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Neurophysiology Test Two Questions
Neurophysiology Test Two Questions and diseases/disorders discussed
26
Medical
02/11/2011

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Term
Would injury to the cerebellum have a greater impact on recall of childhood memories or riding a bike?
Definition
Riding a bike. Childhood memories are declarative memories, whereas riding a bike is a procedural memory. The cerebellum is in charge of skill and, habits, conditional reflexes, and reflex modulation.
Term
A patient is administered the mirror tracing test which they have performed several times before. The patient has no recollections of this, however, they improve each time they perform the task. What areas of the brain might be injured, and are they suffering from amnesia?
Definition
Since the person is improving at the task procedural memory is intact. The hippocampus might be injured as it is in charge of consolidating declarative memories. The diencephalon or medial temporal lobe could also be injured both of which store declarative memory.
Term
Give the steps of the excitotoxic cascade.
Definition
-Anoxia, aglycemia, or ischemia
-ATP supply exhausted
-Primary active transport stops
-Ion concentration gradient lost
-Secondary active transport lost
-Cells depolarize & release NT, glutamate
-Glutamate accumulates in extracellular space
-NMDA channels open and/or voltage gated calcium open allowing calcium into cell
-Calcium leads to increase in proteases and free radicals
Term
What is the size of the pupil when depth of field is greatest?
Definition
Depth of field is greatest when pupil diameter is small.
Term
Define presbyopia.
Definition
Presbyopia is a decline in the ability to accomodate
Term
Define emmetropia.
Definition
Normal eye
Term
Define hyperopia.
Definition
Farsightedness
Term
Define myopia.
Definition
Near sightedness
Term
Define astigmatism.
Definition
When one plane of light is focused at a different distance than another plane. Results from irregularly shaped cornea
Term
Define cataract.
Definition
Cloudy or opaque area of the eye
Term
Define glaucoma.
Definition
Group of diseases that cause damage to the optic nerve resulting in vision loss. Increased intraocular pressure can be a cause.
Term
What is keratoconus?
Definition
Keratoconus a progressive thinning and bulging of the cornea.
Term
What are the characteristics and causes of narcolepsy?
Definition
-frequent periods of REM sleep w/out going through NREM sleep
-lose muscle control (cataplexy) during episodes of emotion
-Cause is defective orexin/hypocretin-synthesizing neurons
Term
What sleep disorder is associated with increased incidence of Parkinson's and is a result of brainstem disorder preventing muscle paralysis.
Definition
REM sleep behavior disorder--causes affected individuals to kick, punch, and otherwise act out aggressive dream scenariors while asleep.
Term
What are differences in sleep patterns between older and younger individuals?
Definition
Older individuals tend to sleep more lightly and for shorter times, though needing the same amount of slee as when younger
-they have little or no slow-wave sleep
-they wake up more frequently
-Pineal gland produces less melatonin
-increased incidence of sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, and insomnia.
Term
What physiological changes are characteristics of NREM sleep?
Definition
-decreased HR
-decreased breathing
-decreased BP
-decreased metabolic rate
-decreased body temp
-body movements reduced, but tossing and turning can occur
-sleepwalking, bedwetting, and sleep talking occur
Term
What are the physiological characteristics of REM sleep?
Definition
-increased HR
-increased BP
-increased metabolism
-EEG similar to awake state
-dreaming, visual hallucinations, increased emotion, lack of volitional control
-paralysis of large muscles
-penile erection
Term
If a person is experiencing vivid internally generated sensation what period of sleep are they most likely in?
Definition
REM sleep
Term
If a person's though process is illogical and bizarre what sleep stage are they most likely in?
Definition
REM sleep
Term
If a person's body movements are episodic and involuntary what period of sleep are they most likely in?
Definition
NREM sleep
Term
Define perseveration.
Definition
Repetition of perviously appropriate responses after it has become inappropriate due to changing circumstances.
Term
Lesions to this area of the brain result in poor planning and poor memory for temporal order of events.
Definition
Lesions to the prefrontal cortex
Term
Define prosopagnosia.
Definition
Prosopagnosia or face agnosia is an inability to recognize/learn faces.
Term
Bilateral lesions to the ventral visual association cortices/ventral stream areas in the occipital and IT regions could result in what disorder?
Definition
Face agnosia or prosopagnosia.
Term
How is formation of long term memory thought to be consolidated?
Definition
Through strengthening of of the synaptic connections between neurons in multiple neocortical areas.
Term
Lesions to what areas of the brain will lead to problems with consolidation of long term memory?
Definition
Damage to the:
-medial temporal lobes
-medial diencephalic structures
-bilateral damage to the hippocampus
-bilateral damage to the entorhinal cortex
-bilateral damage to the parahippocampal gyrus
-damage to hippocampus