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Exam #3 (Hinduism)
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Religious Studies
03/20/2013

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Term
Samsara
Definition
"continuous flow", repeating cycle of birth, life, death, and rebirth
Term
Reincarnation
Definition
that the soul or spirit, begins a new life in a new body after death
Term
Moksha
Definition
liberation from ignorance
Term
Kama
Definition
sexual desire
Term
Artha
Definition
purpose, cause, motive, gain
Term
Karma Yoga
Definition
discipline of action
Term
Jnana Yoga
Definition
path of knowledge
Term
Bhakti Yoga
Definition
love, faith, and surrender to God
Term
Sruti
Definition
Written by divinity, the sacred texts of Hinduism. One of three main sources of Dharma.
Term
Smrti
Definition
Written by man, codified component of Hindu customary law
Term
Brahmin
Definition
the priestly caste
Term
Kshatriya
Definition
warrior caste
Term
Vaishya
Definition
merchant caste
Term
Shudra
Definition
Servant caste
Term
Karma
Definition
the concept of "action", cause of entire cycle of cause and effect
Term
Yoga
Definition
a commonly known term for physical, mental, and spiritual disciplines practices
Term
Maya
Definition
illusions of our soul manifested through our body
Term
Atman
Definition
self, or soul
Term
Brahman
Definition
the unchanging reality amidst and beyond the world
Term
Bhakti Yoga
Definition
active involvement of a devotee in worship of the divine
Term
Orthopraxy
Definition
correct action/activity, or emphasis on conduct
Term
Puja
Definition
acts include bowing, making offerings, and chanting. Generally performed daily at home.
Term
Darshan
Definition
visions of the divine
Term
Who is the most popular God in Hinduism?
Definition
Ganesha
Term
How is Hinduism similar to other religious traditions?
Definition
They both practice meditation, and believe in reincarnation.
Term
How is Hinduism different from other religious traditions?
Definition
There is no specific doctrine that everyone follows.
Term
What is the human problem and its solution in Hinduism?
Definition
Problem is samsara, and the solution is Moksha.
Term
What are the four aims of Hindu life?
Definition
Dharma: goodness, tranquility
Artha: earning money honestly
Kama: pursuing love and pleasure only in marriage
Moksha: leading the soul towards salvation
Term
What are the three classic Hindu yogas or spiritual disciplines?
Definition
1) Karma Yoga
2) Bhakti Yoga
3) Jnana Yoga
Term
Prothero uses a geological metaphor to describe the history of Hinduism. ***Describe the layers he suggests. Indus Valley, Vedic Religion, Philosophical, devotional, modern.
Definition
Indus valley, Vedic religion, Philosophical, devotional, modern
Term
What are the Vedas?
Definition
There are four Vedas:
- Rig Veda
- Sama Veda
- Vajur Veda
- Atharva Veda

The Vedas are the primary texts of Hinduism.
Term
What was the purpose of Vedic rituals?
Definition
the variety of rites and rituals help in the formation and development of personality
Term
What portions of the primeval man produced the original Hindu castes?
Definition
(Mouth) - priestly caste [Brahmin]
(Arms) - warrior [Kshatriya]
(Thighs) - Merchants [Vaishya]
(Feet) - servants [Shudra]
Term
What is Sanskrit?
Definition
the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and a scholarly language in Buddhism and Jainism
Term
What is the preoccupation of philosophical Hinduism?
Definition
the afterlife, finding your true self
Term
What scripture is associated with philosophical Hinduism?
Definition
Vedas
Term
What is the goal of Hindu renouncers (sannyasins)?
Definition
monks over 50 that renounce everything worldly and materialistic pursuits, instead pursue spritual
Term
According to philosophical Hinduism what were the problem and solution of humanity?
Definition
Ignorance is the problem, wisdom is the solution
Term
What ideas were yoked together in the yoga of philosophical Hinduism?
