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Development Psyc Study guide 2
Dev Psyc Test #2
160
Psychology
10/09/2008

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Term

Piaget's theory was based on studies of

infant perceptual development.

anecdotal reports of infant behavior.

laboratory research on infant memory.

detailed observations of infants.

Definition
studies of infant perceptual development
Term

Which of the following is a fair assessment in comparing Piaget's case study approach to cognitive development with a more rigorous experimental approach?

The more rigorous approach enables researchers to rule out alternative explanations of perceptual or cognitive functioning.

Piaget's approach allows for finer descriptions of behavior.

The more rigorous approach more clearly establishes age trends.

Piaget's approach isolates the most important events in infant cognitive development.

Definition
The more rigorous approach enables researchers to rule out alternative explanations of perceptual or cognitive functioning
Term

The psychologist says, "Infants are very limited in their capacity to remember information much before 2 years of age. They experience events only in a concrete, sensory way, and they are not capable of forming a lasting mental representation." This psychologist is clearly

Piagetian in orientation.

information-processing in orientation.

correct in understanding recent work on infant memory.

using the LAD as a framework for understanding memory development

Definition
Piagetian in orientation
Term

Why are schemes (schemas) important?

They allow the infant to develop object permanence.

They require the infant to develop symbolic representation.

They are the basic unit upon which all cognitive patterns are organized.

They enable infants to use their reflexes to adapt to and survive in their environment.

Definition
They are the basic unit upon which all cognitive patterns are organized
Term

The sensorimotor stage of development lasts from birth until age _______.

8 months.

12 months.

18 months.

24 months.

Definition
24 months
Term

Piaget's sensorimotor stage is subdivided into six substages. In which substage does the infant learn to coordinate sensation and types of schemes?

 simple reflexes

first habits and primary circular reactions

secondary circular reactions

tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

Definition
first habits and primary circular reactions
Term

Anne plays the following game with her 1-month-old son: She takes a colorful rattle, holds it toward the baby, then places it under a blanket while the baby watches. What is the baby likely to do?

try to suck on the rattle

move the blanket to find the rattle

move toward the blanket to look for the rattle

look to see if the rattle is behind him

Definition
try to suck on the rattle
Term

In infants, the main difference between a reflex and a habit is that habits

are schemes, reflexes are not.

are based on reflexes but the movement changes.

require an eliciting stimulus, reflexes do not.

do not require an eliciting stimulus, reflexes do.

Definition
do not require an eliciting stimulus, reflexes do
Term

When first born, Monica showed the typical grasping reflex by closing her fingers around anything that brushed against her palm. After a couple of weeks, though, she shows this grasping behavior even when nothing touches her palm. Monica has developed a

habit.

simple reflex.

primitive symbol.

circular reaction.

Definition
habit.
Term

At what substage are infants motivated by their own intentions?

primary circular reactions

secondary circular reactions

coordination of secondary circular reactions

tertiary circular reactions

Definition
coordination of secondary circular reactions
Term

Baby Rhea sees a piece of cereal on the floor. She quickly moves over to it, carefully picks it up, and looks at it while turning it around and moving it from one hand to the other. Rhea is in which of Piaget's substages?

primary circular reactions

secondary circular reactions

coordination of secondary circular reactions

tertiary circular reactions

Definition
coordination of secondary circular reactions
Term

Baby Akel sees a piece of macaroni on the floor. He picks it up and looks at it carefully, then drops it.  Which of Piaget's substages is Akel probably in?

primary circular reactions

secondary circular reactions

coordination of secondary circular reactions

tertiary circular reactions

Definition
tertiary circular reactions
Term

The main difference between the Piagetian concepts of intentionality and curiosity is that

curiosity involves identifying possible goals whereas intentionality involves accomplishing a goal.

 

intentionality involves symbolic representation, whereas curiosity involves concrete objects.

 

intentionality involves dealing with novel stimuli, whereas curiosity involves dealing with old stimuli.

 

 curiosity involves accomplishing a goal, whereas intentionality involves identifying possible goals.

Definition
curiosity involves identifying possible goals, whereas intentionality involves accomplishing a goal
Term

In which sensorimotor substage does an infant develop the ability to use primitive symbols?

simple reflexes

first habits and primary circular reactions

secondary circular reactions

internalization of schemes

Definition
internalization of schemes
Term

The main difference between tertiary circular reactions and other circular reactions is that tertiary circular reactions are

object oriented. i

nvolve intentionality.

require object permanence.

involve a concern with novel stimuli

Definition
involve a concern with novel stimuli.
Term

Symbols and schemes DIFFER from one another in that

schemes are inborn, whereas symbols are learned.

 

symbols are external, whereas schemes are internal.

 

symbols stand for something, whereas schemes are part of something.

 

schemes stand for something, whereas symbols are part of something

Definition
symbols stand for something, whereas schemes are part of something
Term

Margarita leaves her 4-month-old son with a day-care provider in the afternoon while she works. She constantly suggests that her son misses her while she is away. Piaget would argue that Margarita's son does not really miss her because he has

 

not yet formed an attachment.

not yet developed object permanence.

not yet developed the ability to remember.

bonded with the day-care worker.

