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COMM 250 Midterm
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80
Communication
02/07/2010

Additional Communication Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Stage fright
Definition
Anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience.
Term
Adrenaline
Definition
A hormone released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress
Term
Positive nervousness
Definition
Controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for his or her presentation
Term
Visualization
Definition
Mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation.
Term
Critical thinking
Definition
Focused, organized thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion.
Term
Speaker
Definition
The person who is presenting an oral message to a listener.
Term
Message
Definition
Whatever a speaker communicates to someone else.
Term
Channel
Definition
The means by which a message is communicated.
Term
Listener
Definition
The person who receives the speaker's message.
Term
Frame of reference
Definition
The sum of a person's knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes. No two people can have exactly the same frame of reference.
Term
Feedback
Definition
The messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker.
Term
Interference
Definition
Anything that impedes the communication of a message. Interference can be external or internal to listeners.
Term
Situation
Definition
The time and place in which speech communication occurs.
Term
Nonverbal communication
Definition
Communication based on a person's use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words.
Term
Manuscript speech
Definition
A speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience.
Term
Impromptu speech
Definition
A speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation.
Term
Extemporaneous speech
Definition
A carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes.
Term
Conversational quality
Definition
Presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed.
Term
Volume
Definition
The loudness or softness of the speaker's voice.
Term
Pitch
Definition
The highness or lowness of the speaker's voice.
Term
Inflections
Definition
Changes in the pitch or tone of a speaker's voice.
Term
Monotone
Definition
A constant pitch or tone of voice.
Term
Rate
Definition
The speed at which a person speaks.
Term
Pause
Definition
A momentary break in the vocal delivery of a speech.
Term
Vocalized pause
Definition
A pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as "uh," "er," and "um."
Term
Vocal Variety
Definition
Changes in a speaker's rate, pitch, and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness.
Term
Pronunciation
Definition
The accepted standard of sound and rhythm of words in a given language.
Term
Articulation
Definition
The physical production of particular speech sounds.
Term
Dialect
Definition
A variety of language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary.
Term
Kinesics
Definition
The study of body motion as a systematic mode of communication.
Term
Gestures
Definition
Motions of a speaker's hands or arms during a speech.
Term
Eye contact
Definition
Direct visual contact with the eyes of another person.
Term
Ethics
Definition
The branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs.
Term
Ethical decisions
Definition
Sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines.
Term
Name-calling
Definition
The use of language to defame, demean, or degrade individuals or groups.
Term
Bill of Rights
Definition
The first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution.
Term
Plagiarism
Definition
Presenting another person's language or ideas as one's own.
Term
Global plagiarism
Definition
Stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one's own.
Term
Patchwork plagiarism
Definition
Stealing ideas or languages from two or three sources and passing them off as one's own.
Term
Incremental plagiarism
Definition
Failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people.
Term
Paraphrase
Definition
To restate or summarize an author's ideas in one's own words.
Term
Informative speech
Definition
A speech designed to convey knowledge and understanding.
Term
Object
Definition
Anything that is visible, tangible, and stable in form.
Term
Process
Definition
A systematic series of actions that leads to a specific result or product.
Term
Event
Definition
Anything that happens or is regarded as happening.
Term
Concept
Definition
A belief, theory, idea, notion, principle, or the like.
Term
Description
Definition
A statement that depicts a person, event, idea, or the like with clarity and vividness.
Term
Comparison
Definition
A statement of the similarities among two or more people, vents, ideas, etc.
Term
Personalize
Definition
To present one's ideas in human terms that relate in some fashion to the experience of the audience.
Term
Topic
Definition
The subject of a speech.
Term
Specific purpose
Definition
A single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech.
Term
Central idea
Definition
A one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech.
Term
Residual message
Definition
What a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech.
Term
Supporting materials
Definition
The materials used to support a speaker's ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples ,statistics, and testimony.
Term
Example
Definition
A specific case used to illustrate or to represent a group of people, ideas, conditions, experiences, or the like.
Term
Brief example
Definition
A specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point.
Term
Extended example
Definition
A story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point.
Term
Hypothetical example
Definition
An example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation.
Term
Statistics
Definition
Numerical data.
Term
Mean
Definition
The average value of a group of numbers.
Term
Median
Definition
The middle number in a group of numbers arranged from highest to lowest.
Term
Mode
Definition
The number that occurs most frequently in a group of numbers.
Term
Testimony
Definition
Quotations or paraphrases used to support a point.
Term
Expert testimony
Definition
Testimony from people who are recognized experts in their fields.
Term
Peer testimony
Definition
Testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience or insight on a topic.
Term
Direct quotation
Definition
Testimony that is presented word for word.
Term
Quoting out of context
Definition
Quoting a statement in such a way as to distort its meaning by removing the statement from the words and phrases surrounding it.
Term
Strategic organization
Definition
Putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result in a particular audience.
Term
Main points
Definition
The major points developed in the body of a speech. Most speeches contain from two to five main points.
Term
Chronological order
Definition
A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern.
Term
Spatial order
Definition
A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern.
Term
Casual order
Definition
A method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship.
Term
Problem-solution order
Definition
A method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem.
Term
Topical order
Definition
A method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics.
Term
Supporting materials
Definition
The materials used to support a speaker's ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics, and testimony.
Term
Transition
Definition
A word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another.
Term
Connective
Definition
A word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them.
Term
Internal preview
Definition
A statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next.
Term
Internal summary
Definition
A statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point or points.
Term
Signpost
Definition
A very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas.