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Fluids & Electrolytes
Fundamentals of Nursing
30
Nursing
11/17/2009

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Term

 

Fluid & Electroylte balance

Definition

Fluid balance occurs when the amount taken in equals the amount that is lost

 

imbalance occurs when there is too much, or an overload of fluid, when there is a deficient in the amount provided to replace loses

Term

 

Describe normal intake & output

Definition

too much is not good, too little not good in water.

 

water---> is the greatest part of the body

 

approximately 80% of body weight is water

 

average adult is 60% water weight


Term
Normal intake & output chart
Definition

(intake) 1500 ml fluid po------->1500 mil urine (output)

 

(intake) 700ml food----->400ml lungs(output)

 

(intake)350ml oxidative------>500ml skin(output)

 

(intake) none for stool------>200 ml stool

Term

 

Normal intake & output chart

(cont'd)

Definition

Average intake and output is approxiamtely 2500ml per day.

 

MAy take 2-3 days to acheive balance. Look at the I & O for the past 48-72 hours

 

Assess for (1)balance

(2) deficit

(3) overload

Term

List ways that fluid & electrolyte can leave the body


Definition

The body loses soe of its water as a result of various body functions called "obligatory loss".

 

You need 500cc urinary output in 24 hours

Term

 

Intracellular Fluids

(ICF)

Definition

Fluid found inside the cells.

 

Interstital fluid accounts for about 75% of the extra cellular fluid

Term

 

Extracellular fluid

(ECF)

contains

Definition

All the fluid outside the cells


1/ intravascular fluid {plasma}

2/ interstital fluid {fluid that surrounds tissue cells, includes the lymphs}

Term

Hyponatremia

(etiology)

Definition

 

* diuretics

 

*repeated tap water

 

*long term diarrhea

 

*long term vomiting

 

*Drinking too much water

Term

 

Hyponatremia

(effects)

Definition

* sodium effects movemnet of fluid between compartments. Decrease of sodium in blood stream can cause movement of water from intravascular compartment to cells.

 

Brain cells swell


Term

 

Osmolarity

Definition

* concentration of particles of a solution


measured vascularity. also by urine

Term

 

isotonic

Definition

* has the same solute concentration as another solution

 

example: normal saline solution is considered isotonic because the concentration of sodium in the solution nearly equals the cocnetration of sodium in the blood.

Term

 

hypertonic

Definition
Has a higher solution concentration than other solution
Term

 

hypotonic

Definition

fluids have a lower concentration of solutes
than is found inside the cells, which causes fl uid to flow into cells and out of
the extracellular spaces. This causes cells to swell and possibly burst

 

example: one solution contains only a little sodium and another solution contains more

Term

 

filtration

Definition

* the movemnt of fluids through capillaries.

 

selective allowance or blockage of substances across a
membrane, wherein movement is influenced by a pressure gradient

Term

 

osmosis

Definition

*the passive movement of fluid across a membrane from an area of lower solute concentration and comparativley more fluid into an area of higher solute concentration and compartiviey less fluid.

 

* major method of transporting body fluids

Term
Third spacing
Definition

Fluid remains in body, but in the wrong compartment.

 

* 3rd spacing foten seen after abdominal surgery,burns,ascities,peritonitis, and allergic reactions.

 

*s/s-->decrease output, edema, increase weight, decrease b/p,increase p,

Term

 

Hydrostatic pressure & plasma proteins

Definition
* pressure pushes out of intravascular low oncotic pressure allows fluid to move across a permeable membrane into interstitial area
Term

 

Cations electrolytes

(positive charge)

Definition

* sodium

 

*potassium

 

*calcium

 

*magnesium

Term

 

anions electrolytes

(negative charge)

Definition

* chloride

 

*bicarbonate

 

*phosphate

 

*sulfate

Term

 

Hyponatremia

signs

Definition

anxiety, apprehension, coma, confusion, convulsion, fatigue, muscle, weakness, muscle twitching, and abdominal cramps

symptoms

seizures

 

Term

 

Hypernatremia

signs & symptoms

Definition

thirst, elevated temp, dry mouth and sticky mucous membranes.

symptoms

accidental intestinal overload, (formulas) undiluted gastric feedings. sodium & plasma becomes concetrated & pulls toward it.  Too much water can be pulled from brain cells & shrink them

Term

 

hypokalemia

signs& symptoms

Definition

fatigue, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting, muscle weakness, decreased Gi motility, dysrhythmia,paresthesia,flat t wave on ECG, increased sensitivity to digitalis

symptoms

may be manifesed in chges of nerve & muscle activity, adv, distention & anorexia. cardiac functioning heart cannot work properly

Term

 

hyperkalemia

signs & symptoms

potassium excess

Definition
muscle weakness, nausea, diarrhea, cramps & cardia arrest, 98% potassium goes within cells; 80% goes up renal route. less 500 ml output in 24 hours pottasium builds up in blood stream, chk urine function before give potassium
Term

 

overhydration

no p; no k

Definition

rapid weight gain, periphereal edema, distended neck veins, full bounding pulse, polyuria

symptoms

moist rales in lungs

raised BP; pt. =pounding pulse

Term

 

dehydration

signs and symptoms

Definition

thirst(subjective), furrows in tongue, dry mucous membrane, warm to touch, skin dry, axillary & groin dry. Decrease skin turgor, scanty concentrated urine(objective)

symptoms

*increases fluids to differential age groups

*increase pulse respirations

Term

 

infant

plan for encouraging fluids

Definition

needs 1 qt of fluid in 24 hour

 

feeding should not exceed 30 mins


* burp frequently to allow the escape from stomach


Term

 

toddler

encouraging fluids for a patient

Definition

companionship during meals is an effective way to encourage intake

 

allow to choose from 2 types of fluid

 

use straw

 

discuss bottle feasiblity

 

kids regression

Term
encouraging fluids for a school age child
Definition

count # of cups of fluid intake

 

assist child to draw a drinking chart & to color in cups of fluid taken

 

set up short intervals within which the child must drink a given amount of fluid

Term

 

encouraging fluids for a adolescent & adult

Definition
Allow them to write down their own I & o output
Term
Encouraging fluids for an elderly
Definition

offer them something to drink

 

often small amounts