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Concepts of Science, Test #5
Chapters 17, 19, 21
72
Science
03/26/2013

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Term
The Pacific coastline is found
Definition
near a subduction zone.
Term
Which of the following was used as evidence for plate tectonics?
Definition
-topographic profiles of the ocean floors
-maps on rocks magnetism
-data classifying rocks by age
-sea floor spreading
-ALL OF THE ABOVE
Term
The magnetic pattern from sea floor data recorded off the coast of Vancouver and Washington state
Definition
were created by magnetite in fissure flows.
Term
The continents of Eurasia and North America are currently moving apart at an average rate of
Definition
5 cm per year.
Term
Which of the following describes earthquakes?
Definition
earthquakes are an abrupt release of energy.
Term
The North American plate
Definition
extends from the middle of the Atlantic Ocean to the edge of the Pacific plate.
Term
Which of the following is an example of a continental convergent plant boundary?
Definition
the Himalayan Mountains.
Term
Divergent plate boundaries are associated with
Definition
-seafloor spreading
-formation of new crust
-volcanic action
-shallow, low energy earthquakes
-ALL OF THE ABOVE
Term
How often does the oceanic plate material of the Earth renew itself, i.e, go through one replacement cycle?
Definition
every 200 million years.
Term
The transform plate boundaries
Definition
are exemplified by the San Andreas fault.
Term
Where is the longest mountain range on Earth?
Definition
Mid-Atlantic Ocean ridge.
Term
Which formula would you use to determine the age of the Atlantic Ocean Basin?
Definition
D = RT
Term
What evidence convinced most scientists to accept the Theory of Plate Tectonics?
Definition
-ocean topography
-magnetism of the ocean basin rocks
-discovery of the Mid-Atlantic rift zone
-radiometric dating of the basaltic rocks
-ALL OF THE ABOVE
Term
What causes the Ring of Fire, which borders much of the Pacific Ocean?
Definition
Plate subduction.
Term
Which of these waves is classified as a type of seismic wave following earthquakes?
Definition
-transverse
-compressional
-longitudinal
-shear waves
-ALL OF THE ABOVE
Term
Most mountains have not eroded to a flat plain in the last 500,000 years because
Definition
mountains are reformed by tectonic uplift that is greater then or equal to the erosional forces.
Term
If you took a vacation driving to the oldest part of the North American contient you would need to bring a map of
Definition
Northeastern Canada.
Term
The only currently active plate boundary within the continental United States is the
Definition
San Andreas Fault.
Term
Which of the following would not be seen in the United States?
Definition
an old spreading "rift" plate boundary
Term
What part of the Hawaiian Island Chain Is the oldest?
Definition
Northwest
Term
The difference between continental and ocean basin rock is
Definition
ocean rocks are basaltic and continental rocks are granitic.
Term
What would be an architectural specification for a skyscraper built in an earthquake-prone region?
Definition
flexible with shock preservers
Term
The flow of energy in an ecosystem
Definition
decreases by 90% at each trophic level
Term
Which of the following initiated the law of unintended consequences at Lake Victoria in Africa?
Definition
introducing the Nile perch
Term
Urban landfills use procedures that
Definition
decrease the decomposition rate for newspapers
Term
A national recycling program is inhibited by
Definition
-lack of a market for some recycled products
-the fact that each type of trash
-requires a unique chemical process to be recycled
-the sheer volume of trash needing to be processed
-America's 'use it and lose it' attitude
-ALL OF THE ABOVE
Term
Which term refers to the particular way an organism obtains energy?
Definition
ecological niche
Term
Which statement about an ecosystem is correct?
Definition
Matter is recycled by an ecosystem
Term
According to the equilibrium hypothesis, introducing a new species to an isolated ecosystem will
Definition
cause another species to go extinct
Term
Research by Daniel Simberloff and E.O. Wilson supported the theory of island biogeography when, at the end of the experiment,
Definition
the island biota were replaced by similar but different species of animals
Term
The amount of solid waste produced by an average American each year equals
Definition
the weight of two large dump trucks
Term
The value of the ozone layer to Earth's citizens is
Definition
protection from ultraviolet rays
Term
What were the principles of the Kyoto accords?
Definition
decrease in CO2 emissions on a global scale
Term
Which are products of burning fossil fuels in the atmosphere?
