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CB2 - lecture 3 - Climate change
Sussex university - Conservation Biology 2
18
Biology
06/09/2013

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Cards

Term
What are the observed and predicted changes to climate?
Definition

IPCC- Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change

Increase in global surface temperature, average glogal sea level and decrease in northern hemisphere snow cover.

Term
What are the changes in terrestrial and freshwater systems?
Definition
  • Phenological changes
  • Changes in species morphology, behaviour and physiology
  • Changes in species distribution
  • Outbreak of disease and pests
  • Changes in stream flow, droughts, floods impacted by biodiversity
  • Changes in high-lattitude system in the N. hemisphere
Term
What are the changes to marine and coastal systems?
Definition
  • Coral reefs affected by rising sea temperatures
  • Disease and toxicity in coastal systems
  • Changes in fish population linked to large scale oscillations
  • Fluctuations in marine bird mammals
Term

CASE STUDY

Example of phenological change

Definition

Khanduri et al. (2004)

Plants- 650 temperate species recorded spring advancement by 1.9 days and delay of 1.4 days in autumn. Avg length of growing season extended by 3.3 days.

Jonzen et al. (2006)

4 bird observatories record lond distance migrants from 1980-2004

Redwing are short distance and long distance are barn owl- barn owl adapted better to the season changes.

Term

CASE STUDIES

Morphology, behaviour and physiology

Definition
Painted turtles grow faster and reach sexual maturity earlier in warmer years and some frog species call earlier in warm years.
Term

CASE STUDY

Changes in distrubution

Definition

Monitoring of buttefly species distribution and abundance in UK.

25 sp (25%) spread north, 2 species increased by 100% and 6 other species by 50%.

Abundance has decreased the most since the 1800s.

11 species declined by 40% and 5 are extinct.

Term

CASE STUDY

Outbreaks of disease and pests

Definition

Ecuador NW cloudforests

Alpine communities effected most by climate change with warmer nights, cooler days and increased rainfall.

Jumbato toad tought extinct

Each hot year has been followed by extinction due to chitrid fungus- temp change usually kills fungus. With climate change stabilising the temp is ideal for chitrid fungus to thrive.

Term

CASE STUDY

Changes is stream flow, droughts, floods

Definition

Harrison (2001) Borneo

1999 caused by El Nino reduced the fig populaton and had knock on effects for pollinators.

Term

CASE STUDY

High-lattitude ecosystem in N hemisphere

Definition

Areas of arctic show 5°c increase in 20th century

Growing degree days up by 20% in Alaska

Boreal forests therefore expanding at 100-150km/°c

 

Term

CASE STUDY

Coral reefs adversely affected

Definition

High temperature causes the zooplankton to produce superoxides and other toxic by-products. Toxins contribute to coral stress and cause bleachong. Can recover within certain period of time.

Sever global bleaching in 1997/8 El Nino.

Term

CASE STUDY

Disease and toxicity impacted coast ecosystems

Definition
Sea temperature rise causes aspergillus fungus to thrive. These cause tumors in sea fans.
Term

CASE STUDY

Changes in fish populations linked to large scale oscilations

Definition

El Nino

Tarde winds from S America to SE Asia power deepwater nutrients to the peruvian coasts. Areduced pressure in S America causes the ocean conveyor to become cut off and causing fisheries to collapse.

Term
What are the predicted effects upon biodiversity?
Definition
Hard to estimate due to uncertainties in global population, global policy and enery use. Currently we are on or at the business as usual scenario. Most models assume that ecosystems move to a new climate envelope. In reality different species move and adapt at different rates with different levels of success.
Term
What is the extinction risk for climate change?
Definition

Thomas et al. (2008)

Tropical rainforest: 6.3% species lost by 2050

Mid range climate scenario: 15-37% species lost by 2050

Term
What does the RCCI intergrate?
Definition
  • Mean annual precipitation
  • Mean annual surface air temperature
  • Change in mean annual temp relative to mean annual warming
  • Interannual variability
Term
What can we do/what are we doing?
Definition

Delays in negotiations post-kyoto protocol means impacts are more severe

Priority-setting must take into account unevenly distibuted threats

Important first teap: further our understanding of future impacts.

Term
Would climate change drive species out of reserves?
Definition
Loss of 6-11% of the bioclimatic range rage of 1200 plant species within European theoretical reserve networks in 50 years.
Term
Definition