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Music Appreciation
UTPA
56
Music
02/03/2009

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Term
Melody
Definition
Succession of single tones or pitches perceived by the mind as a unity.

Term
Range
Definition
Distance between the lowest and highest tones of a melody, an instrument or a voice. This span can be generally described as narrow, medium or wide in range.
Term
Countermelody
Definition
An accompanying melody sounded against the principal melody.

Term
Harmony
Definition
The simultaneous combination of notes and the ensuing relationships of intervals and chords. Not all musics of the world rely on harmony for interest, but it is central to most Western music.
Term
Scale
Definition
A series of tones or pitches in ascending or descending order. Scale tones are often assigned numbers (1-8) or syllables (do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-ti-do).

Term
Major
Definition
A collection of seven different pitches ordered in a specific pattern of whole and half steps, as shown below:

1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8
whole whole half whole whole whole half
Term
Minor
Definition
A collection of seven different pitches ordered in a specific pattern of whole and half steps, as shown below:

1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8
whole half whole whole whole half whole
Term
Tonic
Definition
The first note of a scale (the tonic or keynote do), which serves as the home base around which the other pitches revolve and to which they ultimately gravitate.
Term
Tonal
Definition
Based on principles of major-minor tonality, as distinct from modal.
Term
Atonal
Definition
Total abandonment of tonality (centering in a key). Atonal music moves from one level of dissonance to another, without areas of relaxation.

Term
Dissonance
Definition
Combination of tones that sounds discordant and unstable, in need of resolution.
Term
Consonance
Definition
Concordant or harmonious combination of tones that provides a sense of relaxation and stability in music.
Term
Drone
Definition
Sustained sounding of one or several tones for harmonic support, a common feature of some folk musics.
Term
Rhythm
Definition
The controlled movement of music in time.

Term
Tempo
Definition
Rate of speed or pace of music. Tempo markings are traditionally given in Italian; common markings include grave (solemn; very, very slow); largo (broad; very slow); adagio (quite slow); andante (a walking pace); moderato (moderate); allegro (fast; cheerful); vivace (lively); presto (very fast); accelerando (getting faster); ritardando (getting slower); and a tempo (in time; returning to the original pace).
Term
Beat
Definition
Regular pulsation; a basic unit of length in musical time.

Term
Meter
Definition
Organization of rhythm in time; the grouping of beats into larger, regular patterns, notated as measures. In simple meters, such as duple, triple, and quadruple, each beat subdivides into two; in compound meters, such as sextuple, each beat divides into three.
Term
Measure
Definition
A rhythmic grouping or metrical unit that contains a fixed number of beats; in notated music, it appears as a vertical line through the staff.

Term
Non-Metric
Definition
Music lacking a strong sense of beat or meter, common in certain non-Western cultures.
Term
Changing Meter
Definition
The numbers placed at the beginning of a composition to indicate the meter of the music, e.g. . The upper number indicates the beats in a measure; the lower number tells what kind of a note will receive one beat.
Term
Rubato
Definition
"Borrowed time", common in Romantic music, in which the performer hesitates here or hurries forward there, imparting flexibility to the written note values. Also tempo rubato.

Term
Accelerando
Definition
Getting faster.
Term
Ritardando
Definition
Holding back, getting slower.

Term
Ostinato
Definition
A short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout a work or a section of one.

Term
Texture
Definition
The interweaving of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic (vertical) elements in the musical fabric. Texture is generally described as monophonic (single line), heterophonic (elaboration on a single line), homophonic (single line with accompaniment), or polyphonic (many voiced).
Term
Monophony
Definition
Single-line texture, or melody without accompaniment.


Term
Polyphony
Definition
Two or more melodic lines combined into a multivoiced texture, as distinct from monophonic.

Term
Conjunct
Definition
Smooth, connected melody that moves principally by small intervals.

Term
Disjunct
Definition
Disjointed or disconnected melody with many leaps.

Term
Accompaniment
Definition
Accompanied; also a recitative that is accompanied by orchestra.

Term
Monody
Definition
Vocal style established in the Baroque, with a solo singer and instrumental accompaniment.

Term
Timbre
Definition
The quality of a sound that distinguishes one voice or instrument from another. Also tone color.
Term
Expression
Definition
Expressively.
Term
Dynamics
Definition
Element of musical expression relating to the degree of loudness or softness, or volume, of a sound.

Term
Crescendo
Definition
he dynamic effect of gradually growing louder, indicated in the musical score by the marking "<".
Term
Diminuendo
Definition
Growing softer.

Term
Vibrato
Definition
Small fluctuation of pitch used as an expressive device to intensify a sound.
Term
Articulation
Definition
(Legato)-Smooth and connected; opposite of staccato. (Staccato)-Short, detached notes, marked with a dot above them.
Term
Form
Definition
The structure or shape of a musical work, based on repetition, contrast and variation; the organizing principle in music. Binary and ternary are basic forms, while more complex forms include sonata-allegro, rondo, minuet and trio, theme and variations, ritornello, and fugue.
Term
Binary
Definition
Two-part (A-B) form is based on statement and departure. Also two-part form.
Term
Ternary
Definition
Three-part (A-B-A) form based on a statement (A), contrast or departure (B), and repetition (A). Also three-part form.

Term
Sonata-Allegro Form
Definition
The opening movement of the sonata cycle, consisting of themes that are stated in the first section (exposition), developed in the second section (development), and restated in the third section (recapitulation). Also sonata form or first-movement form.
Term
Fugue
Definition
Polyphonic form popular in the Baroque era in which one or more themes are developed by imitative counterpoint.

Term
Improvisation
Definition
Creation of a musical composition while it is being performed, seen in Baroque ornamentation, cadenzas of concertos, jazz, and some non-Western musics. See also embellishment.
Term
Canon
Definition
Type of polyphonic composition in which one musical line strictly imitates another at a fixed distance throughout.
Term
Through-Composed
Definition
Song structure that is composed from beginning to end, without repetitions of large sections.
Term
Chamber Music
Definition
Ensemble music for up to about ten players, with one player to a part.

Term
Piano Trios
Definition
Standard chamber ensemble of piano with violin and cello.

Term
String Quartets
Definition
The string quartet was one of the most common chamber ensembles. Its makeup is two violins, viola and cello.

Term
Woodwind Quintets
Definition
Standard chamber ensemble consisting of one each of the following: flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and French horn (not a woodwind instrument).
Term
Solo
Definition
To perform alone or as the predominant part.
Term
Duet
Definition
A piece for two performers.
Term
Sextet
Definition
A piece for six instruments or voices. Six performers.
Term
Septet
Definition
A piece for seven instruments or voices. Seven performers.
Term
Octet
Definition
A piece for eight instruments or voices.
Term
Nonet
Definition
A piece for nine instruments or voices.