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Marketing Chapter 5
Test banks and vocab for chapter 5
181
Marketing
02/19/2011

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Term
Consumer Buyer Behavior-
Definition
The buying of final consumers-individuals and households that buy goods and services for personal consumption.
Term
Consumer Market
Definition
All the individuals and households who buy or acquire goods and services for personal consumption.
Term
Culture-
Definition
The set of basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviors learned by a member of society from family and other important institutions.
Term
Subculture-
Definition
A group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations.
Term
Social Class-
Definition
Relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors.
Term
Group
Definition
Two or more people who interact to accomplish individual or mutual goals.
Term
Opinion Leader
Definition
Person within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exets social influence on others.
Term
Online Social Networks
Definition
Online social communities- blogs, social networking Web sites, or even virtual worlds- where people socialize or exchange information and opinions
Term
Lifestyle
Definition
A person's pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities, interests, and opinions.
Term
Personality-
Definition
The unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one's own environment.
Term
Brand Personality-
Definition
The specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand of music.
Term
Motive (Drive)
Definition
A need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction of the need.
Term
Perception-
Definition
The process buy which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world.
Term
Learning-
Definition
Changes in an individual's behavior arising from experience.
Term
Belief
Definition
A descriptive thought that a person holds about something.
Term
Attitude-
Definition
A person's consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward and object or idea.
Term
Complex Buying Behavior-
Definition
Consumer buying behavior in situations characterized by high consumer involvement in a purchase and significant perceived differences among brands.
Term
Dissonance-reducing buying behavior
Definition
Consumer buying behavior in situations characterized by high involvement by few perceived differences among brands.
Term
Habitual buying behavior
Definition
Consumer buying behavior in situations characterized by low-consumer involvement and few significantly perceived brand differences.
Term
Variety-seeking buying behavior
Definition
Consumer buying behavior in situations characterized by low consumer involvement but significant perceived brand differences.
Term
Need Recognition
Definition
The first stage of the buyer decision process, in which the consumer recognizes a problem or need.
Term
Information search
Definition
The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer i aroused to search for more information' the consumer may simply have heightened attention or ma go into an active information search.
Term
Alternative evaluation
Definition
The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer uses information to evaluate alternative brands in the choice set.
Term
Purchase decision-
Definition
The buyer's decision about which brand to purchase.
Term
Post-purchase behavior
Definition
The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumers take further action after purchase, based on their satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
Term
Cognitive Dissonance-
Definition
Buyer discomfort caused by post-purchase conflict.
Term
New Product
Definition
A good, service, or idea that is perceived by some potential customers as new.
Term
Adoption process
Definition
The mental process through which an individual passes from first hearing about an innovation to final adoption.
Term
________ is never simple, yet understanding it is the essential task of marketing management.
Definition
Consumer buying behavior
Term
The consumer market is made up of which of the following?
Definition
individuals who acquire goods or services for personal consumption
households that purchase goods or services for personal consumption
Term
Economic, technological, and cultural forces are all ________ in the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior.
Definition
stimuli
Term
Most large companies research ________ buying decisions to find out what they buy, where they buy, how and how much they buy, when they buy, and why they buy.
Definition
consumer
Term
The starting point of understanding a consumer's response to various marketing efforts is the ________ of a buyer's behavior.
Definition
stimulus-response model
Term
Marketing stimuli consist of the four Ps. Which is NOT one of these?
Definition
politics
Term
The marketer wants to understand how the stimuli are changed into responses inside the consumer's ________, which has two parts. First, the buyer's characteristics influence how he or she perceives and reacts to the stimuli. Second, the buyer's decision process itself affects the buyer's behavior.
Definition
black box
Term
In the model of buyer behavior, which of the following is NOT a major type of force or event in the buyer's environment?
Definition
channel
Term
________ is(are) the most basic cause of a person's wants and behavior.
Definition
Culture
Term
Marketers are always trying to spot ________ in order to discover new products that might be wanted.
