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Exam 3 Vocab
History of Architecture and Urban Form
50
Architecture
12/01/2009

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Term
Aisle
Definition
A passage or corridor parallel to the Nave of a church or ancient basilica and seperated from it by columns or piers.
Term
Altar
Definition
A table like structure for the celebration of the Sacraments in a Christian building; for sacrifice or offerings in antiquity.
Term
Apse
Definition
A semicircular, polygonal, or rectangular extension at the end of a Roman basilica or a Christian church.
Term
Aqueduct
Definition
A Conduit or channel for transporting water which may be underground or may be elevated above the groun when it crosses low areas on bridges. The term has ended up being applied principally to the structures supporting the channel.
Term
Arch
Definition
A curved construction over an opening. A structure formed by ____ stones, whose wedge-shaped voussoirs are jointed on a radius. Most Roman ______ are round ______.
Term
Arcade
Definition
An opening surmounted by an arch; an ______ may be a range of arches and openings forming a portico.
Term
Atrium
Definition
The clonnaded forecourt of a Christian church. The central hal at the entrance of the Roman House with a central opening in the roof (the Compluvium) and a pool below (the Impluvium). Several rooms lead off this rectanglar hall.
Term
Baptistry
Definition
A separate building, or part of a church, used for the sacramental ceremony of recpetion into Christianity.
Term
Barrel Vault
Definition
Describes a round vault of semi circular vault form. Has arch stones. May also be curved.
Term
Basilica
Definition
It was a public market hall or court building. Originally it was a rectangular building with central nave flanked by aisles and an apse at the end. Later it became any large covered hall-like building.
Term
Bay
Definition
A vertical compartment of a building in which several such compartmentsd are repeated; each ___ might be defined by columns, piers, windows, or vaulting units.
Term
Buttress
Definition
A projecting mass of masonry serving to provide additional strength for the wall as it resists the lateral thrust exerted by an arch or vault. Flying ________: in a church, a ________ in the form of an arch, or set of arches, that carries the thrust of a nave vault over the side aisle roofs down to a massive external pier.
Term
Catacomb
Definition
Underground cemetary much used by early Christians, consisting of passages with niches for burial and small chambers for services.
Term
Cathedral
Definition
A bishops church, usually the principal church in a bishop's jurisdiction. The words comes from the bishop's throne or chair.
Term
Circus
Definition
In ancient Rome, an oblong space for horse and chariot races, often arranged with tiers of seats on three sides. In England, an open space circular or semicircular in shape surrounded by buildings.
Term
Clerestory
Definition
A part of a building that rises above adjoining rooftops and is pierced by a window openings to admit light into the interior.
Term
Cloister
Definition
Open square court surrounded by a covered ambulatory, often arcaded. It isgenrally attached to a church or monastery and is distinguished from a secular courtyard by its function as a place of seclusion and repose.
Term
Coffer
Definition
A sunken square or polygonal decorative panel in a ceiling, vault or within an arch.
Term
Composite Order
Definition
One of the five classical orders; favored in late Roman architecture. On the capital, large conjoined Ionic volutes are combined with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthean order.
Term
Cupola
Definition
A small dome, particularly a dome atop a roof or small tower.
Term
Exedra
Definition
A meeting places with seating, became a recess in an architectural structure, usually semi circular or sometimes rectangular. The ______ was often placed on the edge of a portico.
Term
Flying Buttress
Definition
An arch or half arch which transfers the thrust or vault or roof from an upper part of a wall to a lower support.
Term
Forum
Definition
A public civil and commercial square in ancient ROme. It was usually surrounded by a colonnade and included a basilica and temple.
Term
Gallery
Definition
An upper story open on one side o a building's main interior space or to the exterior. In a church a _______ runs above an aisle and opens onto the nave.
Term
Groin Vault
Definition
A vault formed when two-barrel vaults ofidentical size intersect at right angles.
Term
Insula
Definition
It was a block or an urban island; then by extension, block or several floors of either apartments or administrative and commercial offices.
Term
Monastery
Definition
The building complex for a monastic order.
Term
Mosaic
Definition
A pattern formed by inlaying small pieces of stone, tile, glass, or enamel into a cement, mortar, or plaster matrix.
Term
Mullion
Definition
A slender upright dividing an opening, usually a window, into two or more sections.
Term
Narthex
Definition
A colonnaded porch in front of the facade of a church, in early Christian architecture often serving as the fourth side of an atrium; also it is a transverse vestibule preceding the church nave and aisles.
Term
Nave
Definition
Central, longitudinal space of a basilica church, separated from the aisles or from side chapels and extending from teh main entrance to the transept or to the apse.
Term
Piazza
Definition
Italian term for a city square.
Term
Pier
Definition
Massive vertical support, often rectangular in plan and therefor differing from a column, sometimes have its own capital and base. When combined with pilasters, columns, or shafts, it is called a compound ____. It proportions are for more variable than in a classical column. ____ is also the term used for the solid mass between windows, doors and arches.
Term
Podium
Definition
The raised base of a Roman temple. This high base is accessible by one or more flights of stairs.
Term
Quoin
Definition
Large stone or block laid at the corner of a building (or at an opening) used either for reinforcement of the angle or for ornament.
Term
Rib
Definition
A slender, projecting arched member of a vault, used to facilitate its construction, reinforce its structure, or articulate its form in varying ways in Roman, Byzantine, Islamic, Gothic and Baroque architecture.
Term
Rose Window
Definition
A large, circular window with tracery arranged like the spoked of a wheel or other radial patterns, commonly found in Gothic facades.
Term
Rustication
Definition
Masonry with massive, strongly textures or rough-hewn blocks and sharply sunken joints distinguished from sooth ashlar.
Term
Sanctuary
Definition
The area around the principal altar in a Christian church.
Term
Spandrel
Definition
The triangular area between the sides of 2 adjacent arches and line across their tops.
Term
Springing Point
Definition
The point where the curve of an arch begins.
Term
Tesserae
Definition
Small pieces of marble, colored stone or glass used for making mosaics.
Term
Apodyterium
Definition
Changing Room Area
Term
Frigidarium
Definition
Cold Water Bathing Area
Term
Tepidarium
Definition
Warm Water Bathing Area
Term
Caldarium
Definition
Hot Water Bathing Area
Term
Iaconicum
Definition
Steam Bath or Steam Room
Term
Natatio
Definition
Swimming Pool Area
Term
Tracery
Definition
Ornamental intersecting stonework on Gothic windows also ued on the surface of late Gothic vaults. Varied techniques and patterns are giving names such as plate tracery (built of in coursed layers like the framing walls), bar tracery (constructed of complex fragments of the total pattern) flowing _______ (seemingly freehand, curvilinear design, through compass-drawn), etc.
Term
Vault
Definition
Arched roofing system in dressed stone, brickwork or concrete, which, in Roman architecture, generally gives a barrel or semicircular shape.