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Nervous System
Nervous System Vocabulary Words
19
Science
05/05/2013

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Term
Spinal Cord
Definition

The structure that carries messages between the brain and the other parts of the body.

Term
Dendrites
Definition

Short strands branching out from the cell body of the neuron.  They bring messages into the cell body.

Term
Association Neurons
Definition

One of the three types of neurons. They serve as links, or connectors, between the sensory neurons and the motor neurons.  They are found in the spinal cord and the brain.

Term
Impulse
Definition

The message that travels through the neuron.


The path of an impulse: (1) received by the dendrites, then (2) travels to the cell body, then (3) moves to the axon, and then (4) crosses the synapse to enter the dendrite of the next neuron in order to repeat the process.

Term
Nervous System
Definition

It controls the body's reactions to the outside world. It controls the actions, emotions, thoughts, memories, sesations, and senses.

Term
Cerebellum
Definition

One of the three main parts of the brain. It is the part of the brain that controls balance, posture, complex movements, and muscle coordination.

Term
Sensory Neurons
Definition

One of the three types of neurons. These neurons carry impulses from your senses (hearing, seeing, tasting, feeling, and smelling) to your spinal cord and brain.

Term
Stimuli
Definition

Events or conditions that cause a living thing to react.

Term
Axon
Definition

The single, long strand that comes out of the other end of a neuron's cell body. (On the other side are the dendrites.) It carries messages away from the cell body and toward the next neuron.

Term
Cerebrum
Definition

One of the three main parts of the brain.  It is the largest part and has 2 hemispheres (sides).  This is the part of the brain that controls learning, memory, and reasoning. It also controls the muscles.

Term
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Definition

It is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. Damage to neurons in the CNS will not repair themselves. This is the area damaged when someone becomes a paraplegic (cannot move/use their legs).

Term
Cell Body
Definition

The main part of the neuron. On one end is the axon and on the other end are the dendrites.

Term
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Definition

It is made up of the nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body.

Term
Brain
Definition

The main control center of the nervous system. It is protected by the skull.


In an adult, it weighs about 3 pounds and has billions of neurons.

Term
Reflex
Definition

A quick, automatic response to a stimulus. They do not involve the brain.

Term
Medulla
Definition

One of the three main parts of the brain. It controls the functions necessary for life, such as heart beat, breathing, and blood pressure.

Term
Synapse
Definition

A gap between two neurons.

Term
Motor Neurons
Definition

One of the three types of neurons. They carry impulses from the brain or spinal cord out to the other organs.

Term
Neurons
Definition

Nerve cells, which carry messages throughout the body.