Definition
cultural shifts
Term
Each culture contains smaller ________, or groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations.
Definition
subcultures
Term
Which of the following is NOT considered an important American subculture by marketers?
Definition
opinion leaders
Term
This group of consumers tends to buy more branded, higher-quality products. and to make shopping a family event, with children having a big say in the purchase decision. In general, they are very brand loyal, and they favor companies who show special interest in them.
Definition
Hispanic
Term
________, the fastest-growing U.S. demographic segment, now number more than 45 million.
Definition
Hispanics
Term
Although more price-conscious than other segments, ________ consumers tend to be strongly motivated by quality and selection. Brands are important. They enjoy shopping and are more fashion conscious than other ethnic groups.
Definition
African American
Term
________, the most affluent American demographic subculture, now have more than $450 billion in annual spending power.
Definition
Asian Americans
Term
________ are becoming a very attractive market: they are the ideal market for travel, restaurants, high-tech home entertainment products, and convenient services
Definition
Mature consumers
Term
Which of the following is NOT true of mature consumers?
Definition
They place more importance on brand names and are more brand loyal than members of other age groups.
Term
________ are society's relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors.
Definition
Social classes
Term
What is one way that social class is NOT measured?
Definition
number of children in the family
Term
Which of the following statements is true regarding social class in the United States?
Definition
Social classes show distinct product preferences in clothing and automobiles.
Term
________ are groups to which an individual wishes to belong, as when a teenaged basketball player hopes to play someday for the Los Angeles Lakers.
Definition
Aspirational groups
Term
________ are people within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exert influence on others.
Definition
Opinion leaders
Term
Opinion leaders are sometimes referred to as ________.
Definition
the influentials
Term
Many companies, such as JetBlue and Sony, enlist everyday consumers who are enthusiastic about their brands to become ________ , brand ambassadors who share their passion for a company's products with large circles of friends and acquaintances in return for insider knowledge and other rewards.
Definition
brand evangelists
Term
Companies who use brand ambassadors are participating in ________.
Definition
buzz marketing
Term
MySpace.com and YouTube are both examples of ________.
Definition
social networks
Term
Which of the following best explains why a rush of marketers now participate in established online social networks?
Definition
Consumers are more likely to view to peer-to-peer communication as credible.
Term
The ________ is the most important consumer buying organization in society; the roles and influences of different members have been researched extensively.
Definition
family
Term
A ________ consists of the activities people are expected to perform according to the persons around them.
Definition
role
Term
A buyer's decisions are influenced by ________ such as the buyer's age and life-cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle, and personality and self-concept.
Definition
personal characteristics
Term
) People change the goods and services they buy over time because of the two changing factors of ________.
Definition
age and life-cycle stage
Term
________ is a person's pattern of living as expressed in his or her psychographics, including his or her activities, interests, and opinions.
Definition
Lifestyle
Term
All of the following make up a person's lifestyle EXCEPT ________.
Definition
dissonance-reducing buying behavior
Term
A customer's lifestyle can be measured by using the AIO dimensions. What does AIO stand for?
Definition
Activities, Interests, Opinions
Term
________ refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one's own environment. It is usually described in traits such as self-confidence, dominance, sociability, autonomy, defensiveness, adaptability, and aggressiveness.
Definition
Personality
Term
Researchers found that a number of well-known brands tended to be strongly associated with one particular trait, such as Jeep with "ruggedness." Which of the following terms would a marketer use to describe a specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand?
Definition
brand personality
Term
Definition
Term
Brand personality is a mix of human traits attributed to a brand. Which of the following is NOT a brand personality trait as discussed in your text?
Definition
emotion
Term
A person's buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors. Which is NOT one of these factors?
Definition
alternative evaluation
Term
A ________ is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct a person to seek satisfaction.
