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Exam 2 Flashcards
Vocab
120
Psychology
02/16/2013

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

 

 

 

Subliminal Stimulation

Definition

 

 

 

Perception below conscious thresholds, subliminal messages.  unconsciously exposed to them.  have not been proven to result in a great deal of influence, if any

Term
Definition
Term

 

 

 

Absolute threshold

Definition

 

 

 

the minimum amount of energy or quantity of a stimulus required for it to be reliably detected at least 50% of the time it is presented.  Minimum amount of pressure, sound, light, or chemical required for detection

Term

 

 

 

Top-down processing

Definition

 

 

 

occurs when prior knowledge and expectations guide what is perceived.  For example, walking into a crowded room to locate a friend because you have a face in mind, and that is how you know what to look for

Term

 

 

 

Bottom-up processing

Definition

 

constructing a whole stimulus or concept from bits of raw sensory information.  Occurs when you encounter something that is unfamiliar or difficult to recognize (driving a car in a foreign country for the first time would engage bottom-up because you attempt to make sense of what different traffic signals and road signs mean

Term

 

 

 

sensation

Definition

 

the process of detecting external events by sense organs and turning those events into neural signals.  at the sensory level, the sound of someone's voice is simply a noise, and the sight of a person is a combination of color and motion

Term

 

 

 

Perception

Definition

 

 

involves attending to, organizing, and interpreting stimuli that we sense.  perception includes recognizing the sounds as a human voice and understanding that the colors, shape, and motion together make up the image of a human being

Term

 

 

 

Feature detectors

Definition

 

The ability to detect certain types of stimuli, like movements, shape, and angles, requires specialized cells in the brain called feature detectors. Without these, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to detect a round object, like a baseball, hurdling toward you at 90 miles per hour.

Term

 

 

 

pattern recognition

Definition
involves identification of faces, objects, words, melodies, etc. The visual system does more than just interpret forms, contours and colors. Pattern recognition refers to the process of recognizing a set of stimuli arranged in a certain pattern that is characteristic of that set of stimuli. Pattern recognition does not occur instantly, although it does happen automatically and spontaneously. Pattern recognition is an innate ability of animals.
Term

 

 

 

feature analysis

Definition

According to this theory, the sensory system breaks down the incoming stimuli into its features and processes the information. Some features may be more important for recognition than others. All stimuli have a set of distinctive features. Feature analysis proceeds through 4 stages.[citation needed]

  1. Detection
  2. Pattern dissection
  3. Feature comparison in memory
  4. Recognition
Term

 

 

 

prosopagnosia

Definition

a disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired, while other aspects of visual processing (e.g., object discrimination) and intellectual functioning (e.g., decision making) remain intact.

 

caused from damage to the fusiform area

Term

 

 

 

transduction

Definition

 

 

the process in which physical or chemical stimulation is converted into a nerve impulse that is relayed to the brain

Term

 

 

 

inattentional blindness

Definition
failure to notice an unexpected stimulus that is in one's eyesight when other attention demanding tasks are being performed. Inattentional blindness is categorized as an attentional error and is not associated with any vision deficits. This typically happens because humans are overloaded with stimuli, and it is impossible to pay attention to all stimuli in one's environment.
Term

 

 

 

change blindness

Definition

 

 

a psychological phenomenon that occurs when a change in a visual stimulus goes unnoticed by the observer. For example, an individual fails to notice a difference between two images that are identical except for one change.

Term

 

 

 

mondegreens

Definition

the mishearing or misinterpretation of a phrase as a result of near-homophony, in a way that gives it a new meaning. It most commonly is applied to a line in a poem or a lyric in a song

 

"very close veins" and "varicose veins"

Term

 

 

 

gestalt

Definition

 

 

the individual parts of an image may have little meaning on their own, but hwen combined the whole takes on a significant, perceived form.

Term

 

 

 

figure-ground principles

Definition

 

 

 

Gestalt principle that states that objects or "figures" in our environment tend to stand out against a background. 

Term

 

 

 

grouping principles

Definition

 

a set of principles in psychology, first proposed by Gestalt psychologists to account for the observation that humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects.