Definition
not yet developed object permanence
Term

Kaleb crawls from his room into the hallway to look for his mother after she leaves. According to Piaget, this shows he is capable of

symbolic manipulation.

infinite generativity.

telegraphic thinking.

object permanence

Definition
object permanence
Term

Object permanence is important because it means that infants are able to

mentally represent objects.

coordinate sensory stimuli with physical actions.

physically manipulate objects in their environment.

physically explore the varying properties of objects in their environment.

Definition
mentally represent objects
Term

What is object permanence?

the idea that events continue to exist even when they cannot be directly viewed

 

the variety of properties that objects possess

 

the combining and recombining of previously learned schemas in a coordinated way

 

the reproduction of an interesting event that happens by chance

Definition
the idea that events continue to exist even when they cannot be directly viewed
Term

Without object permanence, which of the following would be IMPOSSIBLE

Seeing your father

recogniziing your mother as being familiar

differentiaiting between your mother and your father

thinking of your father when he is at work

Definition
thinking of your father when he is at work
Term

Eight-month-old Barry plays with a rattle in his crib, shaking it to make noise. Later, when seeing the rattle on his dresser, Barry makes a shaking motion with his arm. Although both Piaget and more recent cognitive theorists would agree that Barry makes a shaking motion with his arm, they would probably disagree about whether the motion means that Barry

 

has developed curiosity.

has intermodal perception.

can really symbolically represent the rattle.

can coordinate sensory information and physical activity

Definition
can really symbolically represent the rattle.
Term

Six-month-old Jamal understands that when he swings is toy bear at his mobile, the mobile will swing around. This is because Jamal understands

 

object permanence

causality

schemas

internalized representation

Definition
causality
Term

Which of the following findings challenges Piaget's theory of sensorimotor development?

 Between 4 and 8 months of age infants can imitate simple actions made by adults.

At 2 years of age, infants have symbolic thought.

 Between 12 and 18 months of age, infants explore the properties of objects.

Infants as young as 4 months of age can coordinate information from two senses.

Definition
Infants as young as 4 months of age can coordinate information from two senses.
Term

Why does the finding that 4-month-old infants have intermodal perception challenge Piaget's theory?

Piaget argued infants at this age did not have the mental schemes to coordinate sensory information in this way.

Piaget believed that this ability was present at birth.

This finding indicates the presence of object permanence much earlier than Piaget expected.

This finding indicates that infants cannot tell which sense provides information, just the opposite of what Piaget believed.

Definition
Piaget argued infants at this age did not have the mental schemes to coordinate sensory information in this way.
Term

According to Piaget, what is an infant's motivation for change?

 

an internal search for equilibrium

biological desires

assimilation and accommodation

consequences of behavior

Definition
an internal search for equilibrium
Term

When the consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior's occurrence it is called

classical conditioning.

assimilating.

operant conditioning.

accommodating

Definition
operant conditioning
Term

Juan drinks all of his milk and his father pats him on the back and says, “Good boy.” Juan's behavior has been

classically conditioned.

operantly conditioned.

modeled.

habituated.

Definition
operant conditioning
Term

Which of the following pairs is correct?

 operant conditioning : consequences of behavior

 classical conditioning : imitation

systematic learning : habit

observational learning : pairing of neural stimuli with a reflex

Definition
operant conditioning : consequences of behavior
Term

Carolyn Rovee-Collier found that infants could remember surprisingly intricate material. Her classic experiment to demonstrate an infant's memory involved a baby's ankle being tied to a ______ by a satin ribbon.

toy

mobile

bottle

bell

Definition
mobile
Term

The Rovee-Collier (1987) study in which infants kicked to try to move a mobile even when they were no longer attached to the mobile by a ribbon indicates that

young infants can imitate actions.

young infants can remember detailed actions and contexts.

young infants can transfer kicking actions to slightly different contexts.

young infants cannot store and use memories until language begins to develop.

Definition
young infants can remember detailed actions and contexts.
Term

Rovee-Collier found that 2 1/2-month-old babies could remember to kick to move a mobile a week after they learn that kicking can move a mobile. Does this finding contradict Piaget's theory?

Yes, because this demonstrates intermodal perception, which Piaget thought was impossible.

 No, because this is an example of secondary circular reactions, which Piaget thought began at about 2 months.

Yes, because this indicates memory ability that Piaget claimed developed much later.

No, because this is a purely motor act.

Definition
Yes, because this indicates memory ability that Piaget claimed developed much later.
Term

Andrea shows her baby a colorful block several times. The baby looks carefully at the block at first but then turns her attention to a different toy after seeing the block a few times. The baby is showing

memory.

imitation.

habituation.

dishabituation.

Definition
habituation.
Term

Habituation involves _______, whereas dishabituation involves _______.

decreased attention/increased attention

increased attention/decreased attention

 decreased attention to new stimuli/increased attention to new stimuli

increased attention to new stimuli/decreased attention to new stimuli

Definition
decreased attention/increased attention
Term

Assessments of infant habituation and dishabituation are useful MAINLY because they are

reasonably predictive of later learning difficulties.

indicative of the level of object permanence an infant has developed.

easy measures that do not require sophisticated research equipment.

clear measures of the nature of an infant's internal symbolic representations.

Definition
reasonably predictive of later learning difficulties
Term

What evidence is given to support Andrew Meltzoff's belief that an infant's imitative ability is biologically based?

Babies imitate their biological parents more frequently than strangers. Children in the same family have similar imitative patterns.