Definition
motive
Term
Many marketers use the self-concept premise that people's possessions contribute to and reflect their identities; that is, "we are what we have." Under this premise, consumers ________.
Definition
buy products to support their self-images
Term
According to Freud's theories, people are ________ many of the psychological forces shaping their behavior.
Definition
unaware of
Term
The term ________ refers to qualitative research designed to probe consumers' hidden, subconscious motivations.
Definition
motivation research
Term
Maslow's theory is that ________ can be arranged in a hierarchy.
Definition
human needs
Term
Which of the following is NOT part of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
Definition
stimulus needs
Term
What is the LEAST pressing in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
Definition
) self-actualization needs
Term
________ is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world.
Definition
Perception
Term
People cannot focus on all of the stimuli that surround them each day. A person's tendency to screen out most of the information to which he or she is exposed is called ________.
Definition
selective attention
Term
People tend to interpret new information in a way that will support what they already believe. This is called ________.
Definition
selective distortion
Term
People forget much that they learn. They tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs. This is called ________.
Definition
selective retention
Term
Some consumers worry that they will be affected by marketing messages without even knowing it. They are concerned about ________ advertising.
Definition
subliminal
Term
________ describes changes in an individual's behavior arising from experience.
Definition
Learning
Term
Learning occurs through the interplay of all of the following EXCEPT ________.
Definition
dissonance behavior
Term
________ are subtle stimuli that determine where, when, and how a person responds to an idea.
Definition
Cues
Term
If a consumer's experience is rewarding, that consumer will probably use the product more and more. The consumer's response to the product will be ________.
Definition
reinforced
Term
Applying ________, marketers can affect demand for a product by associating it with strong drives, using motivating cues, and providing positive reinforcement.
Definition
learning theory
Term
A(n) ________ is a descriptive thought that a person has about something.
Definition
belief
Term
A(n) ________ is a person's relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea.
Definition
attitude
Term
A person's attitudes fit into a pattern, and to change one attitude may require difficult adjustments in many others. Thus, a company should ________ try to fit its products into existing attitudes rather than attempt to change attitudes.
Definition
usually
Term
When consumers are highly involved with the purchase of an expensive product and they perceive significant differences among brands, they most likely will undertake ________.
Definition
complex buying behavior
Term
Which of the following typically occurs with habitual buying behavior?
Definition
A) There is high consumer involvement.
B) There is strong brand loyalty.
C) Consumers search extensively for information.
D) Ad repetition creates brand conviction.
E) NONE OF THE ABOVE
Term
When customers have a low involvement in a purchase but perceive significant brand differences, they will most likely engage in ________.
Definition
variety-seeking buying behavior
Term
The buyer decision process consists of five stages. Which of the following is NOT one of these stages?
Definition
variety-seeking buying behavior
Term
The buying process starts with ________, in which the buyer recognizes a problem.
Definition
) need recognition
Term
If the consumer's drive is strong and a satisfying product is near at hand, the consumer is likely to buy it then. If not, the consumer may store the need in memory or undertake a(n) ________.
Definition
information search
Term
The consumer can obtain information from any of several sources. Which of the following is NOT one of these types of sources?
Definition
attitude
Term
The most effective sources from which consumers obtain information are ________ because they legitimize or evaluate products for the buyer.
Definition
personal
Term
Marketers describe the way the consumer processes information to arrive at brand choices as ________.
Definition
alternative evaluation
Term
Generally, the consumer's purchase decision will be to buy the most preferred brand, but two factors can come between the purchase intention and the purchase decision. Which of the following is one of these factors?
Definition
attitude of others
Term
) After the purchase of a product, consumers will be either satisfied or dissatisfied and engage in ________.
Definition
postpurchase behavior
Term
The relationship between the consumer's expectations and the product's ________ determines whether the buyer is satisfied or dissatisfied with a purchase.