Term

 

 

 

sensory adaptation

Definition

 

 

 

the reduction of activity in sensory receptors with repeated exposure to a stimulus. (ongoing sound of your neighbor's loud music or the sound of traffic noise outside is eventually experienced less intensely.

Term

 

 

 

difference threshold

Definition

 

 

 

the smallest detectable difference between stimuli.   when you add salt to your food, for example, you are attempting to cross a difference threshold that your taste receptors can register

Term

 

 

 

just noticeable difference

Definition

 

 

 

a detectable difference

Term

 

 

 

signal detection theory

Definition

 

states that whether a stimulus is perceived depends on both sensory experience and judgment made by the subject.  two different processes: sensory process and decision process.  the experimenter presents a stimulur or no stimulus at all (sensory) and the subject is asked to report whether it was present (decision)

Term

 

 

 

rods

Definition

 

 

 

photoreceptors that occupy peripheral regions of the retina; they are highly sensitive under low light levels

Term

 

 

 

cones

Definition

 

 

 

photoreceptors that are sensitive to the different wavelengths of light that we perceive as color

Term

 

 

 

fovea

Definition

 

 

 

the central region of the retina that contains the highest concentration of cones.  its functioning explains why objects in our direct line of vision are the clearest and most colorful relative to objects in the periphery

Term

 

 

 

blind spot

Definition

 

 

 

a space in the retina that lacks photoreceptors

Term

 

 

 

dark adaptation

Definition

 

 

 

the process by which the rods and cones become increasingly sensitive to light under low levels of illumination

Term

 

 

 

retinal disparity

Definition

 

 

 

the difference in relative position of an object as seen by both eyes, which provides information to the brain about depth

Term

 

 

 

monocular cues

Definition

 

 

 

depth cues that we can perceive with only one eye.  one such cue, called accomodation, takes place when the lens of your eye curves to allow you to focus on nearby objects

Term

 

 

 

conduction hearing loss

Definition

 

 

 

results when any of the physical structures that conduct sound waves to the cochlea are damaged

Term

 

 

 

sensorineural hearing loss

Definition

 

 

 

results from damage to the cochlear hair cells (sensory) and the neurons composing the auditory nerve (neural)

Term

 

 

 

haptic perception

Definition

 

 

 

the active, exploratory aspect of touch sensation and perceptions.  active touch involves feedback, as in you run your hands along it and learn it

Term

 

 

 

kinesthesis

Definition

 

 

 

the sense of bodily motion and position.  receptors for kinesthesis reside in the muscles, joints, and tendons

Term

 

 

 

nociception

Definition

 

the activity of nerve pathways that respond to uncomfortable stimulation.  our skin, teeth, cornea, and internal organs contain nerve endings called nociceptors, which are receptors that initiate pain messages that travel to the central nervous system

Term

 

 

 

olfaction

Definition

 

 

 

the sense of smell

Term

 

 

 

gustation

Definition

 

 

 

the sense of taste

Term

 

 

 

behaviorism

Definition
Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shapes our behaviors.
Term

 

 

 

classical conditioning

Definition

 

 

 

learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus elicits a response that was originally caused by another stimulus

 

Term

 

 

 

Unconditioned response

Definition

 

 

 

a reflexive, unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus.  in pavlov's experiment, meat powder elicited unconditioned salivation in his dogs

Term

 

 

 

Unconditioned stimulus

Definition

 

 

 

a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response without learning

Term

 

 

 

 conditioned stimulus

Definition

 

 

 

a once neutral stimulus that elicits a conditioned response because it has a history of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus

Term

 

 

 

conditioned response

Definition

 

the learned response that occurs to the conditioned stimulus.  after being repeatedly paired with the US, the once neutral tone in Pavlovs experiment became a conditioned stimulus because it elicited the conditioned response of salivation

Term

 

 

 

respondent behavior

Definition

 

 

evokes a much faster and less thoughtful reaction. In that field, respondent conditioning is a synonym for classical conditioning/Pavlovian conditioning. Respondent behavior specifically refers to the behavior consistently elicited by a reflexive or classically conditioned stimulus.