Babies imitate only those behaviors needed for biological survival.

Babies can imitate within only a few days after birth.

Definition
Babies can imitate within only a few days after birth.
Term

Mandy watches as another little girl in the grocery store throws a screaming tantrum to get a toy. The next week at the mall, Mandy begins screaming and crying to get some candy. Mandy is showing

 imitation.

habituation.

object permanence.

deferred imitation.

Definition
deferred imitation
Term

Because infants do not display an immediate and full imitative response to a stimulus, Meltzoff concludes that their imitation is

random behavior.

a reflexive response.

not biologically based.

not a reflexive response

Definition
not a reflexive response
Term

A newborn baby widens her eyes after her mother widens her eyes and mouth and smiles at the baby. Meltzoff would say this baby is

exhibiting a reflex.

engaging in true imitation.

showing deferred imitation.

habituating to the mother's facial expression

Definition
engaging in true imitation
Term

How does Meltzoff's discovery of deferred imitation in 9-month-old infants relate to Piaget's theory?

It contradicts the theory, which states that such activity cannot occur until symbolic representation develops.

It supports the theory, which indicates imitation occurs as early as 4 months of age.

It contradicts the theory, because Piaget found that infants repeat interesting behavior as young as 4 months of age.

It supports the theory, because Piaget argued that thought occurred as action during the first year of life.

Definition
It contradicts the theory, which states that such activity cannot occur until symbolic representation develops.
Term

Abraham describes to his friend what he did last summer on vacation; he is relying on his _______

 memory.

implicit

 explicit

deferred short-term

Definition
explicit
Term

A study conducted by Carver & Bauer (1999) on the explicit memory of 9-month-old infants demonstrates

the majority of infants have a well-established explicit memory system.

less than 50 percent of the infants had remembered events that occurred five weeks ago.

all infants have explicit memory for negative events, but few had explicit memory for positive events.

infants rarely had explicit memory for longer than two weeks.

Definition
less than 50 percent of the infants had remembered events that occurred five weeks ago.
Term

Kattie and Robert are talking about when they were young and Kattie tells about an event she remembers from her 1rst birthday. Which statement BEST explains this?

It is normal for people to remember special events that occurred at a very early age.

Kattie has exceptional explicit memory abilities.

 Kattie has exceptional deferred memory abilities.

Kattie probably does not remember, but has heard stories about the party from her family and now believes them as memories.

Definition
Kattie probably does not remember, but has heard stories about the party from her family and now believes them as memories.
Term

What is the currently proposed explanation for infantile amnesia?

Infants do not yet have language.

 Infants lack organized schemas.

Infants lack brain maturation.

Infants lack effective memory devices.

Definition
Infants lack brain maturation.
Term

Marcus and Christie notice that their son Gene is developing much more slowly than his peers. What should his parents do?

 Nothing, infants have varying patterns of development.

Provide Gene with enrichment to help him catch up.

 Have him immediately assessed with the Bayley Scale of Infant Development.

Place Gene in an early intervention detection program.

Definition
Provide Gene with enrichment to help him catch up.
Term

The Gesell test, used to assess normal and abnormal infants, has four categories of behavior. The four categories are

motor, verbal, language, and adaptive.

adaptive, language, verbal, personal-social. language, adaptive, personal-social, motor.

verbal, personal-social, motor, adaptive.

Definition
language, adaptive, personal-social, motor.
Term

A pediatrician says, “I have assessed Fiona's level of development. Her overall DQ score is well within the average range.” The pediatrician is using

Piaget's test of infant development.

Gesell's test to assess infant development.

 the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

an infant IQ test to assess infant development.

Definition
Gesell's test to assess infant development.
Term

Intelligence tests for infants focus on _______, whereas intelligence tests for older children focus on _______.

perceptual motor abilities/verbal abilities

sensory abilities/perceptual abilities

inductive reasoning/social interactions imitation/spontaneous responses

Definition
perceptual motor abilities/verbal abilities
Term

The DQ measures all of the following, except

language.

adaptation.

motor skills.

imitation.

Definition
imitation
Term

The _______ is a widely used assessment of infant development that has three components:

a mental scale, a motor scale, and an infant behavior profile.

Apgar scale

Brazelton Neonatal

Behavioral Assessment Scale

Gesell test

Bayley Scales of Infant Development

Definition
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
Term

How well should Kaili, a 6-month-old infant, perform on the Bayley mental scale?

Kaili should be able to vocalize pleasure and displeasure.

 inhibit behavior when directed to do so.

imitate words the examiner says. respond to simple requests such as lifting her arm.

Definition
vocalize pleasure and displeasure
Term

Little Jerome is being assessed using the Bayley scales and, when asked, can pick up a rattle and shake it. He is also able to stop shaking it when directed to do so. About how old is Little Jerome?

 6 months

12 months

18 months

24 months

Definition
12 months
Term

A baby is being given a developmental assessment. She is given two blocks to play with, and the psychologist watches to determine whether the baby bangs them together or plays with them separately. This psychologist is probably administering the

Meltzoff Scale of Imitation Ability.

Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

Piagetian Test of Scheme Internalization. Information-Processing Test of Habituation Ability

Definition
Bayley Scales of Infant Development.
Term

Baby Camille is given a series of pictures to look at. Some of these pictures she has seen before, and others are new. The amount of time she spends looking at each picture is calculated to measure her intelligence. What test has she been given?