Definition
perceived performance
Term
Almost all major purchases result in ________, or discomfort caused by postpurchase conflict.
Definition
cognitive dissonance
Term
Consumers learn about new products for the first time and make the decision to buy them during the ________.
Definition
adoption process
Term
Which of the following is NOT one of the stages that customers go through in the process of learning about and making decisions about a new product or service?
Definition
culture
Term
Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability are all examples of ________.
Definition
product characteristics that influence rate of adoption
Term
Generation Xers, who were born between 1965 and 1976, share the childhood experiences of higher parental divorce rates, recession, and corporate downsizing. They tend to care about the environment and value experience over acquisition. Generation Xers make up a ________.
Definition
subculture
Term
A shoe company uses ads featuring the members of a country music band with the hope that the band's fans will see them wearing the company's shoes and want to wear the same shoes. The shoe company is hoping that fans of the band view the band as a ________.
Definition
reference group
Term
Rashmi Singh always knows about the trendiest fashions. She actively shares her knowledge with a wide group of friends and colleagues about where to shop for cutting-edge fashion at great deals, and her advice is often followed. Rashmi is an example of a(n)________.
Definition
opinion leader
Term
Shane Sudendorf is an active member of her sorority, two intramural teams, and a service organization at her college. She also actively participates on two online social networks, posting information about her day along with her thoughts on music, food, fashion, and culture. From this description, which of the following is the best way to describe Shane?
Definition
an opinion leader
Term
) There is a trend in the United States toward rediscovering the flavor of regional cooking and the use of locally grown ingredients. People are choosing to spend hours in the kitchen using only the freshest ingredients to recreate local culinary traditions. This change in ________ is one of the reasons the number of farmers markets in the United States has increased by 70 percent in the last eight years.
Definition
lifestyle
Term
The RBC Royal Bank has identified five life-stage segments. Members of which segment are most likely to be interested in debt-load management services?
Definition
Builders
Term
According to one analyst, a Harley-Davidson motorcycle can make you feel like "the toughest, baddest guy on the block." Harley-Davidson promotes its motorcycles with images of independence, freedom, and power. Harley-Davidson has created a ________.
Definition
brand personality
Term
A marketing research company asked members of a focus group to describe several motorcycle brands as animals. This is an example of ________.
Definition
interpretive consumer research
Term
Mark has long supported the actions and decisions of his city's mayor. However, many recent news stories have raised questions about the ethics of the mayor's programs and initiatives. Mark doubts that the mayor, in whom he has such faith, could behave unethically, and Mark tends to distrust the information in the media. Mark continues to support the mayor. Mark has engaged in ________.
Definition
selective distortion
Term
Juana looked at her September issue of O magazine and did not see anything of interest. After her mother was diagnosed with bipolar disorder, she found the issue extremely interesting because it offered advice on how to help people who are suffering from this problem. The issue became quite interesting to Juana due to ________.
Definition
selective attention
Term
Bob's job description had been changed. The rationale for the changes made no sense to Bob when they were explained. Bob continued to perform most of his job duties as usual. He has engaged in ________.
Definition
selective attention
Term
Stephanie and Jamal attended a sales seminar. Both left the seminar with differing opinions about what was important to implement in their jobs. Both used the information in different ways, according to what each already believed was important. They have engaged in ________.
Definition
selective distortion
Term
George is buying his first house. He has found two houses that he thinks he likes. He is highly involved in the purchase and perceives significant differences between these two houses. George will likely undertake ________.
Definition
complex buying behavior
Term
Pat thought he had received the best deal on his new car. Shortly after the purchase, Pat started to notice certain disadvantages of his new car as he learned more about other cars available. Pat is experiencing ________.
Definition
postpurchase dissonance
Term
For the past 10 years Bill and Margaret Kennedy have saved money to go to the Super Bowl should their team, the Chicago Bears, ever win the NFC championship. This is the year, and several tour companies offer attractive, but very similar, packages to the game. They want to be certain to choose the best one. Bill and Margaret are most likely to exhibit ________.
