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Microbiology (Chapter 2)
Flashcards for Micro Chapter 2! :)
26
Microbiology
04/30/2012

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Term
Atom
Definition
Smallest chemical unit of matter
Term
Element
Definition
Matter composed of one kind of atom
Term
Molecule
Definition
  • Formed when two or more atoms combine chemically
  • Ex: O2

 

Term
Compounds
Definition
  • Molecules made up of atoms of two or more elements
  • Ex: CH4

 

Term
Atomic Number
Definition
The number of protons in an particular element
Term
Ion
Definition
A charged atom produced when an atom gains or loses one or more elements
Term
Cation
Definition
  • Positively charged ion
  • ca(+)ion: think positive
Term
Anion
Definition
  • Negatively charged ion
  • Think of onion makes you cry
Term
Isotope
Definition

Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons

 

[image]

Term
Mole
Definition

Gram molecular weight

 

Term
Radioisotopes
Definition
The nuclei of unstable isotopes tend to emit subatomic particles and radiation
Term
Atomic Mass
Definition
Protons + neutrons
Term
Ionic Bonding
Definition

Attraction between ions that have different charges

[image]

Term
Covalent Bonding
Definition

Sharing of pairs of electrons

[image]

[image]

Term
Catabolism
Definition
  • Breakdown of substances with release of energy
  • Exergonic
Term
Anabolism
Definition
  • Synthesis of substances with energy to create bonds
  • Endergonic
Term
Acid
Definition
Proton donor (H+)
Term
Base
Definition
Proton acceptor (OH-)
Term
pH of Some Common Substances
Definition

 Growth of acidophilic bacteria          Growth of fungi

                                                   Growth of most bacteria

     I-----------I         I----I------------I[image]

Term
Saturated 
Definition
Contains all the hydrogens it can have
Term
Unsaturated
Definition
Has at least 2 hydrogens and contains double bond because carbons have lost hydrogens
Term
Hydrophilic
Definition
  • Loves water
  • Charged "head" of lipid
  • Polar
Term
Hydrophobic
Definition
  • Hates water
  • Uncharged "tails" of lipid
  • Nonpolar
Term

Building Block of...

  • Carbohydrate -->
  • Lipid -->
  • Protein -->
Definition
    • Carbohydrate --> Monosaccharide (glucose)
    • Lipid --> Fatty acids and glycerol
    • Protein --> Amino acids
Term
RNA
Definition
  • Single helix
  • Sugar is ribose
  • Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Uracil
Term
DNA
Definition
  • Double helix
  • Sugar is deoxyribose
  • Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine
  • Thymine and Adenine: 2 hydrogen bonds
  • Cytosine and Guanine: 3 hydrogen bonds