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Chapter 31
Fiero, Gloria K. "The Humanistic Tradition 6th Ed."
39
Art History
03/21/2013

Additional Art History Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

The Historical Context for the Late Nineteenth Century:

 

The move toward _________ that occupied the last quarter of the nineteenth century witnessed the collapse of ________ ___________ and the flowering of an ___-___-____-____ sensibility.

Definition

modernism;

romantic illusionism;

art-for-art’s-sake

Term

The Historical Context for the Late Nineteenth Century:

 

 

In the Late 19th c. ______ was the World center of the Arts.

Definition
France 
Term

 

The Historical Context for the Late Nineteenth Century:

Paris as Cultural Mecca:

 

 

Paris became home to poets, painters, composers and writers who abandoned both ___________ and _______ to pursue styles based on _______ __________ and pure _________ _______.

 

 

 

 

Definition

romanticism;

realism;

 sensory experience;

 aesthetic impulse

Term

 

Scientific and Technological Developments:

 

 

Name the Inventors:

 

 

________ treatise on electricity and magnetism, _______ commercially viable electric light bulb, _____ telephone, _______ internal combustion engine, _____ mass produced automobile, X-ray, and Radiotelegraphy….

 

Definition

Maxwell’s;

Edison’s;

Bell’s;

Diesel’s;

Ford’s 

Term

Scientific and Technological Developments:

 

 

The development of _________ ________ in paint and new research into the _______ __ _____ and the ____ __ ______ provided new tool for the visual artists of the age.

Definition

synthetic pigments;

physics of light;

laws of optics

Term

Philosophy:


 

 Nietzsche, Bergson, and the symbolist poets offered alternate, if not iconoclastic, reassessments of the ______ and _________ order.

Definition

social;

aesthetic 

Term

Philosophy:


Name the Artist:


 German philosopher and poet was a ‘radical moralist’ and he called for the revision of traditional values. He lauded the ‘superman’ or ‘Ubermensch’ whose singular vision and courage would produce a ‘master’ morality. He said, “Is man merely a mistake of God’s? or God a mistake of Mans?”

 

Definition
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
Term

Philosophy:


Name the Artist:


 He was the French philosopher of the late nineteenth century who argued that all reality is constantly in the process of evolving and can only be understood intuitively. In other words, instinct is humankind’s noblest faculty and ‘duration’ or perpetual becoming is the very stuff of reality - the essence of life.

Aesthetically linked to the Symbolist movement, his poetry was inspired by sensory experience, dreams and myth.

 

Definition
Henri Bergson
Term

Symbolism in the Arts:



Amidst new theories of sensation and perception, and new theories of light and motion, symbolists and impressionists tried to record an instantaneous, intuitive vision of the world that sacrificed ____________ ______ in favor of _______ ________ and ________ ___________ _______.

Definition

 naturalistic detail;

elusive feelings;

fleeting atmospheric effects

Term

Symbolist Poetry:


 Name the Artist:


He cultivated an intimate literary style based on the ‘music’ of words. His poems are tapestries of sensuous, dreamlike motifs with images that flow into one another and meaning is often lies between the lines.

Definition
Stéphane Mallarmé
Term

Symbolist Poetry:


 The pastoral poem “The Afternoon of the Faun” is a reverie of an erotic encounter between a faun and a nymph. When the faun awakes he is not sure if the encounter was _ _____ __ _______.

 

Definition
a dream or reality
Term

Symbolism in Visual Art:


 

Symbolism gave emphasis to the simplification of ____, arbitrary_____, and expressive, flattened ____.

Definition

line;

color;

form

Term

Symbolism in Visual Art:



In Hodler’s painting The Chosen One, the artist employs the aforementioned elements to depict a mysterious ____ __ _______. 

Definition
rite of passage
Term

Impressionism:



While Monet, Renoir, and Pissarro brought these concerns to painting (and Debussy to music), _____ and _____ shared the sculptor’s interest in figural gesture and movement.

Definition

Degas;

Rodin 

Term

Music: 


Name the Artist:


He was the impressionist composer who was inspired by the five tone scale of East Asian music that engages the listener through nuance (a subtle difference or distinction in expression, meaning, reason, etc.) and atmosphere.

In 1894 he composed his first orchestral work, Prelude to Afternoon of the Faun which was (in his own words) a “very free illustration of Mallermé’s beautiful poem” that had been published eight years earlier. In 1912 his music became the basis of Nijinsky’s sensuous and scandalous ballet.

Definition
Debussy 
Term

Painting:

Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Degas



Impressionist painters believed that paint should be applied in ____ _____ _______ of color with no real use of _______ to define form. 

Definition

pure brush strokes;

outline 

Term

Painting: Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Degas

 

Name the Artist:

 

A French artist whose painting gave a name to the impressionist school. His, Impression: Sunrise presents a seascape, but it says more about ‘how’ one sees than about ‘what’ one sees. One contemporary critic dismissed the painting as, “only an impression…. no better than wallpaper in its embryonic state”. Many of his best known subjects include gardens and water scenes.

 

Definition
Claude Monet 
Term

 Painting: Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Degas

 

Name the Artist:

 

 His works are closely linked with Parisian society. His subjects include leisure activities and diversions of urban life: dining, dancing, theatre going, boating, etc.