Definition
dissonance-reducing buying behavior
Term
Carrie tends to purchase various brands of bath soap. She has never been loyal to a specific brand; instead, she does a lot of brand switching. Carrie exhibits ________.
Definition
variety-seeking buying behavior
Term
Which of the following would a marketer be LEAST likely to do to encourage habitual buying behavior?
Definition
stress several key points in ad copy
Term
Lexus works to keep customers happy after each sale, aiming to delight the customer in order to gain a customer for life. In this pursuit, Lexus is focused on which step of the buyer decision process?
Definition
postpurchase behavior
Term
) Blake is in the process of buying a new car. He is highly involved in the purchase and perceives significant differences among his three favorite models. Blake's next step is most likely to be ________.
Definition
alternative evaluation
Term
Donna wants to buy a new coat. During the ________ stage of her purchase process she will ask her friends to recommend a store and/or a style of coat. She will search the newspaper for coat sales, and she will visit nearby stores to see what is available in her price range.
Definition
information search
Term
Leona purchased two bottles of wine from vineyards in Australia. When asked her opinion of the wine, she said the burgundy wine tasted like alcoholic grape juice, but the Chablis had a crisp taste that she really enjoyed. These statements were made during the ________ stage of the purchase decision.
Definition
postpurchase behavior
Term
Cameron loves to know about and purchase the most up-to-date technological gadgets. Among his friends, he is almost always the first to own the newest electronic product. Often the products that Cameron buys become adopted by large groups of consumers, but occasionally Cameron will purchase a product that is adopted by only a small portion of the population. To which of the following adopter groups does Cameron belong?
Definition
innovator
Term
Refer to the scenario below to answer the following questions.

The Attic Trunk began in 1979 as an upscale dress shop in Forest Ridge's fashionable shopping district, catering to a wealthy, mature clientele. Many other specialty shops lined the main avenue over the next few years. But as Forest Ridge began to attract an affluent, younger, and more demographically diverse population, the once-popular shopping district was increasingly perceived as stodgy and snobby. By the late 1980s, many of these specialty shops suffered financially. Most shops attracted only tourists who enjoyed browsing through the displays of alligator belts and shoes, piles of scented soaps, and useless flowered parasols, often laughing at the ridiculously high prices. Owners of The Attic Trunk had noticed the shifts in population and buying behavior of the typical shopper by the late 1980s. In fact, the owners had observed that the once-fashionable shopping district in Forest Ridge no longer attracted a "typical shopper." The wealthy, mature clientele had been partially replaced with affluent families with children, a mix of Asian and African Americans as well as Caucasians. Specialty items at The Attic Trunk gradually disappeared, replaced by brand-name apparel, colognes, and jewelry. Other owners followed suit in the early 1990s, bringing restaurants, an outdoor cafe, and a day spa to the main avenue in Forest Ridge.
Definition
Term
) Which of the following is the strongest reason that the owners of The Attic Trunk might NOT want to completely discount the mature consumers as a still-viable target market?
Definition
Mature consumers are the largest and wealthiest demographic segment in the United States.
Term
Many families with children are now attracted to the shopping district in Forest Ridge. What characteristics about families as consumer groups might the owners of The Attic Trunk want to keep in mind?
Definition
Children have considerable amounts of disposable income and have a strong influence on family buying decisions.
Term
It is most likely that each consumer segment attracted to The Attic Trunk would have which of the following in common with the other consumer segments?