Definition
carbon dioxide and water
nitrogen oxides and sulfur compounds
water vapor and sulfur compounds
carbon dioxide and NOx
All of the above
Term
How far above the Earth would we find the highest concentration of 'good' ozone?
Definition
20 Miles
Term
The creation of NOx requires nitrogen, oxygen, and
Definition
heat
Term
How are CFCs dangerous to the environment?
Definition
breaking O3 to create O2
Term
What were the results of the montreal treaty of 1986?
Definition
Industrial nations would decrease, then stop their production of CFCs
Term
Acid rain is known to cause problems by
Definition
destroying statues and limestone buildings
Term
How are scientists determining atmospheric ozone levels?
Definition
Measuring spectral lines from satellites
collecting samples with specially outfitted airplanes
analyzing data collected in ground-based labs
All of the Above
Term
Which example would best demonstrate the 'law of unintended consequences'?
Definition
building levees on the Mississippi River
Term
Which of these groups are listed as first, second, and third trophic level order, respectively?
Definition
grass, deer, mountain lion
Term
Why is any effort to control the greenhouse effect so difficult?
Definition
The global economy depends on fossil fuels
The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon necessary to keep the average temperature on Earth above freezing.
the global climate models are not yet dependable enough to determine energy policy
There is no reliable substitute energy source available to the average citizen to replace fossil fuels on a global scale
All of the above describe the complexity of the issue
Term
Why do scientists believe that global warming is occurring?
Definition
15 of 20 years since 1980 were warmer than normal
sea level is rising
glaciers are melting
1998 was the warmest year on record
All of the Above
Term
Why do scientists think will happen when carbon dioxide levels are doubled
Definition
-the oceans will take up the extra co2
-the plants will increase in biomass productivity
-the earth will become cloudier
-ALL OF THE ABOVE
Term
What are some ideas proposed to decreased global warming
Definition
limit the burning of fossil fuels
pass laws with strict auto emission limits
nothing; global warming is a natural process
plant trees to take in extra co2
Term
If the annual temperature of Washington DC warms two degrees Celsius, its climate would be most like
Definition
georgia
Term
Which of the folling is a cell
Definition
a chicken egg
bacterium
sperm
nerve
all the above
Term
Which phrase best describes the inside of a cell
Definition
full of diverse structures
Term
What is not a function of the cell membrane
Definition
reproduction
Term
Following Hooke's identification of cells with a microscope, how long was it before scientists accepted the cell as a unit
Definition
two centuries
Term
The most sophisticated optical microscope today can magnify items more than
Definition
1000 times
Term
The hydrophobic ends of a cell membranes lipid bilayer are
Definition
pressed together
Term
Which pair of organelles transfer energy in the cell
Definition
mitochondria and chloroplasts
Term
Which is true of ATP?
Definition
is a molecule
is an energy carrier
contains sugar
contains phosphorus
Term
In the process of photosynthesis
Definition
light energy is converted to chemical energy
Term
An organelle not found in the cells of animals is
Definition
chloroplast
Term
a cells receptor molecule
Definition
binds to a molecule to facilitate transfer across the cell membrane
Term
Which one of the following is in all cells?
Definition
DNa
Term
Which of the following is a stored energy end product of fermentation?
Definition
alcohol
Term
What is the chef function of the mitochondria
Definition
to create energy
Term
Which organelle gives the cell a shape
Definition
cytoskeleton
Term
Which of the following phases would not be in the definition of photosynthesis
Definition
starches and fat
Term
The end product of glycolysis is
Definition
pyruvic acid and atp
Term
Chromosomes
Definition
were first discovered in the 19th century
are long strands of dna
come in pairs, located in the nucleus
vary in number with the species
all of the above
Term
Fermentation in plants produces _____; fermentation in animals produces___
Definition
alcohol; lactic acid
Term
What limits the resolving power of all microscopes
Definition
the wavelength of the light used
Term
Which is the best analogy for a cell membrane
Definition
ping pong balls covering a birdbath
Term
What advantage does the structure of the cell membrane afford the cell
Definition
the lowest possible energy state
Term
Which of the following statements about cells is true
Definition
Meiosis produces with half the normal complements of dna
Term
What does current theory say about the origin of the nucleus
Definition
a small cell was engulfed by a larger cell
Term
Which statement is false?
Definition
Anaerobic reactions yield more energy per molecule of glucose than reactions