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Music History 1 Test 2
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10/25/2009

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Term
Organum
Definition
One of several styles of early polyphony from the 9th through 13th centuries, involving the addition of one or more voices to an existing chant
Term
Parallel Organum
Definition
Type of polyphony in which an added voices moves in exact parallel to a chant, normally a perfect fifth below it. Either voice may be doubled at the octave
Term
Oblique Organum
Definition
Organum where the two voices begin together. The upper voice moves up until the interval of a 4th is reached, whereupon, they move in parallel motion until a cadence is reached. At the cadence, the voices move back together again
Term
Free Organum
Definition
Style of organum in which the organal voice moves in a free mixture of contrary, oblique, parallel and similar motion against the chant (and usually above it)
Term
Aquitanian Polyphon
Definition
Style of polyphony from the 12C emcompassing both discant and florid organum. The chant was sun in the lower voice in long sustained notes. The upper voice sang a long melisma on each of the sustained notes
Term
Discant
Definition
12C style of polyphony in which the upper voice or voices have about one to three notes for each note of the lower voice
Term
Notre Dame School
Definition
Style of polyphony from the late 12/13C, associated with the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris.
Term
Rhythmic Modes
Definition
System of six durational patterns used in polyphony of the late 12/13C, used as the basis of the rhythmic notation of the Notre Dame composers
Term
Clausula
Definition
In Notre Dame polyphony, a self-contained section of an organum that closes with a cadence
Term
Duplum
Definition
In polyphony of the late 12-14C, second voice from the bottom in a four-voice texture, above the tenor
Term
Triplum
Definition
In polyphony of the late 12-14C, third voice from the bottom in a three- or four-voice texture, added to a tenor and duplum
Term
Quadruplum
Definition
Fourth voice from the bottom in a four-voice texture, added to a tenor, duplum and trplum
Term
Polyphonic Conductus
Definition
Latin stropic songs of the 12/13C. Usually a metrical Latin text. Upper parts could be either a sacred or secular text. Homo-rhythmic, and melismatic passages were found at the beginning and end of important cadences
Term
Motet
Definition
From mot, meaning word. 1200s-1300s Polyphonic piece with one or more upper voices, each with sacred or secular text in Latin or French, above tenor from chant or other source
1310-1450 Isorhythmic motet: tenor structure by isorhythm
Term
Cantus Firmus
Definition
An existing melody, often taken from a Gregorian chant, on which a new polyphonic work is based; used especially for melodies presented in long notes.
Replaces the tenor and becomes the lowest voice in a composition
Term
Franconian notation
Definition
System of notation described by Franco of Cologne around 1280 using noteshapes to indicate durations
Term
Rondellus
Definition
Technique in medieval English polyphony in which two or three phrases of music, first heard simultaneously in different voices, are each sung in turn by each of the voices.
A polyphonic form in which the voices trade segments of the melody
Term
Rota
Definition
Form of medieval English polyphony in which two or more voices sing the same melody, entering at different time and repeating the melody until all stop together.
A round at the unison
Term
Magnus Liber Organi
Definition
The major work of Leonin. A collection of 2-voiced organum for the entire church year. Music for soloists used with free organum or measured organum
Term
Ars Nova
Definition
Style of polyphony from 14C France, distinguished from earlier styles of a new system of rhythmic notation that allowed duple or triple division of note values, syncopation and great rhythm and notation
Term
Ars Antiqua
Definition
Older style of music, still used when writing music for the Church
Term
Perfect/Imperfect
Definition
3/2
Term
Isorhythm
Definition
Repetition in a voice part (usually the tenor) of an extended pattern of durations throughout a section or an entire composition
Term
Color
Definition
In an isorhythmic composition, a repeated melodic pattern, as opposed to the repeating rhythmic patter (the talea)
Term
Talea
Definition
In an isorhythmic composition, an extended rhythmic pattern repeated one or more times, usually in the tenor
Term
Hocket
Definition
In 13/14C polyphony, the device of alternating rapidly between 2 voices, each resting while the other sings, as if a single melody is between them, or a composition based on this device
Term
Forms Fixe
Definition
Schemes of poetic and musical repetition, each featuring a refrain, used in late medieval and 15C French chansons; in particular, the ballade, rondeau and virelai
Term
Roman de Fauvel
Definition
Allegorical poem written be Gervaise du Buis. Satire of the corruption of the church, nobles, etc. Contains some 169 compositions including motets in isorhythmic style
Term
La Messe de Notre Dame
Definition
Major sacred work of Machaut. First to view the 5 parts of the Ordinary of the Mass as a unified composition. Kyrie, Sanctus and Agnus Dei are based on Gregorian tenors. Gloria and Credo are set in a conductus-like setting
Term
Squarcialupi Codex
Definition
Largest collection of Italian music from the Ars Nova. Contains madrigals, caccias and ballata. The works of Francesco Landini are preserved in it.
Term
Fauxbourdon
Definition
Continental style of polyphony in the early Renaissance, in which two voices are written, moving mostly in parallels 6th and ending each phrase on an octave, while a third unwritten vocal in sung in parallel perfect fourths below the upper voices.
Movement of 6/3 chord-like structures
Term
Motto Mass
Definition
Polyphonic mass in which the movements are linked primarily by sharing the same opening motive or phrase
Term
Cantus Firmus Mass
Definition
Polyphonic mass in which the same cantus firmus is used in each movement, normally in the tenor
Term
Carol
Definition
English song, usually on a religious subject, with several stanzas and a burden (refrain)
Term
Tempus
Definition
In medieval systems of notation, the basic time unit
Term
Philip de Vitri
Definition
First spoke of "new art" (Ars Nova).
Term
Leonin
Definition
One of two major composers of Notre Dame School. His major work is the Magnus Liber Organi.
Term
Perotin
Definition
Second major composer of the Notre Dame School. Enlarged on Leonin's music, often adding a 3rd or 4th voice. New sections of discant were substitute clausulae
Term
Machaut
Definition
Most important composer of the French Ars Nova. Major work was the Messa de Notre Dame
Term
Migrant cantus firmus
Definition
Where the cantus firmus moves from one voice to another
Term
Gilles de Bins (Binchois)
Definition
Most important composer at the Burgundian School. Melodies were said to be "graceful and sweet" due to the use of the 3rd. Used the hemiola.
Term
Guillaume Du Fay
Definition
Leading French composer of his day. Worked at the Burgundian court, was not a regular. Works are considered international in style