Definition
AIO dimensions
Term
The starting point of understanding how consumers respond to various marketing efforts is called the marketing stimulus model of buyer behavior.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
Subcultures are society's relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
Younger consumers are better off financially than mature consumers. They are the ideal market for travel, restaurants, high-tech home entertainment products, and convenient services.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
Social class is based on shared value systems and common life experiences and situations.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
Because people are able to move between social classes, these classes are relatively impermanent and disordered divisions whose members share dissimilar values, interests, and behaviors.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
Online social networks represent an important new form of buzz for marketers.
t/f
Definition
true
Term
Children exert little influence on family buying decisions, particularly in areas such as entertainment and food.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
Personality is a person's pattern of living as expressed in his or her psychographics.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
A person's buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors: motivation, perception, learning, and beliefs and attitudes.
t/f
Definition
true
Term
Maslow's theory is that human needsincluding physiological, safety, social needs, esteem, and self-actualization needsare arranged in a hierarchy and that an unsatisfied need motivates an individual to take action to satisfy it.
t/f
Definition
true
Term
Alternative evaluation is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
A belief is the specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
Dissonance-reducing buying behavior typically occurs when a buyer sees little difference among brands but is highly involved with the purchase.
t/f
Definition
true
Term
A person buying a car would be unlikely to exhibit complex buying behavior.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
A marketer seeking to create brand familiarity should be more concerned about creative ad copy content than ad repetition.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
Commercial sources of information typically legitimize and evaluate products for buyers.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
After purchasing a product, the consumer will be satisfied or dissatisfied and will engage in post-purchase behavior.
t/f
Definition
true
Term
Most unhappy customers explain their reasons for dissatisfaction to the company who sold the product.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
When a consumer learns about a new product for the first time and makes a decision to try it, the consumer is engaged in the alternative evaluation process.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
People differ greatly in their readiness to try new products. In each product area, there are "consumption pioneers." They are also called laggards.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
Early adopters are opinion leaders in their communities and adopt new ideas early but carefully.
t/f
Definition
true
Term
Ed purchases new technological devices such as PDAs, DVRs, and MP3 players after many people he knows already own the devices. However, Ed is rarely among the last people he knows to purchase a new technology. Ed is part of the laggard adopter group.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
Members of the early majority are deliberate; although they rarely are leaders, they adopt new ideas before the average person.
t/f
Definition
true
Term
In general, innovators tend to be relatively older, be more mature, and have a lower income than late adopters.
t/f
Definition
false
Term
Two of the characteristics that are especially important in influencing an innovation's rate of adoption are relative advantage and compatibility.
t/f
Definition
true
Term
Cultural factors exert a broad and deep influence on consumer behavior. The marketer needs to understand the role played by the buyer's culture, subculture, and social class. Compare the roles of culture, subculture, and social class.
Definition
Culture is the most basic cause of a person's wants and behavior. Each culture contains smaller subcultures, or groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations. Subcultures include nationalities, religions, racial groups, and geographic regions. Many subcultures make up important markets. Social classes are society's relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors. Unlike nationality or ethnic subculture, social class is determined by a combination of many variables, such as occupation, income, education, and wealth. Social scientists have identified seven social classes within the American culture, ranging from upper class to lower class.
Term
Many subcultures make up important market segments. Examples of four such important subculture groups include Hispanics, African Americans, Asian Americans, and mature consumers. Describe the general characteristics of each of these groups.
Definition
Hispanic consumers tend to buy more branded, higher-quality productsgenerics do not sell well to Hispanics. Perhaps more important, Hispanics are very brand loyal, and they favor companies who show special interest in them. African American consumers are more price-conscious than other segments; they are also strongly motivated by quality and selection. African Americans seem to enjoy shopping more than other ethnic groups and are also more fashion conscious. Asian American consumers are the most affluent U.S. demographic segment and are the second-fastest-growing population subculture, after Hispanics. Asian American consumers are very tech-savvy and are the most brand conscious of all the ethnic groups. Mature consumers are better off financially than are younger consumer groups. They are an ideal market for travel, restaurants, high-tech home entertainment products, convenient services, financial services, and healthcare services.
Term
A consumer's behavior is influenced by social factors, such as the consumer's small groups, family, and social roles and status. Explain the differences among these social factors.
