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COB 300A- Management
Chapter 10
32
Management
05/04/2011

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Term
reactive change
Definition
making changes in response to problems or opportunities as they arise
Term
proactive change
Definition
aka planned change; involves making carefully thought-out changes in anticipation of possible or expected problems or opportunities
Term
types of innovation
Definition
Product
Process
Incremental
Radical
Term
product innovation
Definition
a change in the appearance or the performance of a product or a service or the creation of a new one
Term
process innovation
Definition
a change in the way a product or service is conceived, manufactured, or disseminated
Term
incremental innovations
Definition
the creation of products, services, or technologies that modify existing ones
Term
radical innovations
Definition
the creation of products, services, or technologies that replace existing ones
Term
TRUE.
Definition
True or False.

To bring about change you have to break old habits, create new ones, and solidify new habits.
Term
diagram of the change process
Definition
unfreezing-->
actual change (old becomes new)-->
refreezing (people get to use the change)
Term
reasons that individuals resist change
Definition
habit
fear of the unknown
personality
demographic background
Term
habit
Definition
people get used to the way things are (get comfortable to the status quo)
Term
fear of the unknown
Definition
"The devil you know, is better than the one you don't know."
Term
personality
Definition
some people are more adventurous than others
Term
demographic background
Definition
life experiences may affect our fear of change
Term
organizational resistance to change
Definition
structural inertia
group inertia
threats to expertise
Term
structural inertia
Definition
changing the system of tasks and job assignments (big change)
Term
group inertia
Definition
work team level of resistance (in a group)
Term
threats to expertise
Definition
power base of workers and managers is at risk
Term
18 months versus 6 months
Definition
what is the average length of jobs versus careers?
Term
sustaining innovations
Definition
improve the performance of their products in the ways that matter the most to their customers
Term
disruptive innovations
Definition
tend to be more simple, cheaper, and less sophisticated; they tend to address different needs; change that brings down successful companies
Term
common characteristics of disruptive innovation
Definition
1) initial opportunities exist in smaller markets
2) markets lack definition and posses unknown growth
3) technologies usually do not satisfy current customer requirements
4) offer lower profit margin
Term
creativity
Definition
the process of developing novel ideas that can be put into action
Term
ways that organizations formally develop creativity
Definition
creativity training, pet-peeve technique, brainstorming, nominal group technique, idea quotas, suggestion programs, physical surroundings, devil's advocate, multiple advocacy, etc.
Term
brainstorming
Definition
group method of problem solving that involves collecting a large number of ideas, you discuss and evaluate them
Term
nominal group technique
Definition
decision making using a highly structured format in which participants write down there own ideas individually before sharing w/the group
Term
devil's advocate
Definition
a person who is assigned to challenge assumptions and assertions made by the group
Term
multiple advocacy
Definition
decision making using several advocates with multiple points of view
Term
pet-peeve technique
Definition
(used solely in retailing) generate as many complaints about a department used as a basis for improvement
Term
challenges businesses face
Definition
1) pace of change accelerates
2) deregulation and new technology reduces barriers to entry
3) companies in "ecosystems" over which they have little control
4) digitalization of intellectual property
5) internet shift of bargaining power from producers to consumers
6) strategy life cycles are shifting (if you have a good idea today, it'll be copied tomorrow)
7) plummeting communication cost (easier to communicate)
Term
environmental scanning
Definition
searching the environment for important events or issues that might affect an organization; looking for threats and opportunities
Term
Stages of innovation
Definition
1) fuzzy front end
2) new product development process
3) early-stage commercialization
4) driving mass adoption