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Geology 1121 Final Flashcards: Minerals
Minerals:the building blocks for rocks. Professor Maasha's Geology 1121
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Geology
04/09/2012

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Term
A rock is best defined as:
Definition
aggregates of one or more minerals.
Term
In geology, a mineral is defined as:
Definition
a naturally occurring, usually inorganic, solid consisting of chemical elements in specific proportions, whose atoms are arranged in a systematic internal pattern.
Term
The smallest particle of an element that retains all of the element's chemical properties is the:
Definition
atom.
Term
One carbon isotope has 6 protons, 8 neutrons, and 6 electrons. Its atomic mass is:
Definition
14
Term
The property that distinguishes an atom to be that of a particular element is: 
Definition
the number of protons it has.
Term
The element carbon has 6 protons and 6 electrons, and one isotope has 8 neutrons. The atomic number of this isotope of carbon is:
Definition
6
Term
Which characteristics of an atom determine whether it will bind with other atoms?
Definition
Number of electrons in the outer shell and net electrical charge.
Term
Which of the following atoms would be LEAST likely to bond with other atoms?
Definition
An atom with 8 electrons in its outer shell and the same number of electrons as protons.
Term
An atom with only one electron in its outer shell loses that electron, and does the following EXCEPT:
Definition
become the atom of a different element
Term
Opal should NOT be considered a mineral because
Definition
it does not have a systematic internal organization of its atoms.
Term
In an ionic bond, atoms:
Definition
lose or gain electrons.
Term
In a covalent bond, atoms
Definition
share electrons
Term
In metallic bonding, which of the following is NOT true?
Definition
Metallic bonding is the most common type of bonding among minerals.
Term
Which of the following characteristics is NOT imparted by metallic bonding? 
Definition
Extreme hardness
Term
Which of the following statements concerning hydrogen bonding is NOT true? 
Definition
It occurs because the water molecule is polar; the oxygen side of the water molecule carries a positive charge and the hydrogen side carries a negative charge
Term
A van der Waals bond is a type of: 
Definition
metallic bond
Term
Which of the following statements concerning crystals is NOT true? 
Definition
They are considered crystals only if they are naturally occurring.
Term
A mineraloid is the same as a mineral EXCEPT:
Definition
it does not possess an orderly internal arrangement.
Term
The kinds of mineral formed in a particular time and place depend on all of the following EXCEPT:
Definition
the shape of the space in which the mineral forms.
Term
In a crystal structure, which of the following is true?
Definition
Smaller positive ions occur between larger negative ions
Term
Which of the following statements concerning mineral crystal formation is NOT true?
Definition
Because the identity of the available atoms remains constant, the formation of crystals is independent of the rate of cooling of the molten rock from which it forms
Term
In the mineral olivine, iron and magnesium can substitute freely in the crystal for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
Definition
they have the same atomic mass
Term
The term polymorphism refers to:
Definition
two mineral crystals that have the same chemical composition but different crystal structure.
Term
The best single property by which most minerals can be identified is: 
Definition
none of the above, because minerals can seldom be identified on the basis of only one property.
Term
Which of the following statements about mineral identification is NOT true? 
Definition
Color is one of the most reliable ways by which minerals can be identified.
Term
Which of the following statements regarding mineral identification is NOT true?
Definition
Luster refers primarily to whether the mineral appears to shine when its surface is wet.
Term
The purpose of rubbing a mineral across an unglazed porcelain slab, the streak plate, is: 
Definition
to observe the color of a mineral in its powdered form
Term
Mineral hardness refers to:
Definition
strength of the bonds in the crystal structure.
Term
If a mineral exhibits cleavage, it: 
Definition
breaks consistently along distinct planes.
Term
Which of the following statements about mineral hardness is NOT true?
Definition
Hardness refers to how easily or how resistant a mineral is to breakage
Term
If a mineral exhibits cleavage, it: 
Definition
breaks consistently along distinct planes.
Term
Mineral cleavage indicates:
Definition
unequal bond strength in the crystal.
Term
Fracture in a mineral indicates:
Definition
equal bond strength in the crystal structure.
Term
Diamond cutters have traditionally made use of which mineral property? 
Definition
Cleavage
Term
In the laboratory, the specific gravity of a mineral can be determined by the ratio of the substance's:
Definition
weight to the weight of an equal volume of water.
Term
The most important (i.e., most abundant) mineral group is the:
Definition
silicates.
Term
The silicon-oxygen tetrahedron consists of:
Definition
one small silicon atom and four larger oxygen atoms.
Term
Silicon-oxygen tetrahedra can form as independent tetrahedra, single chains, double chains, sheets, and frameworks. A list of the minerals corresponding to these, in order, are:
Definition
olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, quartz
Term

The mineral quartz is distinctive because it consists of:

Definition

a three-dimensional framework composed entirely of silicon and oxygen.

Term

Smectite clay is used for all of the following EXCEPT:

Definition

as a common cure for intestinal ailments.

Term
All of the following statements concerning nonsilicates are true EXCEPT:
Definition
they form the two most abundant minerals in the Earth's crust.
Term
Which of the following is the most appropriate statement regarding the naming of minerals?
Definition
The names of minerals are based on geographic locations, distinctive physical characteristics, and so on, rather than on a conventional system
Term
Which of the following statements about gemstones is NOT true?
Definition
Gemstones are formed only from very rare minerals
Term
Which of the following statements concerning diamonds is NOT true?
Definition
Diamonds are formed as a result of extreme pressure on coal that has been buried to a depth of more than 150 kilometers (90 miles).
Term
Which one of the following properties will distinguish cubic zirconia from real diamond? 
Definition
Specific gravity
Term
All of the following statements concerning synthetic gems are true EXCEPT:
Definition
synthetic gems are generally cheaper than natural gems
Term
All of the following statements concerning synthetic gems are true EXCEPT:
Definition
synthetic gems are generally cheaper than natural gems.
Term
Which of the following examples of minerals that form under the given environments is NOT possible?
Definition
Deposits of calcite form from the slow cooling of molten rock.
Term
Which of the following is a common nonferromagnesian silicate mineral?
Definition
all of the above (clay minerals, feldspar, quartz, muscovite)
Term
Which of the following is a common ferromagnesian mineral?
Definition
augite