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Mastering A&P Ch. 11
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27
Physiology
03/16/2013

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Term
Which of the following is the type of adrenergic receptor found in most sympathetic target tissues?
Definition
Alpha 1
Term
Which of these characteristics is the same in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches for the vast majority of neurons?
Definition
Preganglionic Neurotransmitter
Term
Which of these is an effect of the parasympathetic nervous system?
Definition
Airway constriction
Term
The diameter of blood vessels varies under the control of ________ neurons, which cause the diameter to ________.
Definition
sympathetic; either increase or decrease, depending upon the type of receptor present
Term
The division of the efferent nervous system that controls smooth and cardiac muscles and many glands is the ________ division.
Definition
Autonomic
Term
The motor neurons primarily associated with the fight-or-flight response are the _____ neurons.
The motor neurons primarily associated with the fight-or-flight response are the _____ neurons.
Definition
Sympathetic
Term
These neurons secrete the neurotransmitter acetylcholine onto their targets:
Definition
Somatic motor and parasympathetic motor.
Term
The two main types of acetylcholine receptor are known as
Definition
Nicotinic and muscarinic.
Term
The neurotransmitter that controls skeletal muscle causes which of the following?
Definition
Muscle contraction
Term
The target tissue(s) of somatic motor neurons is/are ________.
Definition
Skeletal muscle
Term
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor administration is a common treatment for myasthenia gravis. Why would this help alleviate some of the symptoms of this autoimmune disease?
Definition
AChE inhibition would delay the removal of ACh from the synaptic cleft.
Term
Which nervous system division has parasympathetic and sympathetic branches?
Definition
Autonomic division of the efferent nervous system
Term
Sometimes the effects of sympathetic stimulation can be contradictory in the same types of tissue. For example, in the arterioles of the GI tract, sympathetic stimulation causes constriction while arterioles of skeletal muscle can dilate in response to sympathetic stimulation. What mechanism explains these opposite effects?
Definition
Different receptors for the same neurotransmitter
Term
What is a varicosity in the autonomic nervous system?
Definition
A series of swollen ends that act as synapses
Term
What is the main enzyme responsible for the breakdown of catecholamines?
Definition
Monoamine oxidase
Term
Why is the parasympathetic nervous system also called the cranio-sacral division?
Definition
Its nerves arise in the head and sacrum.
Term
In the autonomic nervous system, neurotransmitter activation of its receptor terminates when the neurotransmitter is metabolized by enzymes in the extracellular fluid, or when it diffuses away. Which other mechanism leads to termination of neurotransmitter activity?
Definition
Active transport into surrounding cells
Term
Which adrenergic receptor subtypes work by decreasing cAMP?
Definition
Alpha-2
Term
Which adrenergic receptor subtype has the greatest affinity for epinephrine?
Definition
Beta-2
Term
The diameter of bronchioles varies under the control of ________ neurons, which cause the diameter to ________.
Definition
utonomic; constrict under parasympathetic control and dilate under sympathetic control
Term
What type of acetylcholine receptor is present in the postganglionic neurons and on the target tissue in autonomic pathways?
Definition
Nicotinic on the postganglionic neurons and muscarinic on the target tissue
Term
The effects of the sympathetic nervous system are divergent, meaning that a single stimulus can have an effect on a large number of targets. In other words, when the SNS is activated, all of the organs it innervates are stimulated. This does not occur in the parasympathetic system. Why?
Definition
The sympathetic ganglia spreads the stimulus to all postganglionic sympathetic neurons.
Term
Which type of receptors are found in the neuromuscular junction?
Definition
Nicotinic
Term
What is the trigger for ACh release into the synaptic cleft of a neuromuscular junction?
Definition
An action potential at the axon terminal opens voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.
Term
What would be the effect of ACh binding to its receptor on the postsynaptic muscle cell?
Definition
Na+ would flow into the cell and K+ would flow out of the cell.
Term
Sympathetic pathways originate in which region of the spinal cord?
Definition
Thoracic and lumbar
Term
Somatic motor neurons secrete the neurotransmitter ________ onto ________ receptors at the target tissue.
Definition
Acetylcholine; nicotinic