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Communication
Beebe/Ivy Communications Principles for a Lifetime Chapter 4.5
44
Communication
12/06/2010

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Term
Persuasion
Definition
the process of attempting to change or reinforce attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior
Term
coercion
Definition
using force to achieve your goal. using weapons, threats, and other unethical strategies may momentarily achieve what you want, but it certainly is not appropriate or ethical to use such means
Term
cognitive dissonance
Definition
when you are presented with information that is inconsistent with your current thinking or feelings, you experience a kind of mental discomfort
Term
hierarchy of needs
Definition
motivates the behavior of all people. basic physiological needs (such as needs for food, water and air) have to be satisfied before we attend to any other concern
Term
attitude
Definition
a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to something
Term
belief
Definition
the way in which we structure our perception of reality--our sense of what is true or false
Term
value
Definition
an enduring conception of right or wrong, good or bad
Term
proposition
Definition
statement with which they want their audience to agree
Term
propositions of fact
Definition
claims that something is or is not the case or that something did or did not happen
Term
propositions of value
Definition
a call for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something
Term
proposition of policy
Definition
advocates a specific action--changing a regulation, procedure, or behavior
Term
ethos
Definition
emphasizing the credibility or ethical character of a speaker
Term
logos
Definition
using logical arguments
Term
pathos
Definition
using emotional appeals to move an audience
Term
credibility
Definition
an audience's perception of a speaker's competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism
Term
competence
Definition
a speaker should be informed, skilled, or knowledgable about the subject he or she is discussing
Term
trustworthiness
Definition
while delivering a speech, you need to convey honesty and sincerity to your audience
Term
dynamism
Definition
energy
Term
charisma
Definition
a form of dynamism. a characteristic speaker possesses charm, talent, magnetism, and other qualities that make the person attractive and energetic
Term
initial credibility
Definition
this is the impression of your credibility listeners have even before you begin speaking
Term
derived credibility
Definition
this is the perception your audience forms as you deliver your presentation
Term
terminal credibility
Definition
the perception of your credibility your listeners have when you finish your presentation
Term
proof
Definition
consists of both evidence and reasoning
Term
evidence
Definition
another word for the illustrations, definitions, statistics, and opinions that are your supporting material
Term
reasoning
Definition
the process of drawing conclusions from your evidence
Term
inductive reasoning
Definition
reasoning that arrives at a general conclusion from specific instances or examples
Term
reasoning by analogy
Definition
a special type of inductive reasoning. an analogy demonstrates how an unfamiliar idea, thing, or situation is similar to something the audience already understands
Term
deductive reasoning
Definition
reasoning from a general statement or principle to reach a specific conclusion
Term
syllogism
Definition
a three part argument that consists of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion
Term
causal reasoning
Definition
when you relate two or more events in such a way as to conclude that one or more of the events probably caused the others
Term
logical fallacy
Definition
false reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate
Term
causal fallacy
Definition
making a faulty cause-and-effect connection between two things or events
Term
bandwagon fallacy
Definition
someone who argues that "everybody things that, so you should too"
Term
either-or fallacy
Definition
This oversimplifies the issue by offering only two choices and ignores the fact that there may be other solutions
Term
hasty generalization
Definition
a person who tries to draw a conclusion from too little evidence or nonexistent evidence
Term
personal attack
Definition
making this on someone connected with an idea, rather than addressing the idea itself
Term
red herring
Definition
someone who argues against an issue by bringing up irrelevant facts or arguments to distract others from this issue
Term
appeal to misplaced authority
Definition
using someone without the appropriate credentials or expertise to endorse an idea or product
Term
non sequitur
Definition
your idea or conclusion does not logically follow from the previous idea or conclusion
Term
refutation
Definition
an organizational strategy by which you identify objections to your proposition and then refute those objections with arguments and evidence
Term
motivated sequence
Definition
a five-step organizational plan that integrates the problem-and-solution organizational method with principles that have been confirmed by research and practical experience. The five steps involved are attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action
Term
visualization
Definition
a word or picture of the future
Term
positive visualization
Definition
you paint a rosy picture of how wonderful the future will be if your satisfaction step is implemented
Term
negative visualization
Definition
you paint a bleak picture of how terrible the future will be if nothing is done; you use a fear appeal to motivate your listeners to do what you suggest to avoid further problems