Fagan test

Apgar scale

Bayley scales

DQ test

Definition
Fagan test
Term

The Fagan test primarily measures

motor skills.

memory.

social interactions.

 imitation responses

Definition
memory.
Term

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the Fagan test? It is not culturally biased.

 It is a good predictor of intelligence in later childhood.

It measures social interactions.

It assesses memory.

Definition
It measures social interactions
Term

Which of the following is TRUE concerning infant tests of intelligence?

Infant assessments are good predictors of later intelligence level.

Infant assessments are good predictors of specific aspects of later cognitive functioning.

 Infant assessments provide proof that development is continuous rather than discontinuous.

Infant assessments provide proof that development is discontinuous rather than continuous.

Definition
Infant assessments are good predictors of specific aspects of later cognitive functioning
Term

For which of the following have infant tests of development been LEAST useful?

assessing the effects of an enriched environment during infancy

predicting levels of specific aspects of childhood intelligence

assessing the effects of maternal drug use on infant development

predicting the overall level of childhood intelligence

Definition
predicting the overall level of childhood intelligence
Term

A developmental psychologist using a habituation/dishabituation procedure is assessing Colton's attention. Colton shows more cumulative attention as a new stimulus is repeatedly presented, and he does not show increased attention during the dishabituation phase. Based on these results, what can we expect about Colton?

He is likely to show high IQ scores on tests as he gets older.

He is likely to have difficulties with social interactions as he grows up.

He is likely to show evidence of efficient information processing as he grows up.

He is likely to be less efficient in his processing of information as he grows up.

Definition
He is likely to be less efficient in his processing of information as he grows up.
Term

Measures of attentional habituation and dishabituation are predictive of later levels of intelligence because

cognitive development is completely continuous.

cognitive development is completely discontinuous.

later intelligence tests are based largely on the habituation/dishabituation testing procedure. efficient allocation of attention underlies many of the cognitive tasks tested on later intelligence tests.

Definition
efficient allocation of attention underlies many of the cognitive tasks tested on later intelligence tests.
Term

Cases like the Wild Boy of Aveyron cause us to wonder whether language is

 infinitely generative.

due more to heredity or environment.

based on abstract or concrete symbols.

more a question of phonology or syntax.

Definition
due more to heredity or environment
Term

Someone with a vocabulary of only 200 words can still recombine the words in different ways to say thousands of different things. This aspect of language is referred to as

syntax.

phonology.

morphology.

infinite generativity.

Definition
infinite generativity.
Term

If a primate is able to use symbols in new ways to communicate with other primates or people, we can say the primate has

language.

finite generativity.

phonological ability.

morphological ability.

Definition
language
Term

What is the correct sequence of language development?

 crying, babbling, cooing

cooing, babbling, gestures

babbling, gestures, cooing

crying, gestures, babbling

Definition
cooing, babbling, gestures
Term

Which of the folliwng statements about animala dn language is TRUE

Animals communicate but not have language because they do not have the ability to wrtie

Animals communicate but do not have language because they lact infinite generativity

Animals communicate but do not have language because their vocalization is not organized

Animals do have language

Definition
Animals do have language
Term

At birth, infants communicate through

 cooing.

crying.

gestures.

babbling

Definition
crying.
Term

Research about the ability of infants to distinguish human speech sounds indicates that

young infants are capable of distinguishing only the sounds they hear in the language spoken around them.

the ability to distinguish all speech sounds increases as infants grow older.

there are distinct stages in the ability of infants to perceive different speech sounds.

infants gradually come to distinguish best the speech sounds of the language spoken around them.

Definition
infants gradually come to distinguish best the speech sounds of the language spoken around them
Term

Cassidy is learning language by learning sound sequences. This approach is called

phonetics.

linguistics.

phonemes.

sequential learning

Definition
phonetics
Term

Research on the ability of infants to understand words indicates that

infants only understand words when they have reached the stage of internalization of schemes.

infants must be able to talk before they can understand words.

infants understand words well before they can produce them.

the earlier an infant understands words, the earlier that infant begins to talk.

Definition
infants understand words well before they can produce them.
Term

Which of the following statements about language development is TRUE?

Infants speak words before they understand them. Infants understand words before they speak them. Infants repeat words before they understand them. Infants use verbal communication before nonverbal communication

Definition
Infants understand words before they speak them
Term

Kyle has just turned 2 years old. About how many words can he understand?

12

100

200

400

Definition
200
Term

Madeline has just learned to say “Give milk.” How old is she?

12 months

18 months

26 months

31 months

Definition
18 months
Term

The rapid increase in an infants vocabulary starting at about 1 ½ years of age, is called the

secular trend.

telegraphic speech.

 the vocabulary spurt.

phonetic advancement

Definition
the vocabulary spurt
Term

At what age can Patricia expect her child to say, “Doggy soft”?

8 to 12 months

12 to 18 months

18 to 24 months

after 24 months

Definition
18 to 24 months
Term

When young children speak in two-word utterances, they are using

holophrases.

repetitive speech patterns.

telegraphic speech.

reflexive speech patterns

Definition
telegraphic speech
Term

"Mama gone bye" is an example of

telegraphic speech.

expanding a receptive speech pattern.

reflexive speech patterns.

the holophrase hypothesis.

