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FINAL EXAM- SOCIOLOGY 101
gender inequality & ethinicity and race
33
Sociology
12/09/2008

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Term
social construction
Definition
any phenomena "invented" or "constructed" by participants in a particular culture or society, existing because people agree to behave as if it exists or follow certain conventional rules. ONe example of a social construct is social status
Term
gender stratification
Definition
a society unequal distribution of wealth, power, and priviledge betwween two sexes
Term
glass ceiling
Definition
refers to situations where the advancement of a qualified person w/in the hierarchy of an organization is stopped at a lower level because of some form of discrimination, most commonly sexism or racism
Term
comparable worth
Definition
a reform effort to pay different job titles the same based on their value to their employer regardless of the gender predominance of those working in such titles
Term
gender
Definition
an individual's self-conception as beimg male or femeale, as distinguished by biological sex---doesnt refer to phsyical attribues but to socially formed traits of masculinity or femininity
Term
gender typing
Definition
when children acquire the masculine and/or feminine roles and identify w/these roles
Term
feminist theories
Definition
the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical ground. It encompasses work done in a broad variety of disciplines, prominently including approaches to women's roles and lives and feminist politics
Term
glass elevator
Definition
process by which men in traditionally female professions benefit from an unfair rapid rise w/in an organization
Term
social construction
Definition
the learning of gender roles through socialization and interaction with others
Term
sex
Definition
biological and anatomical differences distringuising females from males
Term
gender roles approach
Definition
males and females differ because of socialization. Males and femals learn to be different by acquiring different characteristics during the course of socialization, such as independant or dependent behaviors and ways of relating
Term
gender structure approach
Definition
males and females differ because of factor external to them... social structure and social itneractions reward men and women differently
Term
gendered modes of interaction
Definition
-men are more likely to dominate conversations in dyads and in small task groups
--different verbal styles-- men tend to interrupt women more than they interrupt other men
--associated w/ variation in power
Term
explanations for gendered modes of interaction
Definition
--women tend to be less aggressive b/c of their socialization (passivity, submission)
-power is root cause-- men systematically ahve more powre than women
-expectation statuses---see other card
Term
expectation statuses (part explanations for gendered modes of interaction)
Definition
--status expectations (class race gender)
--performance expectations (anticipated ability to contribue to the group process)
--correlation: women expect to have less ability than men inperforming certain types of tasks because of their gender status
Term
evidence of gendered modes of interaction
Definition
--these "male-like" identities more likely to adopt their verbal style characterized by dominance and interruptions
--those who dominate small group trasks more likely to influyence group decisions and receive credit for contribitions
^^promotion into positions of greater power
Term
Institutional sexism
Definition
Subordination of women that is part of the everyday workings of economics, law, politics, and other social institutions
Term
Personal/individual discrimination
Definition
occurs when a single person discriminates against another
Term
Institutional discrimination
Definition
discrimination that is built into the system; the person who acts out the discrimination may not intend to discriminate (or even know that he/she is discriminating)
Term
Example of institutional sexism
Definition
characteristics of successful “leaders” associated with masculinity – when women exhibit them perceived negatively
Term
Occupational distribution
Definition
Dramatic increase in participation of women in labor force
--Close to half of all US workers are female – increases in many male-dominated fields (numbers vary by race/ethnicity)
Term
Gender segregation
Definition
within occupations – the pattern where women and men are situated in different jobs throughout the labor force
Term
Gendered distribution of resources and rewards can be objectively measured:
Definition
income*
educational attainment
wealth
occupational status*
mortality rates
access to social institutions
Term
explanation of wage gap---example explaining gender distribution
Definition
Wage gap = what % of male income females earn

For every dollar a full time working man earned in 2007, a full time working woman earned about 78 cents.

Even more disparate for women of color

Global phenomenon
In virtually every country men earn more than women
Term
what is the difference between sex and gender?
Definition
sex is biological
gender is social
Term
how do both biology and gender socialization contribute to difference between men and women
Definition
social factors influence abilities of men/wome diff women sometimes have to work part time b/c of child. Men seem to be more aggresive
Term
how can studies of gender in other cultures contribute to the arguement that gender is socially constructed?
Definition
b/c gender inequalities exist across culture but not in otherse, depends upon some of the social institutions for example
Term
describe some examplse of how gender inequalities emerge in the workplace. What are some possible explanations? How would a socoiologist explain these inequalities?
Definition
women paid less b/c sometimes they work part time b/c of child
--same education level but still less pay
--pre-existing notions of gender roles outside of workplace
Term
How do inequalities in the home, especially w/regard t housework and childcare, reflect larger gender inequalities in society?
Definition
women generally tend to care for child and therefore have to take more time off of work, seen as lazy or not as hard-working
--reinforce percieved ideas of women as caretakes and not workers
Term
what are signs of declining economic inequality between men and women from a global perspective? What are somesigns of progress interms of women's political equality from a global perspective?
Definition
more women are gaining political positions and educations levels are increasing, allowing women to fulfill more prestigious jobs
--wage gap exists but is declining b/c of the equality that women are fighting for
Term
contrast functionality and feminist approaches to understanding gender inequality
Definition
-Contrast functionalist: believe gender differences contrib. to social stability and integration--division of labor to solidify environment
---feminist approach: want equality
Term
what are the basic arguements of liberal feminist, radical feminist, black feminist, and post modern feminist perspectives?
Definition
--liberal: looks for explanations of inequality in social and cultureal attitudes; concerned w/sexism, inequality @ work & media.. want legal advances
--radical feminist: believe men exploint women, domination of males, focus on family, men rely on free domestic labor
--black feminist: focus on black, concerned w/race and gender/sex
--postmodern feminist: not unity basis of identity in women.. want diverse standpoints
Term
Main arguements & findings of PADAVIC AND RESKIN ARTICLE... what are factors that shape gender gap in occupations arena? How does this article relate to classroom discussions about gender wage gap, the in-class video we watched on balancignwork and family, and the in-class activity we did on supercar? What are the implications for society if padavic and reskin's research is correct?
Definition
--men are greatly over-represented
--the higher level of authority in an organization, the less likely women are repped
--white men held a large afdvantage over more races & ethnicities in exercising decision-making power
--the internet labor force converts to segregation info a promotion gap
--the ILF is connect to the job ladder
--filling jobs through "word of mouth: recruiting tends to casue a continution in promotion gap
--stereotypes such as women not being able to ---RESEARCH REST