Definition
self and reality, self and divinity, self and immortality
Term
What do Hindus mean when they say, "Atman and Brahman are one."?
Definition
They are one and the same, salt and water = saltwater
Term
According to philosophical Hinduism, how does one achieve moksha?
Definition
Brahman must be experienced
Term
How do devotional Hindus express their understanding of their religion?
Definition
Through Bhatki devotion to worship the divine
Term
How does one gain moksha in devotional Hinduism?
Definition
Through mercy and grace of their chosen God.
Term
What is the most popular form of Hinduism today?
Definition
Bhakti.
Term
What deities are most often said to form the Hindu trinity?
Definition
Braham, Vishnu, and Shiva
Term
What deities form the "real trinity" of Hinduism, the trimurti?
Definition
Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahedevi.
Term
***What are the three main branches of Bhakti- style Hinduism today?
Definition
Term
What are some of the characteristics of Krishna?
Definition
Krishna is God himself, the Absolute, the Brahman, the Supreme being, the complete incarnation of Vishnu
Term
What are some of the characteristics of Shiva?
Definition
Destroyer
Term
What are some of the characterisitcs of Shakti?
Definition
Feminine creative power
Term
What spiritual activities do everyday Hindus engage in?
Definition
Worship gods, study vedas
Term
What is the purpose of Puja?
Definition
to get blessings from the gods
Term
According to scholar Diane Eck, what is the central act of Hindu worship?
Definition
to stand in the presence of the deity and to look at them and have them look at you.
Term
What is the most beloved portion of the Indian epic 'The Mahabhrata'?
Definition
The Gita.
Term
What is the central problem of the Gita?
Definition
Arjuna doesn't want to fight.
Term
What solution does Krishna's offer to Arjuna's problem of having to kill his kinsmen?
Definition
To feel nothing that it's his duty to do so.
Term
What are the themes of the Ramayana (Story of Rama)?
Definition
Duties of relationships, ideal father, ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife, and the ideal king.
Term
What event from the Ramayana does the Hindu festival of lights, Diwali, celebrate?
Definition
the attainment of Moksha by mahavirna
Term
What is the emphasis of Modern Hinduism?
Definition
To bring Hinduism into enlightment, science, reasoning...etc
Term
What is the first impulse of Modern Hinduism?
Definition
To bring unity to all religions
Term
The second impulse of modern hinduism?
Definition
Purifying Hinduism emphasis on championing monotheism. Saraswati a guy attacked Christianity and islam and championed hindi as the national language
Term
What great sin will Arjuna commit by fighting the sons of Drittarashsa on the battle field of Kurukshetra?
Definition
none?
Term
What responsibility does Krishna call Arjuna?
Definition
To fight and do his dharma.
Term
What attitude does Krishna recommend to Arjuna in the coming battle?
Definition
To fight and act with no attachment to the fruits of his actions, renounce any desire for reward and fear no punishment.
Term
*** According to Krishna when does one obtain "spirituality"?
Definition
Term
How does Krishna describe the path of actiona, karma yoga?
Definition
Ritual and ethical actions, sacrificial religion of vedic religion.
Term
According to krishna, what drives man to sin?
Definition
Not doing you dharma.
Term
According to Krishna, how does one avoid the continuous cycle of birth, death and rebirth?
Definition
They get good karma and achieve moksha.
Term
*** Which 4 divisions of society, castes, does Krishna Articulate?
Definition
Term
*** What are the 8 fold divisions of Krishna's Manifested nature?
Definition
Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intellect and personality
Term
*** Of all those who worship Krishna, which is the best?
Definition
Term
Problem, solution, technique, exemplar
Definition
The problem is samsara (cycle of rebirth)
Solution is Moksha (release)
The technique is devotion
Term
7 Characteristics
Definition
History - indus valley civilization
Ritual - Puja offering to gods
Morality -
Character - Dharma
Group - Worshipping?
Creed - 3 yogas
Weird - Moksha