Definition
telegraphic speech.
Term

Ashleigh, a toddler eating supper with her family, accidentally knocks over her milk and says, "Milk fall." What type of speech is this?

reflective

telegraphic

comprehensive

intrinsic

Definition
telegraphic
Term

Infants can _______ language before they can ________ language.

speak; understand

interpret; repeat

comprehend; produce

understand; combine

Definition
comprehend; produce
Term

Rodger looks at his 8-month-old son Jake and says “No Jake.” Jake will

not understand the meaning of his father's words repeat the word “No” over and over again

repeat the word over again but not understand its meaning

understand the word, but not repeat it

Definition
understand the word, but not repeat it.
Term

Which of the following is true about a child's receptive vocabulary during the first two years of life?

It does not develop very much.

It equals the child's spoken vocabulary.

It exceeds the child's spoken vocabulary.

It lags behind the child's holophrase vocabulary

Definition
It exceeds the child's spoken vocabulary.
Term

Which of the following is a characteristic of human language that suggests a biological basis for language?

Languages appear to follow the same developmental pattern regardless of culture.

Deaf children can learn to use sign language.

The ordering of words in sentences follows specific rules.

Animals can use signs to communicate meaning.

Definition
Languages appear to follow the same developmental pattern regardless of culture.
Term

What do experts believe is the evolutionary basis of language?

the stages of development through which language passes

rules of language

the influence of parental responses on infant language development

 biological evolution

Definition
biological evolution
Term

The concept of the language acquisition device is an example of how phonology derives from morphology.

an example of how human language is not based on biology.

an example of how biological evolution is inadequate to explain human language.

consistent with the idea that humans acquired language through biological evolution.

Definition
consistent with the idea that humans acquired language through biological evolution.
Term

The LAD refers to the

language alteration dictum.

 language acquisition device.

linguistic attitude development.

Lyon-Allen-Dawkins view of language development

Definition
language acquisition device.
Term

Behaviorists believe that language is learned with the LAD.

a special skill that has emerged with biological evolution.

a skill controlled by the left hemisphere of the brain.

learned in the same way as any other skill, like walking or riding a bicycle

Definition
learned in the same way as any other skill, like walking or riding a bicycle.
Term

Roger Brown (1973) observed how parents respond to their children's attempts at early language and found that

 parents rarely used reinforcement with their children's language.

 parents reinforced children for both correct and incorrect grammar.

parents mainly reinforced their children for correct grammar so the children could learn proper speech. parents mainly reinforced their children for incorrect grammar because that is all the children could produce.

Definition
parents rarely used reinforcement with their children's language.
Term

Which of the following provides evidence AGAINST the behavioral view of language development?

Researchers have not yet located the LAD in the brain.

Parents reinforce proper grammar and punish improper grammar.

Children say new things that they have never heard or said before.

The environment plays an important role in how children learn language.

Definition
Children say new things that they have never heard or said before.
Term

Evidently, the Wild Boy of Aveyron and Genie did not learn language effectively because

they did not have the LAD needed to learn language. they refused to communicate with other people.

they did not live in an environment that exposed them to normal human language.

genetic deficiencies prevented them from absorbing the language they heard around them.

Definition
they did not live in an environment that exposed them to normal human language.
Term

A child's expansive vocabulary is directly correlated with his or her parents'

verbal interactions with the child.

IQ.

age.

vocabulary.

Definition
verbal interactions with the child.
Term

Parentese is the

ability for parents to understand their children's holographic speech.

unique way that parents talk to their babies. continual correcting of children's syntax by parents. special way parents speak to each other in front of their children

Definition
unique way that parents talk to their babies.
Term

Aunt Alie is speaking in normal tones until she is handed her new baby niece. Aunt Alie's voice immediately changes into a higher pitch, and she begins using baby-talk phrases like "goo goo" and "ba ba." This change in Aunt Alie's language behavior provides an example of

echoing.

recasting.

infant-directed speech.

morphology.

Definition
infant-directed speech
Term

Little Lisa points to a ball and says, "Dat ball." Her father responds with, "What color is the ball?" This is an example of

 echoing.

 recasting.

infant-directed speech.

 morphology.

Definition
recasting.
Term

Thomas asks his son to look at a picture book and name the objects he seesTto teach his son language, Thomas is using

echoing.

 encoding.

 labeling.

listing.

Definition
labeling.
Term

In a study conducted by Betty Hart and Todd Risley (1995) what is the main difference between the way middle-class parents and welfare parents interact with their children?

Welfare parents spent more time teaching their children correct syntax.

Middle-class parents played with their children more in nonverbal ways.

Welfare parents read to their children more.

Middle-class parents spoke to their children more.

Definition
Middle-class parents spoke to their children more
Term

All of the following are strategies parents use to teach their children language EXCEPT

recasting.

naming.

expanding.

echoing

Definition
naming.
Term

Little Monique points to a ball and says, "Dat ball." Her father responds with, "Do you mean 'That is a ball'?" This is an example of

 echoing.

recasting.

 infant-directed speech.

expanding.

