  stop exercising. 

C.  eat calorie-dense foods higher in vegetable fat like nuts and seeds. 

D.  eat high-calorie foods at the beginning of a meal. 

 
Definition
C.  eat calorie-dense foods higher in vegetable fat like nuts and seeds. 
Term

The MyPlate calorie guideline for a 19- to 30-year-old active woman is  

A.  1600. 

B.  2000. 

C.  2400. 

D.  2800. 

 
Definition
B.  2000.
Term

Which of the following testing methods is considered the most accurate way of measuring percent body fat? 

A. Underwater weighing

B. Skinfolds

C. Infrared light

D. Bioelectrical impedance

 
Definition

A. Underwater weighing

 
Term

Currently, the most common and effective surgical procedure for morbid obesity is 

A. intestinal bypass.

B. gastric bypass.

C. gastric balloons.

D. gastrectomy.

 
Definition
B. gastric bypass.
Term

Which of the following is true about use of diet pills for weight reduction? 

A. Diet pills do not lead to long-term changes in weight and tend to have side effects.

B. Amphetamines are not addictive.

C. Oral cholecystokinin is absorbed and suppresses hunger.

D. Diuretics lead to significant fat loss.

 
Definition
A. Diet pills do not lead to long-term changes in weight and tend to have side effects.
Term

Basal metabolism is the energy expended  

A.  when sleeping. 

B.  when doing moderate activity. 

C.  when resting, but awake, and in a fasting state. 

D.  to make food available to the body. 

 
Definition
C.  when resting, but awake, and in a fasting state. 
Term

Bill expends 2,500 kilocalories per day. What amount of kilocalories will be from basal metabolism?  

A.  250 to 375 

B.  500 to 1,050 

C.  1,200 to 1,500 

D.  1,500 to 1,750 

 
Definition
D.  1,500 to 1,750
Term

Which of the following is not a major goal for weight control programs?  

A.  5-pound weight loss per week 

B.  Loss of stored fat 

C.  Sparing lean body mass 

D.  Reaching a healthy weight 

 
Definition
A.  5-pound weight loss per week 
Term

When attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, body fat above ____ for men warrants an obesity diagnosis. 

A. 8%

B. 20%

C. 24%

D. 30%

 
Definition
C. 24%
Term

The method for determining energy expenditure that involves the measurement of heat given off by the body during a select period of time in an insulated chamber is 

A. direct calorimetry.

B. indirect calorimetry.

C. thermocalorimetry.

D. bomb calorimetry.

 
Definition
B. indirect calorimetry.
Term

The body's set point has been suggested to be  

A.  a weight to which the body closely regulates. 

B.  one's desirable body weight. 

C.  one's minimum body weight. 

D.  the weight that is reached and maintained during mid-life. 

 
Definition
A.  a weight to which the body closely regulates. 
Term

Which of the following is true about fat?  

A.  It has a high thermic effect. 

B.  It is less calorie-dense than carbohydrates or proteins. 

C.  It is a concentrated source of calories. 

D.  It is better to eliminate carbohydrates rather than fat when cutting calories. 

 
Definition
C.  It is a concentrated source of calories.
Term

Which of the following is not a way to estimate body fat? 

A. Body mass index

B. Bioelectrical impedance

C. Skinfolds

D. Underwater weighing

 
Definition
A. Body mass index
Term

The best formal weight loss program for the average dieter is 

A. Weight Watchers.

B. Jenny Craig.

C. Nutri-System.

D. Diet Center.

 
Definition
A. Weight Watchers.
Term

Margaret's parents are both obese. She has dieted six times, each time losing a considerable amount of weight and subsequently regaining it. Margaret has an aversion to exercise. Which of the following is true about Margaret's situation? 

A. Her frequent weight loss attempts have most likely led to greater amounts of lean body mass.

B. Her problem is genetic and there is no reason for her to attempt to lose weight.

C. When she ends the diet she regains additional body fat.

D. Her problem results from poor habits, with studies showing genetics as an insignificant contributor.

 
Definition
C. When she ends the diet she regains additional body fat.
Term

An example of cognitive restructuring for weight control is 

A. planning what to eat for breakfast.

B. decreeing candy bars off limits.

C. replacing eating reactions to stress with helpful relaxing alternatives.

D. keeping a food intake diary to identify triggers for eating.

 
Definition
C. replacing eating reactions to stress with helpful relaxing alternatives.
Term

The vitamin that prevents beriberi is  

A.  B-12. 

B.  niacin. 

C.  riboflavin. 

D.  thiamin. 

 
Definition
D.  thiamin. 
Term

Which of the following is true about the forms of vitamin A? 

A. Retinoids are found in plant foods.

B. Carotenoids are found in animal foods.

C. Carotenoids can be converted to retinoids.

D. Retinoids are converted to carotenoids.

 
Definition
C. Carotenoids can be converted to retinoids.
Term

Which of the following is an antioxidant?  

A.  Vitamin C 

B.  Vitamin B-6 

C.  Biotin 

D.  Niacin 

 
Definition
A.  Vitamin C 
Term

Which of the following is true about the intake of vitamins? 