Definition
Small groups to which a person belongs have a direct influence on what a person buys. Reference groups serve as direct or indirect points of comparison or reference in forming a person's attitudes or behaviors. An aspirational group is one to which the individual wishes to belong. Reference groups expose a person to new behaviors and lifestyles, influence a person's attitudes and self-concept, and create pressures to conform that may affect the person's product and brand choices. Opinion leaders are also included in reference groups. The group closest to consumers is the family, the most important consumer buying organization in society. Marketers are interested in the changing roles and influence of each family member, particularly as male and female purchasing roles evolve and children wield more purchasing influence. Within groups, including families, the position of an individual is defined by role and status. A role consists of the activities people are expected to perform according to the persons around them, while status is the general esteem given to that role. People tend to choose products that fit with their roles and status.
Term
Each person's distinct personality influences his or her buying behavior. Personality is usually described in terms of traits. What are these traits, and how do they affect the way people purchase items? Give at least one example.
Definition
Personality is described in terms of traits such as self-confidence, dominance, sociability, autonomy, defensiveness, adaptability, and aggressiveness. Personality can be useful in analyzing behavior for certain products. Consumers are likely to choose brands with personalities that match their own. For example, someone with a sophisticated personality might be attracted to a more sophisticated product, such as a BMW, while someone with a more rugged personality might be attracted to a more rugged product, such as a Jeep.
Term
Explain Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
Definition
Maslow suggested that our unfulfilled needs motivate us and that our needs are arranged in a hierarchy. The hierarchy of needs includes physiological, safety, social, self-esteem, and self-actualization needs. Maslow suggested that we fill the bottom-level, basic needs first before moving up the hierarchy. Until more basic needs such as safety are fulfilled, an individual has little interest in higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization.
Term
Compare and contrast the four types of buying decision behavior exhibited by consumers.
Definition
A consumer exhibits complex buying behavior when he or she is highly involved in a purchase decision and perceives significant differences among the choices. Consumers will engage in a learning process as they gather and analyze information about their choices before making a purchase. When a consumer is highly involved with a purchase but does not perceive significant differences among his or her choices, he or she will most likely engage in dissonance-reducing behavior. This behavior involves less time learning about each product's attributes, and a consumer is more likely to make a choice based on a good price or convenience. Habitual buying behavior and variety-seeking behavior are exhibited when a consumer has a low involvement with the product. When the consumer sees little difference between brands, he or she will most likely engage in habitual buying behavior, buying the most familiar brands out of habit. When the consumer perceives some significant brand differences, he or she is more likely to engage in variety-seeking buying behavior, doing a lot of brand switching without a great deal of evaluation before purchase.
Term
Describe some important strategies for a marketer of a high-involvement product.
Definition
Marketers must understand the information-gathering and evaluation behavior of their high-involvement customers. This involves helping customers learn about the product attributes and their relative importance, as well as clearly differentiating the brand's features. Marketers might use long copy in print media to satisfy the customer's need for information. Marketers must also motivate salespeople to influence the customer's choice. To discourage customers' postpurchase dissonance, after-sale communications from the marketer should help customers feel good about their purchase decision.
Term
Listing them in the proper order, what are the stages in the buyer decision process? Describe each.
Definition
In the need recognition stage, consumers become aware of a new problem or need. Then, consumers seek information products to meet that need in the information search stage. In the alternative evaluation stage, consumers use the gathered information to compare and contrast the choices. Consumers do not use the same evaluation process in all buying situations; sometimes they may make careful, logical calculations and other times they may rely on intuition and buy on impulse. Consumers then make the purchase decision, buying the product. The last component of the process is postpurchase behavior, which is determined by any difference between the consumer's expectations for the product and the perceived performance of the product.
Term
Identify and describe the stages in the adoption process.