Definition
expanding.
Term

Fredo hears his young daughter say "doggie eat," and he says "doggie eat" back to her. This is an example of

echoing. l

abeling.

recasting.

expanding

Definition
echoing.
Term

When speaking with a toddler it is important to correct any words they mispronounce.

supply words when they have difficulty.

repeat the words and phrases they say.

 be as grammatically correct as possible

Definition
repeat the words and phrases they say.
Term

Information currently available about language development indicates that to encourage language development, adults should

drill children in proper language use.

engage children in meaningful conversation.

provide excellent examples of language use. reinforce children whenever they use language correctly

Definition
engage children in meaningful conversation.
Term

Little Katie frowns when she is upset. She is in which part of the emotional state?

behavioral expression

physiological arousal

the conscious experience

the unconscious experience

Definition
behavioral expression
Term

Children can begin to regulate their emotions by age 3.

by age 2.

by age 1.

shortly after birth.

Definition
by age 1.
Term

If an infant is raised in an environment that is neglectful, and is not comforted or soothed during distress, the infant will MOST likely be delayed in the development of emotions.

in expressing emotions.

 in regulation of emotions.

expressing positive, but not negative, emotions

Definition
in regulation of emotions.
Term

Although Julio is only 8 months old, he communicates with his grandmother through babbling.

cooing.

body language.

emotions.

Definition
emotions.
Term

What function does emotion serve in the relationship between a parent and a young infant? a replacement for attachment

 regulation of survival instincts

an early form of communication

the reduction of negative affectivity and increase of positive affectivity in the infant

Definition
an early form of communication
Term

Tonya smiles at her son Jaden, who giggles back at her. This type of early communication between infant and caregiver is considered

 mutual.

synchronous.

 unidirectional.

regulated.

Definition
synchronous.
Term

Two-month-old Jaime is crying loudly. At first there is a piercing shrill sound to start the cry, followed by a long period where Jaime holds his breath (turning red) until the next crying sound comes out. This type of cry indicates that Jaime is

in pain.

very tired.

very angry.

very hungry

Definition
in pain.
Term

Babies have three types of cries. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

the angry cry

the hungry cry

the pain cry

the basic cry

Definition
the hungry cry
Term

Operant conditioning would suggest that every time a parent gives attention to an infant's crying, the infant will

be rewarded for crying and cry more.

be soothed and reduce its crying.

increase the bonding between parent and infant.

 be punished for crying and eventually reduce it.

Definition
be rewarded for crying and cry more.
Term

Todd puts his infant daughter in her crib for a nap, and a few minutes later she begins to cry. According to John Watson, one of the founders of behaviorism, Todd should

ignore her so that her crying won't be reinforced.

go immediately to his daughter to soothe her crying.

wait two minutes, then go to his daughter to soothe her crying.

go immediately to his daughter if it is a pain or basic cry, but not if it is an anger cry.

Definition
ignore her so that her crying won't be reinforced.
Term

Alan puts his infant daughter in her crib for a nap, and a few minutes later she begins to cry. According to ethologists such as John Bowlby, Alan should

ignore her so that her crying won't be reinforced.

 go immediately to his daughter to soothe her crying.

wait two minutes, then go to his daughter to soothe her crying.

go immediately to his daughter if it is a pain or basic cry, but not if it is an anger cry.

Definition
go immediately to his daughter to soothe her crying
Term

Mary Ainsworth believes that parents should respond quickly to the cries of their infants because a quick response will prevent the baby from crying harder.

enhance the infant's sense of secure attachment. increase the parents' confidence in their parenting ability.

 stop the crying before it becomes overly reinforced by environmental cues.

Definition
enhance the infant's sense of secure attachment.
Term

If we believe that ethologists and behaviorists are BOTH right about how parents should respond to the cries of their infants, we would believe that a quick response to all cries would result in a(n) _______ in crying behavior and a _______ secure attachment.

decrease/less

decrease/more

increase/less

increase/more

Definition
increase/less
Term

Which of the following occurs FIRST in development?

trust smiling

social smiling

reflexive smiling

attachment smiling

Definition
reflexive smiling
Term

Which type of smiling occurs as a response to an external stimulus?

social smiling

reflexive smiling

both reflexive and social smiling

 neither reflexive nor social smiling

Definition
social smiling
Term

Andrew is a young child who has just recently begun to smile whenever he sees his mother's face. Approximately how old is Andrew?

 2 to 3 months

4 to 5 months

6 to 7 months

8 to 9 months

Definition
2 to 3 months
Term

Three-month-old Elizabeth looks up at her mother and smiles. Researchers call this type of smiling

 trust smiling.

social smiling.

reflexive smiling.

 attachment smiling

Definition
social smiling.
Term

A smile that does NOT occur in response to external stimuli is called a(n)

reflexive smile.

social smile.

protective smile.

attentive smile

Definition
reflexive smile.
Term

At what age do children show fear when a new person enters their environment?

at birth by 3 months of age

by 6 months of age

by 9 months of age

Definition
by 6 months of age
Term

Children are MORE likely to show stranger anxiety if they are not securely attached.

have not previously been exposed to many strangers.

are in a familiar setting.

are with their fathers, but not their mothers

Definition
are not securely attached.
Term

Stranger anxiety is negatively correlated with proximity to mother.

 emotional maturity.

temperament.

age of the stranger.

Definition
proximity to mother.
Term

At what age does separation protest peak?

 6 months

9 months

12 months

15 months

Definition
15 months
Term

Javier and his father are at the circus. A clown jumps in front of the couple and Javier looks to his father to see if he is afraid or laughing. Javier is using

social referencing.

emotional regulation.

social reassurance.

modeling.