Term

 

 

 

acquisition

Definition

 

 

 

the initial phase of learning in which a response is established

Term

 

 

 

extinction

Definition

 

 

 

the loss or weakening of a conditioned response when a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus no longer occur together

Term

 

 

 

spontaneous recovery

Definition

 

 

 

the reoccurrence of a previously extinguished conditioned response, typically after some time has passed since extinction

Term

 

 

 

generalization

Definition

 

 

 

a process in which a response that originally occurs to a specific stimulus also occurs to different, though similar stimuli

Term

 

 

 

discrimination

Definition

 

 

 

occurs when an organism learns to respond to one original stimulus but not to new stimuli that may be similar to the original stimulus

Term

 

 

 

Little Albert

Definition

 

 

boy was presented with a white rat and showed no fear.  scientists then struck a piece of metal with a hammer to startle the kid.  the kid associated the rat with the loud startle and quickly learned to fear the rat

Term

 

 

 

Thorndike's puzzle box

Definition
conditioning of a cat.  cat is placed into box with latch connected to the door and a piece of fish just out of reach.  eentually the cat learns to press the button to open the door as opposed to struggle to reach the fish.
Term

 

 

 

Law of Effect

Definition
The law of effect basically states that “responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation.”[1] This notion is very similar to that of the evolutionary theory, if a certain character trait provides an advantage for reproduction then that trait will persist. [2]
Term

 

 

 

operant conditioning

Definition

 

 

 

a type of learning in which behavior is influenced by consequences. (think parenting)

Term

 

 

 

reinforcement

Definition

 

 

 

a process in which an event or reward that follows a response increases the likelihood of that response occuring again

Term

 

 

 

reinforcer

Definition

 

 

 

a stimulus that is contingent upon a response, and that increases the probability tof that response occurring again

Term

 

 

 

punishment

Definition

 

 

 

a process that decreases the future probability of a response

Term

 

 

 

punisher

Definition

 

 

 

a stimulus that is contingent upon a response, and that results in a decrease in behavior

Term

 

 

 

primary reinforcers

Definition

 

consist of reinforcing stimuli that satisfy basic motivational needs (water, food, shelter, sex)

Term

 

 

 

secondary reinforcers

Definition

 

 

 

consist of reinforcing stimuli that acquire their value through learning (a paycheck, money, smile)

Term

 

 

 

positive reinforcement

Definition

 

 

 

the strengthening of behavior after potential reinforcers such as praise, money, or nourishment follow that behavior

Term

 

 

 

negative reinforcement

Definition

 

 

 

involves the strengthening of a behavior because it removes or diminishes a stimulus

Term

 

 

 

avoidance learning

Definition

 

 

 

a specific type of negative reinforcement that removes the possibility that a stimulus will occur (learning to take a detour to avoid traffic congestion and paying bills on time to avoid late fees)

Term

 

 

 

escape learning

Definition

 

 

 

occurs if a response removes a stimulus that is already present. (covering your ears upon hearing loud music.  you cant aboid the music because it is already present, so you escape the aversive stimulus

Term

 

 

 

continuous reinforcement

Definition

 

 

 

every response made results in reinforcement (vending machines deliver a snack every time the correct amount of money is deposited)

Term

 

 

 

partial (intermittent) reinforcement

Definition

 

 

only a certain number of responses are rewarded, or a certain amount of time must pass before reinforcement is available. there are 4 types of partial reinforcement schedules: 1) fixed-ratio schedule, 2) variable-ratio schedule, 3) fixed-interval schedule, 4) variable-interval schedule

Term
Definition
Term

 

 

 

fixed-ratio schedule

Definition

 

reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been completed.  for instance, a rat may be required to press a leber 10 times to receive food.  similarly, an employee working on commission may receive a bonus only after selling a specific number of items

Term

 

 

 

variable-ratio schedule

Definition
the number of responses required to receive reinforcement varies according to an average.  slot machines at casinos operate on variable-ratio reinforcement, the odds are that the slot machine will not give anything back, but sometimes a player will get a modest winning.  hitting the jackpot is very infrequent.
Term

