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Developmental Psych, Chapter 10
Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood
46
Psychology
04/04/2010

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Term
Erikson's Theory: Industry (2)
Definition
Developing a sense of competence at useful skills, school provides many opportunities
Term
Erikson's Theory: Inferiority (2)
Definition
Pessimism and lack of confidence in own ability to do things well, family enviornment, teachers, and peers can contribute to negative feelings
Term
Changes in Self-Concept during Middle Childhood (5)
Definition
More balanced-less all-or-none descriptions, social comparisons, ideal and real self, reference social groups, cultural variations
Term
Hierarchical structure of self-esteem in middle childhood (4)
Definition
Academic competence, social competence, physical/athletic competence, physical appearance
Term
Influences on Self-Esteem (3)
Definition
Culture, child-rearing practices, Attributions
Term
Influences on Self-Esteem: Attributions (2)
Definition
Mastery-oriented, Learned Helplessness
Term
Reason for Success: Mastery
Definition
Ability
Term
Reason for Failure: Mastery
Definition
Contrallable factors. Can change by working hard
Term
Reason for Success: Learned Helplessness
Definition
External factors
Term
Reason for Failure:Learned Helplessness
Definition
Can not be changed by working hard
Term
Influences on Achievement-related attributions (4)
Definition
Parents, Teachers, Gender, SES-Ethnicity
Term
Self-conscious emotions in middle childhood
Definition
governed by personal responsibility: pride and guild
Term
Emotional Understanding in middle childhood (4)
Definition
Explain emotion using internal states, understand mixed emotions, rise in empathy, supported by cognitive development and social experience
Term
Emotional self-regulation in middle childhood (2)
Definition
Motivated by self-esteem & peer approval, emotional self-efficacy
Term
Problem-centered coping (3)
Definition
Situation is seen as changeable, difficulty is identified, decision made on what to do
Term
Emotion-centered coping (2)
Definition
used if problem centered coping does not work. INternal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about outcome.
Term
Development of Distributive justice (3)
Definition
Strict Equality (5-6 yrs)
Merit (6-7 yrs)
Equity and Benevolence (around 8 yrs)
Term
Changes in Moral Views (2)
Definition
Flexible moral rules. Clarify link between moral imperative & social convention.
Term
Understanding individual rights (3)
Definition
Challenge adult authority within personal domain. view denials of personal choices as wrong. However, place limits on individual choice
Term
By school age, children associate ___ and _____ wtih white people
Definition
power, privilege
Term
Peer groups (2)
Definition
Formed from proximity, similarity
Peer Culture: bhavior, vocabulary, dress code. Can include relational aggression and exclusion
Term
Friendship in Middle Childhood (3)
Definition
Personal qualities, trust become important. More selective in choosing friends. Friendships can last several years
Term
Gender stereotypes in middle childgood
Definition
extend to include personalites and school subjects
Term
Gender Identity (3rd-4th grade)
Definition
boys strengthen identification with "masculine" traits
Girls' identification with "feminine" traits declines
Term
Only Children (3)
Definition
High in self-esteem, achievement motivation.
Closer relationships with parents
Lack of practice in conflict resolution
Term
Immediate consequences of parental divorce (2)
Definition
Instavility, conflic, drop in income
Parental stress, disorganization
Term
Long-term consequences of parental divorce (3)
Definition
Improved adjustment after 2 years
Boys and children with difficult temperaments more likely to have problems
Faterh's involvement affects adjustment
Term
Mother-Stepfather dynamics (4)
Definition
Most frequent. Boys usually adjust quickly, girls adapt less favorable, older children and adolescents of both sexes display more problems
Term
Father-stepmother dynamic (3)
Definition
Often leads to reduced father-child contact. Children in fathers' custudy often react negatively. Girls & stepmothers slow to get along at first, more posistive interaction later
Term
Benefits of maternal employment and child development (5)
Definition
Higher self-esteem. Positive family and peer relations. Fewer gender stereotypes. Better grads. More father involvement.
Term
Drawbacks of maternal employment and child development (2)
Definition
Less time for children. Ris of ineffective parenting.
Term
School phobia (2)
Definition
5-7 years. separation from home
11-13 years. particular aspects of school
Term
Factors related to resilience (4)
Definition
Peraonal Characteristics. Warm Parental relationship. Supportive adult outside family. Community resources
Term
Factors related to resilience: Personal charactersitics (2)
Definition
Easy temperament. Master orientation.
Term
In Erickson's theoury, the psychological confilct of middle childhood is resolved positively when experiencs lead children
Definition
to develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks
Term
Begining in middle childhood, children's self descriptions include descriptions of
Definition
both negative and positive characteristics
Term
By 6 to 7 years of age, children have fomred at least these four self-esteems
Definition
Academic competence, social competence, athletic competence, and physical appearance
Term
Nathan's parents have an authoritative child-rearing style. Nathan is likely to
Definition
feel especially good about himself
Term
Mastery-oriented children are more likely to attribute their sucess to ___ their failures ____
Definition
ability; lack of effort
Term
when vince recieves a high grade he attributes it to luck, but whe he gets a low test grade he attributes it to not being smart. Based on research, vince has developed
Definition
learned helplessnss
Term
Compared to younger children, school-age children are more likely to explain emotion by making reference to ___ than to ___
Definition
internal states; external events
Term
During middle childhood, children's understanding of emotions changes in that they become aware that
Definition
people can feel more than one emotion at a time
Term
David and tow of his friends are playing when his mother brings them a plate of cookis. David is intent on aking sure that he and his friends get an equal number of cookies to eat, even though his friend max says his mother forgot to make lunch for him that day. According to Damon's theory, David thinks of fairness in terms of
Definition
Equality
Term
When children and adloexents challenge parental authority, they typically do so within the ____ domain
Definition
personal
Term
which factor tends to encourage boys to be more gender-typed in their beliefs and behaviors than girls are?
Definition
society attaches gender prestige to "masculine" characteristics
Term
The overriding factor in positive adjustment following divorce is
Definition
effective parenting