Definition
In the awareness stage, consumers become aware of the new product but lack information about it. Then, consumers seek information about the new product in the interest stage. In the evaluation stage, consumers consider whether trying the new product makes sense. Consumers try the product on a limited basis in the trial stage. Finally, consumers decide to make full use of the product in the adoption stage.
Term
Identify the product characteristics that influence the rate of adoption. Explain how each characteristic affects the rate of adoption
Definition
The five most important product characteristics that influence the rate of a product's adoption are relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability. Relative advantage is the degree to which an innovation appears superior to existing products; the greater the perceived relative advantage, the sooner the product will be adopted. Compatibility is the degree to which the innovation fits the values and experiences of potential consumers; high compatibility leads to quick adoption. Complexity is the degree to which the innovation is difficult to understand or use; the greater the complexity, the slower the adoption rate. Divisibility is the degree to which the innovation may be tried on a limited basis; the higher the divisibility, the slower the rate of adoption. Finally, communicability is the degree to which the results of using the innovation can be observed or described to others; high communicability lends itself to a higher rate of adoption.
Term
What role do the four Ps play in consumer behavior?
Definition
The four Ps are the marketing stimuli that affect buyer behavior: marketers use product, price, place, and promotion to attract the targeted consumers.
Term
Give an example of a cultural shift that may impact the marketing of products or services.

Definition
Answers will vary. Currently, the shift toward greater concern about health and fitness has generated increased marketing of exercise equipment and gear.
Term
Why might the Hispanic market be a viable targeted group for a new marketer of products?
Definition
Hispanics are the fastest growing U.S. subculture and they tend favor companies who show special interest in them, attributes a new marketer of a product could capitalize on.
Term
In what way might a marketer rely on opinion leaders?
Definition
Opinion leaders can influence other larger groups of consumers to be attracted to a marketer's products.
Term
How does marketing through online social networks differ from more traditional marketing?
Definition
Marketers hope to use social networks to interact with consumers and become a part of their everyday lives instead of relying on the one-way commercial messages of more traditional media.
Term
Explain why typical husband-dominant or wife-dominant products of the 1970s may no longer be regarded as typical.
Definition
Changes in the traditional family structure, such as more women holding jobs outside the home and more single-parent households, have changed the traditional buying roles over time.
Term
Explain the concept of brand personality.
Definition
A brand personality is the specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand.
Term
Explain why selective attention is not controllable by a marketer.
Definition
A marketer cannot guarantee that a consumer will pay attention to or remember a specific ad; people use selective attention because it is impossible for them to pay attention to the thousands of marketing stimuli they experience each day.
Term
Explain how selective distortion is somewhat controllable by a marketer.
Definition
Marketers can attempt to understand consumers' mindsets and how these will affect perceptions of advertisements.
Term
Knowing that selective retention prevents consumers from remembering everything about an ad, what might a marketer do to enhance retention?
Definition
Use of drama, fear, or extreme humor in an ad can often promote retention among consumers; ad repetition may also work.
Term
Explain the role of marketers in the information search step of the consumer decision-making process. Give an example of how the marketer might execute this role.
Definition
The role of marketers in the information search step of the consumer decision-making process is to make the information consumers want and need about their product easily accessible by the consumer.
Term
Explain how marketers may be able to reduce postpurchase cognitive dissonance.
Definition
Marketers must make every effort to enhance after-sale communications, providing evidence and support to help consumers feel good about their purchases.
Term
Why should marketers set up systems that encourage customers to complain about products?
Definition
Most customers never share their complaints with marketers; without this information, it is difficult for a company to identify how it can improve.
Term
Definition
Term
What strategy should a marketer use upon learning that consumers are not buying a product because they do not perceive a need for it?
Definition
Marketing might launch an advertising campaign that shows customers how the product can solve their existing problems and meet their existing needs.
Term
What are the differences between innovators and early adopters?
Definition
Innovators are more willing to take on risk; early adopters try new ideas early on but are much more deliberate.