Definition
social referencing.
Term

A child is most likely to use social referencing in _______ situations.

familiar

complex

frightening

ambiguous

Definition
ambiguous
Term

An infant's ability to inhibit or minimize the intensity of his/her emotions is called

 emotional

 evocation.

suppression.

regulation.

consideration.

Definition
regulation.
Term

Petria is trying to help her young infant regulate his emotions. She can best do this by

 modeling appropriate emotional regulation

 ignoring inappropriate emotional outbursts punishing inappropriate emotional responses providing a nurturing environment

Definition
providing a nurturing environment
Term

Infants ability to regulate their emotions is positively correlated with

their age.

mothers distress.

 mothers intensity of emotion.

their temperament

Definition
their age.
Term

"Easy," "difficult," and "slow-to-warm-up" are different types of

 trust.

 emotion.

attachment.

temperament

Definition
temperament.
Term

Little Katie runs up to her mother and says “Me scared.” Katie is at least

1 year old

18 months old

2 years old

3 years old

Definition
2 years old
Term

A child who does not seem to feel strongly about anything would be classified as a(n)

autistic child.

easy child.

difficult child.

slow-to-warm-up child.

Definition
slow-to-warm-up child.
Term

What kind of temperament would a baby described as "colicky" have?

 easy

difficult

slow-to-warm-up

emotional affective

Definition
difficult
Term

When Josh was dropped off at preschool on the very first day of class, he was upset. He cried for a long time and would not play with the other children. What type of temperament does Josh have?

slow-to-warm

easy

difficult

inflexible

Definition
difficult
Term

Children with low activity levels and somewhat negative attitudes are classified as

 easy children.

difficult children.

 slow-to-warm-up children.

slow children.

Definition
slow-to-warm-up children
Term

Angela and Jason are going to have a child. Statistically speaking, their child will most likely have a(n) _______ temperament.

easy

difficult

extroverted

slow-to-warm-up

Definition
easy
Term

Rothbart and Bates believe that infant temperament falls into which of the following categories?

 emotionality, social ability, and activity level

positive affect, negative affect, and self-regulation easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up

extraversion, introversion, and emotionality

Definition
positive affect, negative affect, and self-regulation
Term

Which of the following statements about temperament is true?

Temperament is stable and does not change as we grow older.

Temperament is most malleable to change during infancy.

Temperament is most malleable to change during childhood.

Temperament is fairly flexible and changes several times throughout the life cycle.

Definition
Temperament is most malleable to change during childhood.
Term

Twin and adoption studies show that temperament is

about 80% inherited.

stable throughout development.

more flexible in infancy and becomes more rigid as children mature.

more rigid in infancy and becomes more flexible as children mature

Definition
more flexible in infancy and becomes more rigid as children mature.
Term

What evidence do researchers cite to support the claim that temperament is modified by experience?

 that there is a heritability index of .90

the finding that the heritability estimates decrease with age

that an individual's activity level decreases with age

the finding that a newborn's level of sociability is stable across contexts

Definition
the finding that the heritability estimates decrease with age
Term

Debbie is an independent and adventurous child who likes to explore new places in her environment. However, her mother is overly controlling and rigid. Developmental psychologists would call this poorness of fit.

unreciprocal interactions.

social dysfunction.

insecure attachment

Definition
poorness of fit.
Term

A goodness of fit occurs when a child's temperament matches

environmental demands.

the parent's temperament.

 the parent's attachment styles.

 reciprocal interactions.

Definition
environmental demands.
Term

Children raised with goodness of fit, tend to have better social adjustment.

 easy temperament.

secure attachment.

different temperament throughout their life

Definition
better social adjustment.
Term

The idea that children have different temperaments should lead parents to realize that

“self-fulfilling prophecies” are not a concern in child rearing.

 there is little they can do to influence their children's personalities.

there is no single best way to raise all children. conflict with their children is inevitable and normal at some point in their lives.

Definition
there is no single best way to raise all children.
Term

What is the main problem with labeling children as “difficult”?

It is inaccurate because all children from time to time can be difficult.

 It can become a self-fulfilling prophecy.

No child is truly difficult, some parents simply have unreasonably high expectations.

It does not take into consideration the environment in which children are being raised.

Definition
It can become a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Term

Emily hears the crying of her irritable child. She is most likely to comfort and reassure her child, if her child has an

easy temperament.

is a female.

younger than 2 years of age

isthe first born child.

Definition
is a female.
Term

Erik Erikson's concept of _________ is similar to Mary Ainsworth's concept of ________.

 love/trust

independence/trust

trust/secure attachment

secure attachment/trust

Definition
trust/secure attachment
Term

Which of the following would Erikson be MOST likely to recommend about soothing a crying infant?

Do not soothe the baby, because he/she will be spoiled.

Pick up the baby and soothe him/her, so that a healthy sense of trust develops.

Arrange the environment to meet all the baby's needs so that he/she does not need to cry.

Soothe the baby about every other time, so that he/she doesn't become dependent upon external comforters.