 

 

 

fixed-interval schedule

Definition
reinforces the first response occurring after a set amount of time passes.  if your psychology professor gives you an exam every three weeks, your reinforcement for studying is on a fixed-interval schedule. 
Term

 

 

 

 variable-interval schedule

Definition
the first response is reinforced following a variable amount of time.  for example, if you were watching the nighttime sky during a meteor shower, you would be rewarded for looking upward at irregular times.  a meteor may fall on average every 5 minutes, but there will be times of inactivity for a minute, 10 minutes, 8 minutes, and so on
Term

 

 

 

shaping

Definition

 

 

 

a procedure in which a specific operant response is created by reinforcing successive approximations of that response.  shaping is done in step-by-step fashion until the desired response is learned

Term

 

 

 

extinction

Definition

 

refers to the weakening of an operant response when reinforcement is no longer available.  if you lose your internet connection, you will probably stop trying to refresh your web browser because there is no reinforcement for doing so -- the behavior will be extinguished

Term

 

 

 

cognitive maps

Definition

 

a type of mental processing composed of a series of psychological transformations by which an individual can acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment.

Term

 

 

 

latent learning

Definition

 

 

 

learning that is not immediately expressed by a response until the organism is reinforced for doing so

Term

 

 

 

observational learning

Definition

 

 

 

involves changes in behavior and knowledge that result from watching others

Term

 

 

 

partial reinforcement effect

Definition

 

 

 

refers to a phenomenon in which organisms that have been conditioned under partial reinforcement resist extinction longer than those conditioned under continuous reinforcement. 

Term

 

 

 

imitation

Definition

 

 

 

recreating a motor behavior or expression, often to accomplish a specific goal.  fmor a very young age, infants imitate the facial expressions of adults

Term

 

 

 

temperament

Definition

 

general emotional reactivity, which is regarded as the root from which several aspects of adult personality grow.  high-reacive infants tend to show vigorous activity of their limbs, back arching, and crying when confronted with unfamiliar stimuli.  low-reactive infants show less motor activity and less distress when exposed to unfamiliar stimuli.

Term

 

 

 

schema

Definition

 

 

 

a cluster of knowledge that constitutes one's knowledge about events, objects, and ideas

Term

 

 

 

assimilation

Definition

 

 

children add new information, but interpret it based on what they already know.  a young child who is familiar with only the family's pet chihuahua might develop a concept that all dogs are furry creatures that stand less than a foot tall

Term

 

 

 

accommodation

Definition

 

 

 

occurs when children modify their belief structures based on experience.  then this child encounters a great dane, she might first refer to it as horse, but will eventually correctly accommodate the great dane into her concept of what a dog is

Term

 

 

 

Piaget Stages of Cognitive Development

Definition

 

 

1) Sensorimotor (0-2 years)

2) Preoperational (2-7 years)

3) Concrete operational (7-11 years)

4) Formal operational (11 years-adulthood)

Term

 

 

 

sensorimotor stage

Definition

 (0-2 years)

cognitive experience is based on direct, sensory experience with the world as well as motor movements that allow infants to interact with the world.  object permanence is the significant developmental milestone o fthis stage

Term

 

 

 

piaget: preoperational stage of cognitive development

Definition

 (2-7 years)

 

thinking moves beyond the immediate appearance of objects.  child understands physical conservation and that symbols, language, and drawings can be used to represent ideas.

Term

 

 

 

concrete operational stage

Definition

(7-11 years)

 

the ability to perform mental transformations for objects that are physically present emerges.  thinking becomes logical and organized

Term

 

 

 

formal operational stage

Definition

(11 years-adulthood)

 

the capacity for abstract and hypothetical thinking develops. scientific reasoning and thinking becomes possible

Term

 

 

 

object permanence

Definition

 

 

the ability to understand that objects exist even when they cannot be seen or touched, a major milestone of cognitive development

Term

 

 

 

theory of mind

Definition

 

 

 

the ability to recognize the thoughts, beliefs, and expectations of others, and to understand that these can be different from one's own

Term

 

