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Myer's Psychology for AP unit 2 vocab
vocabulary unit 2
34
Psychology
09/01/2011

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Term
hindsight bias
Definition
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.)
Term
critical thinking
Definition
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
Term
theory
Definition
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
Term
hypothesis
Definition
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Term
replication
Definition
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
Term
operational definition
Definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
Term
case study
Definition
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Term
survey
Definition
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
Term
population
Definition
all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (note: except for national studies, this does NOT refer to a country's whole population)
Term
random sample
Definition
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Term
naturalistic observation
Definition
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Term
correlation
Definition
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
Term
correlation coefficient
Definition
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
Term
scatterplot
Definition
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables, The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)
Term
illusory correlation
Definition
the perception of a relationship where none exists
Term
experiment
Definition
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
Term
random assignment
Definition
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
Term
double-blind procedure
Definition
an experimental procedure in which both the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
Term
placebo effect
Definition
(placebo = latin for "i shall please")
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
Term
experimental group
Definition
in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
Term
control group
Definition
in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
Term
independent variable
Definition
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
Term
confounding variable
Definition
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
Term
dependent variable
Definition
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Term
mode
Definition
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
Term
mean
Definition
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
Term
median
Definition
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
Term
range
Definition
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Term
standard deviation
Definition
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Term
normal curve
Definition
(normal distribution) a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes
Term
statistical significance
Definition
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
Term
culture
Definition
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Term
informed consent
Definition
an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
Term
debriefing
Definition
the postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purposes and any deceptions, to its participants