Definition
Pick up the baby and soothe him/her, so that a healthy sense of trust develops
Term

Miranda developed a basic sense of mistrust during infancy. Her parents separated and bickered a lot, and Miranda was often lost in the shuffle. According to Erik Erikson,

Miranda will not trust her parents, but will trust most other people.

 will maintain a basic sense of mistrust for the rest of her life.

will likely develop a sense of trust with her mother but not with her father.

may learn to trust other important people later in her life, but they will need to demonstrate their trustworthiness.

Definition
may learn to trust other important people later in her life, but they will need to demonstrate their trustworthiness.
Term

Which statement most accurately summarizes the long- term outcomes of positive or negative resolution of Erikson's trust-versus-mistrust stage of development?

A developed sense of trust is difficult to undo in later childhood, but a developed sense of mistrust is permanent.

Whether an infant develops a sense of trust or mistrust has little influence on later personality development.

Later experiences can modify the sense of trust or mistrust that develops during infancy.

An individual's sense of trust or mistrust is unstable and changes markedly in response to contextual factors at each stage of the life span

Definition
Later experiences can modify the sense of trust or mistrust that develops during infancy.
Term

Phyllis was cared for as an infant. Her parents provided for her needs and comforted her when she was in distress. She learned at an early age that her environment was safe and secure. Now, at age 12, her parents are getting a divorce. According to Erikson, what will likely occur?

Phyllis will continue to trust her environment because she has a secure base.

Phyllis will continue to trust her environment, but not her parents.

 Phyllis will continue to trust her environment, but have difficulty trusting men.

 Phyllis will learn mistrust

Definition
Phyllis will learn mistrust
Term

Researchers have had mothers put a dot of rouge on the noses of babies and place the babies in front of mirrors to see their reaction. These researchers are studying the concept of

 trust.

attachment.

temperament.

sense of self

Definition
sense of self
Term

Nine-month-old Julio is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Julio will MOST likely

touch his own nose to wipe off the spot.

touch the spot on the mirror because he wants to wipe the spot off his own nose.

touch the spot on the mirror because he wonders why that other child has a spot on his nose.

crawl away from the mirror because he does not recognize himself with the spot on his nose.

Definition
touch the spot on the mirror because he wants to wipe the spot off his own nose.
Term

Twenty-month-old Misha is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Misha will MOST likely

touch his own nose to wipe off the spot.

touch the spot on the mirror because he wants to wipe the spot off his own nose.

touch the spot on the mirror because he wonders why that other child has a spot on his nose.

 crawl away from the mirror because he does not recognize himself with the spot on his nose

Definition
touch his own nose to wipe off the spot
Term

Which theorist suggested that children go through a period of separation from parents followed by a period of individuation?

 John Bowlby

Erik Erikson

Mary Ainsworth

Margaret Mahler

Definition
Margaret Mahler
Term

Autonomy in Erikson's theory is analogous to ______ in Margaret Mahler's theory of independence and development of the self.

trust

separation

individuation

shame and doubt

Definition
separation
Term

Janine impatiently grabs the door handle from her toddler daughter, quickly opens the door, and hurries the little girl through. Erikson would say that Janine's daughter 

has already developed a sense of shame and doubt due to her mother's behavior in this instance.

 will develop a healthy sense of autonomy by resisting interactions like this.

will not develop shame and doubt if this type of interaction occurs consistently.

will develop a sense of shame and doubt if this type of interaction occurs consistently.

Definition
will develop a sense of shame and doubt if this type of interaction occurs consistently.
Term

According to Erik Erikson, which of the following is true concerning children and autonomy?

 Children can never have too much autonomy. Children need to develop a sense of shame before they understand autonomy.

Children develop autonomy first and only learn shame and doubt later in life.

Children need a small but healthy amount of shame and doubt to go along with their general sense of autonomy.

Definition
Children need a small but healthy amount of shame and doubt to go along with their general sense of autonomy.
Term

What types of behaviors in caregivers create a sense of shame and doubt children? overprotectiveness and criticism

neglectfulness and indifference

punitiveness and sarcasm

 enmeshment and fear

Definition
overprotectiveness and criticism
Term

Marcos is 16 and eager to graduate high school and go on to college. He has a good idea about his career choice and has well-defined values. Which of the following BEST accounts for Marcos' sense of identity?

He developed autonomy during childhood.

He has a close attachment with his parents.

He has an easy temperament.

He developed trust as an infant.

Definition
He developed autonomy during childhood
Term

Attachment refers to a(n)

close bond between an infant and a caregiver.

close bond between an infant and a contact comfort object.

infant's tendency to use the mother as a secure base for exploring the world.

positive reaction to being held and played with by people other than the primary caregiver.

Definition
close bond between an infant and a caregiver
Term

The Harlow (1958) study concluded that contact comfort is more important for attachment than feeding. What evidence was used to support this conclusion?

Baby monkeys cried when separated from their mothers, then stopped crying when reunited with their mothers.

Baby monkeys spent more time with cloth surrogate mothers, regardless of whether the cloth mothers fed them or not.

Baby monkeys spent more time with wire surrogate mothers, regardless of whether the cloth mothers fed them or not.

Baby monkeys spent more time with surrogate mothers that fed them, regardless of whether the mothers were wire or cloth.

Definition
Baby monkeys spent more time with cloth surrogate mothers, regardless of whether the cloth mothers fed them or not.
Term

In a classic study of attachment by Harlow, infant monkeys spent more time with the ______ monkey regardless of which monkey fed them.

wire

live

cloth

metal

Definition
cloth