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Chapter 6, Memory
Memory
51
Physiology
07/06/2010

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Term
memory
Definition
an active system that receives information into a usable form, and organizes it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage
Term
encoding
Definition
the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain's storage systems
Term
storage
Definition
holding onto information for some period of time
Term
retrieval
Definition
getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used
Term
information-processing model
Definition
model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three stages
Term

levels-of-processing model

Definition

model of memory that assumes information that is more "deeply processed," or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently ad for a longer period of time

Term
parallel distributed processing (PDP)
Definition
a model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neutral connections
Term
sensory memory
Definition
the very first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems
Term
iconic memory
Definition
visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second
Term
eidetic imagery
Definition
the ability to access a visual memory for 30 seconds or more
Term
echoic memory
Definition
the brief memory of something a person has just heard
Term
short-term memory (STM)
Definition
the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used
Term
selective attention
Definition
the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input
Term
working memory
Definition
an active system that processes the information in short-term memory
Term
maintenance rehearsal
Definition
practice of saying some information to be remembered over and over in one's head in order to maintain it in short-term memory
Term
long-term memory (LTM)
Definition
the system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently
Term
elaborative rehearsal
Definition
a method of transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way
Term
procedural (nondeclarative) memory
Definition
type of long-term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses. These memories aren't conscious but are implied to exist because they affect conscious behavior
Term
anterograde amnesia
Definition
loss of memory from the point of injury of trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term memories
Term
implicit memory
Definition
memory that isn't easily brought into conscious awareness, such as procedural memory
Term
declarative memory
Definition
type of long-term memory containing information that is conscious and known
Term
semantic memory
Definition
type of declarative memory containing general knowledge, such as knowledge of language and information learned in formal education
Term
episodic memory
Definition
type of declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others, such as daily activities and events
Term
explicit memory
Definition
memory that is consciously known, such as declarative memory
Term
semantic network model
Definition
model memory organization that assumes information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion, with concepts that are related stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related
Term
retrieval cue
Definition
a stimulus for remembering
Term
encoding specificity
Definition
the tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information (such as surroundings of physiological state) available when the memory is first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved
Term
recall
Definition
type of memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be "pulled" from memory with very few external cues
Term
recognition
Definition
the ability to match a piece of information of a stimulus to a stored image or fact
Term
serial position effect
Definition
tendency of information at the beginning and end of a body of information to be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the body of information
Term
primacy effect
Definition
tendency to remember information at the beginning of a body of information better than the information that follows
Term
recency effect
Definition
tendency to remember information at the end of a body of information better than the information at the beginning of it
Term
false positive
Definition
error to recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that isn't actually in memory
Term
automatic encoding
Definition
tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long-term memory with little of no effortful encoding
Term
flashbulb memories
Definition
type of automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it
Term
constructive processing
Definition
referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered, revised, or influenced by newer information
Term
hindsight bias
Definition
the tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include newer information, that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event
Term
misinformation effect
Definition
the tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself
Term
curve of forgetting
Definition
a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually
Term
distributed practice
Definition
spacing the study of material to be remembered by including breaks between study periods
Term
encoding failure
Definition
failure to process information into memory
Term
memory trace
Definition
physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed
Term
decay
Definition
loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used
Term
disuse
Definition
another name for decay, assuming that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear
Term
proactive interference
Definition
memory retrieval problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information
Term
retroactive interference
Definition
memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information
Term
consolidation
Definition
the changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when an engram is formed
Term
retrograde amnesia
Definition
loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past
Term
infantile amnesia
Definition
the inability to retrieve memories from much before age 3
Term
autobiographical memory
Definition
the memory for events and facts related to one's personal life story
Term
Definition