 

 

conservation

Definition
the knowledge that the quantity or amount of an object is not related to the physical arrangement and appearance of that object.  for example, imagine that a child is presented with two identical rows of seven pennies each and the experimenter spreads out one row so it is longer but has the same number of coins. the child would point to the longer line based on immediate perception instead of the answer that would require more sophisticated mental operations (preoperational stage)
Term

 

 

 

egocentrism

Definition
they perceive and interpret the world in terms of the self.  does not imply that children are selfish or inconsiderate.  for example a two-year-old may attempt to hid by covering their eyes.  tested by presenting a child with a picture of an object from 4 angles and asking which angle the experimenter is looking at.  often they point to the angle that they see instead
Term

 

 

 

Harlow's baby monkey study

Definition

 

 

infant monkeys spent more time iwth the cloth "mother" even though the wire "mother" was the one that dispensed food.  it shows that physical contact, rather than food, formed the basis for mother-infant bonding

Term

 

 

 

attachment

Definition

 

 

an enduring emotional bond formed between individuals.  there are 4 different styles of attachment: 1) secure attachment, 2) disorganized insecure attachment, 3) resistant insecure attachment, 4) avoidant insecure attachment

Term

 

 

 

secure attachment

Definition

 

 

the caregiver is a base that the child uses as he or she explores.  in the strange situation, the child plays comfortable while the moher is in the room.  the child may or may not cry when the mother leaves, and seeks contact with her upon returning.

Term

 

 

 

disorganized insecure attachment

Definition

 

 

 

the child does not have a consistent pattern of behavior either when the mother leaves or when she returns.  the child might freeze for a moment, seemingly unsure of what to do next

Term

 

 

 

resistant insecure attachment

Definition

 

 

 

the child is upset when the mother leaves, but is angry when she returns

Term

 

 

 

avoidant insecure attachment

Definition

 

 

 

the child is not upset when the mother leaves, and does not seek contact when she returns

Term

 

 

 

authoritative parenting

Definition

 

 

characterized by the expression of warmth and responsiveness to the needs of children, but also by exercising control over certain actions and decisions made by children

Term

 

 

 

authoritarian parenting

Definition

 

 

 

emphasizes excessive control over children and less expression of warmth

Term

 

 

 

indulgent-permissive parenting

Definition

 

 

 

warm but indifferent and do not attempt to control their children, even in positive and helpful ways

Term

 

 

 

indifferent-uninvolved parenting

Definition

 

 

 

show neither warmth nor control toward their children

Term

 

 

 

moral intuition

 

Definition

 

 

an inherent quality found in humans that tell them what is wrong from right

Term

 

 

 

trolley and footbridge dillemas

Definition

 

The general form of the problem is this: Person A can take an action which would benefit many people, but in doing so, person B would be unfairly harmed. Under what circumstances would it be morally just for Person A to violate Person B's rights in order to benefit the group?

Term

 

 

 

Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning

Definition

 

1) Preconventional morality

 

2) Conventional morality

 

3) Postconventional morality

Term

 

 

 

Preconventional morality

Definition

characterized by self-interest in seeking reward or avoiding punishment.  preconventional morality is considered a very basic and egocentric form of moral reasoning. 

 

Trolley: "i would not flip the trolley track switch because i would get in trouble"

Term

 

 

 

conventional morality

Definition

regards social conventions and rules as guides for appropriate moral behavior.  directives from parents, teachers, and the law are used as guidelines for moral behavior

 

trolley: "i would not flip the switch.  it is illegal to kill, and if i willfully intervened i would have probably violated the law"

Term

 

 

 

postconventional morality

Definition

considers rules and laws as relative.  right and wrong are determined by more abstract principles of justice and rights.