A. Supplemental vitamins are better than those from food.

B. Occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm.

C. It is hard to get all of the vitamins we need from food.

D. Vitamins consumed in excess are excreted.

 
Definition
B. Occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm.
Term

Which of the following serves as an antioxidant in cell membranes, protecting them and DNA inside cells, from damage? 

A. Vitamin K

B. Vitamin D

C. Niacin

D. Vitamin E

 
Definition
D. Vitamin E
Term

Which B vitamin is required for amino acid metabolism?  

A.  Thiamin 

B.  Niacin 

C.  Vitamin B-6 

D.  Pantothenic acid 

 
Definition
C.  Vitamin B-6
Term

Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat-soluble vitamins? 

A. They enter the bloodstream directly after absorption.

B. Fat in the digestive contents is not important for their absorption.

C. They are not stored to any great extent.

D. After absorption, they are transported in the bloodstream to body cells and/or stored in the liver and fatty tissue.

 
Definition
D. After absorption, they are transported in the bloodstream to body cells and/or stored in the liver and fatty tissue.
Term

All of the following are true about the toxicity of vitamin A except 

A. one can experience toxic effects from consuming too much beta-carotene.

B. fetal malformation can occur.

C. one is unlikely to get toxic doses from eating food.

D. most adverse effects disappear after megadoses stop.

 
Definition
C. one is unlikely to get toxic doses from eating food.
Term

Which of the following is the best source of preformed vitamin A? 

A. Broccoli

B. Pork chop

C. Chicken breast

D. Liver

 
Definition
D. Liver
Term

A pantothenic acid deficiency 

A. is very unlikely because of its widespread availability.

B. is very likely.

C. occurs commonly in children.

D. occurs commonly in the elderly.

 
Definition
A. is very unlikely because of its widespread availability.
Term

All of the following are characteristic of vitamin D except  

A.  facilitates calcium absorption from the small intestine. 

B.  is activated by the liver and kidney. 

C.  prevents osteomalacia. 

D.  causes rickets. 

 
Definition
D.  causes rickets.
Term

A deficiency of vitamin B-6 can result in depression, headaches, and confusion. These occur because of impaired  

A.  hemoglobin synthesis. 

B.  glucose metabolism. 

C.  neurotransmitter synthesis. 

D.  myelin synthesis. 

 
Definition
C.  neurotransmitter synthesis.
Term

Intestinal bacteria can make this B vitamin in adequate amounts to meet human needs.  

A.  Folate 

B.  Vitamin B-6 

C.  Pantothenic acid 

D.  Biotin 

 
Definition
D.  Biotin
Term

The foods that provide the largest source of riboflavin in the American diet are 

A. meats.

B. whole grain cereals.

C. milk and dairy products.

D. dark green leafy vegetables.

 
Definition
C. milk and dairy products.
Term

A typical serving of which food provides the most vitamin A?  

A.  Yellow squash 

B.  Egg 

C.  Liver 

D.  Apricot 

 
Definition
C.  Liver 
Term

______ is a water-soluble vitamin that is important for the release of energy from carbohydrates as well as the synthesis of RNA, DNA, and some neurotransmitters.  

A.  thiamin. 

B.  pyridoxine. 

C.  niacin. 

D.  riboflavin. 

 
Definition
A.  thiamin.
Term

What disease is caused by a thiamin deficiency? 

A. Pellagra

B. Scurvy

C. Kwashiorkor

D. Beriberi

 
Definition
D. Beriberi
Term

The childhood disease rickets is due to a _______ deficiency. 

A. vitamin D

B. vitamin A

C. vitamin C

D. vitamin K

 
Definition
A. vitamin D
Term

Vitamin E functions as a(n) 

A. coenzyme.

B. antioxidant.

C. hormone.

D. enzyme.

 
Definition
B. antioxidant.
Term

Vitamins involved in red blood cell synthesis are  

A.  folate and thiamin. 

B.  thiamin and niacin. 

C.  vitamin B-12 and folate. 

D.  folate and pantothenic acid. 

 
Definition
C.  vitamin B-12 and folate. 
Term

Compare the following menu to MyPlate and answer the subsequent questions.

 

Breakfast Menu

2 white biscuits

Butter and jelly

3/4 C apricot juice

Coffee

 

Lunch Menu

2 slices of white bread

1 1/3 oz. cheese

2 oz. ham

Chicken noodle soup

3 wheat crackers

1/2 C whole baby carrots

1 watermelon wedge

Iced tea

 

Dinner Menu

2 C spinach salad

Salad dressing

4 oz. roast beef

1/2 C white rice

1/2 C squash

Chocolate cake w/icing

Coffee

 

Using MyPlate's Daily Food Plant for 2000 kilocalories as a reference, the servings from the Dairy group in this menu are  

A.  adequate. 

B.  lacking 1 serving. 

C.  lacking 2 servings. 

D.  lacking 3 servings. 

 
Definition
C.  lacking 2 servings.