 

trolley: "i would flip the switch.  the value of five lives exceeds that of one, and saving them is for the greater good of society"

Term

 

 

 

heinz dillema

Definition
Heinz's wife was near death, and her only hope was a drug that had been discovered by a pharmacist who was selling it for an exorbitant price. The drug cost $20,000 to make, and the pharmacist was selling it for $200,000. Heinz could only raise $50,000 and insurance wouldn't make up the difference. He offered what he had to the pharmacist, and when his offer was rejected, Heinz said he would pay the rest later. Still the pharmacist refused. In desperation, Heinz considered stealing the drug. Would it be wrong for him to do that?
Term

 

 

 

cross-sectional design

Definition

 

used to measure and compare samples of people at different ages at a given point in time.  imagine you are designing a study examining the effects of premature birth on learning and thinking abilities from infancy through adulthood.  you could use groups of 1-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year olds who were born prematurely

Term

 

 

 

longitudinal design

Definition

 

 

follows the development of the same set of individuals through time.  you might identify a set of 50 infants and measure their cognitive development annually over the course of 20 years (same group)

Term

 

 

 

cohort effects

Definition

 

 

consequences of being born in a particular year or narrow range of years.  differences across age cohorts can be due to numerous factors, including societal, nutritional, medical, and many other influences on both physical and behavioral development

Term

 

 

 

sensitive period

Definition
a window of time during which exposure to a specific type of environmental stimulation is needed for normal development of a specific ability.  long-term deficits can emerge if the needed stimulation, such as language input, is missing during a sensitive period.  for example, in order to become fluent in their native language, infants need to be exposed to speech during their first few years of life
Term

 

 

 

stages of prenatal development

Definition

germinal: 0 to 2 weeks, migration of the blastocyst from the fallopian tubes and its implantation in the uterus.  cellular divisions take place that eventually lead to multiple organ, nervous system, and skin tissues

embryonic: 2 to 8 weeks, stage in which basic cell layers become differentiated.  major structures such as the head, heart, limbs, hands, and feet emerge.  the embryo attaches to the placenta, the structure that allows for the exchange of oxygen and nutrients and the removal of wastes. 

fetal stage: 8 weeks to birth, brain development progresses as distinct regions take form.  the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and other bodily systems develop.  sex organs appear at around the third month of gestation

Term

 

 

 

teratogen

Definition

 

a substance, such as a drug, that is capable of producing physical defects.  these defects typically appear at birth or shortly after.  because of this risk, expectant mothers who take certain medications are advised to stop taking the medication at some point during pregnancy

Term

 

 

 

motor skills development stages

Definition

 

1) raising the head

2) rolling over

3) propping up

4) sitting up

5) crawling

6) walking

Term

 

 

 

synaptic pruning

Definition

 

 

the loss of weak nerve cell connections, accelerates during brain development through infancy. increases brain funcitonality by strengthening needed connections between nerve cells and weeding out unnecessary ones

Term

 

 

 

synaptogenesis

Definition

 

 

the formation of billions of new synapses, occurs at blinding speed through infancy and childhood, and continues through the life span

Term

 

 

 

habituation

Definition

 

 

refers to a decrease in responding with repeated exposure to an event, something infants are well known for doing.  for example, if an infant views the same stimulus or event over and over, she will stop looking at it.  in this case, the habituated response is time spent looking at the event.

Term

 

 

 

scaffolding

Definition

 

 

the approach to teaching in which the teacher matches guidance to the learner or student's needs. basially the teacher provides the student with some guidance in order to learn the new skill

Term

 

 

 

identity statuses

Definition

the processes and outcomes of identity development that include elements of both crisis and personal commitment

identity achievement: consideration of different identities, followed by commitment to a particular one

identity diffusion: a reluctance or refusal to commit to an identity and respond to identity crises

identity foreclosure: a situation in which adolescents do not experience identity crises and commit to the roles and values that are handed down by their parents

identity moratorium: prolonged experimentation with different identities.  this can involve delaying commitment to a single identity and frequent identity crises

Term

 

 

 

sociometric popularity

Definition

 

individuals who are well known and respected, and who display low levels of aggression.  these adolescents may participate in high-status activities such as athletics or cheerleading, but their participation does not translate into aggression toward lower-status individuals

Term

 

 

 

perceived popularity

Definition

 

 

adolescents who are perceived as popular and may be more well known than sociometrically popular people, but are not necessarily well liked and are more prone to engage in verbally and physically aggressive ways