Definition
Pierre-Auguste Renoir 
Term

 Painting: Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Degas

 

Name the Artist:

 

He was born in the West Indies but settled in Paris. He produced engaging cityscapes that reflected panoramic photography of the time. He felt that one should record visual perceptions with immediacy and honor the one teacher: Nature.

Definition
Camille Pissarro 
Term

 Painting: Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Degas

 

Name the Artist:


 Associated with the impressionists but his style is uniquely his own. He captured the everyday aspects of life and rejected the traditional ‘posed’ model choosing to depict momentary or even awkward gestures. He used asymmetry and empty space in his works, the deliberate random view influenced by photography.

Some of his best know works are those of ballerinas and race horses. Both subjects concerned with the nature of balance and motion.

Definition
Edgar Degas
Term

The Arts at the End of the Century:



In the last decades of the century, Western Europe came under the sway of Japanese art and design in the form of _________ ______.

Definition
woodblock prints
Term

Influence of Japanese woodblock prints and art:



Late nineteenth-century painters looked to Japanese woodblock prints for  flat, bold ______; startling ____________; forceful ___________.

Definition

colors;

perspectives;

calligraphy

Term

 

Hokusai, Mount Fuji Seen Below a Wave at Kanagawa.



If Hokusai had wanted to portray the elements in this scene in their __________ scales, the element that would have predominated would be the _______ __ ___ ________.

When we learn that Fuji is a ______ ________, the home of the gods,  it changes our view of relative ______ in this picture.

 

Definition

respective;

mountain in the distance;

sacred mountain;

values 

Term

Actor as a Monkey Showman by Torii Kiyonobu.



One departure from realism in this print that points to abstraction is the __________ __ ___ _________ to the extent that a body behind them is scarcely apparent.

 

Definition
flattening of the garments
Term
Definition
Term

Name the Artist:

 

The American impressionist whose work did much to popularize the Asian influenced artistic style in North America. She brought a sensitivity to domestic themes that featured mothers and children presenting gentle and optomistic images of domestic life.

Definition
Mary Cassatt 
Term

Name the Artist:

 

 

Chose to depict the seamy side of Parisian life. His stylized figures had bold, forceful silhouettes and often were on the verge of caricature. He pioneered the art of poster design with startling juxtapositions of positive and negative space.

 

Definition
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Term

Art Nouveau:


 

Architect ______ _____ established the ‘Nouveau’ style working in cast iron building elements and it evolved into all decorative arts: furniture, textiles, glass, ceramic and jewelry.

Definition
Victor Horta 
Term

Art Nouveau: 

American designs



Architect _____ ________ incorporated motifs into his otherwise austere office buildings and _____ _______ _______ embraced the new style through a variety of decorative arts, particularly glassware, jewelry and lamps. Also known as the ____ _ ______ movement in America.

Definition

Louis Sullivan;

Louis Comfort Tiffany;

Arts & Crafts

Term

Sculpture:


Name the Artist:


He was not only a prolific painter and illustrator, but he created sculptures that captured the vitality of the human figure. He would work quickly in wet clay or wax and the majority of his works were cast in bronze after his death. 

Definition
Edgar Degas 
Term

Sculpture:


Name the Artist:


Keenly interested in movement and gesture. One of his earliest sculptures The Age of Bronze was so lifelike, critics accused him of using plaster casts of a live model. He heightened contract by using polished and rough surfaces and leaving some elements unfinished. He stated that “sculpture is quite simply the art of depression and protuberance.”

Definition
Auguste Rodin 
Term

 

Dance: 


Name the Artist:


 

 Rebelled against the rules od classic ballet by dancing barefoot and introducing a language of physical expression characterized by free form, personal gestures and movements that were often fierce and passionate.

She died in 1927 in an unfortunate automobile accident.

 

 

 

Definition
Isadora Duncan
Term

The Arts of Africa and Oceania:



The media employed in the two illustrations from nineteenth-century African cultures are _____ _____ and _____. These forms are based on traditional ______ ___, but became refined through the use of materials introduced through European expansion.

Definition

Glass beads;

brass;

tribal art

Term

The Arts of Africa and Oceania:


African art and artifacts came to the attention of western artists through European _________ and ___________ and many of the traditional forms evolved to appeal to a new ________ ______.

 

Definition

expansion;

colonialism;

European market

Term

Postimpressionism:



The postimpressionists _______ and ___ ____ used color as a means of achieving visionary expressionism, while ______ and _______ invested form with new, more abstract, architectural stability.

Definition

Gauguin;

van Gogh;

Seurat;

Cézanne 

Term

Postimpressionism:


Name the Artist:


The French artist who became entranced with unspoiled nature, especially as it existed in Tahiti. He abandoned his family and his job as a Paris stockbroker to live the bohemian life in the south seas. He considered himself a ‘civilized savage’ and represented the last gasp of Romanticism.

Definition
Paul Gauguin
Term

Postimpressionism:


Name the Artist:


 

The Dutch postimpressionist who expressed his reaction to a subject rather than to its physical appearance. He was a passionate idealist whose life was marred by loneliness, poverty and depression.

 

Definition

Vincent van Gogh

Term

Postimpressionism:


Name the Artist:

 

The artist most closely associated with the colorist style known as pointillism. This technique employed the use of dense clusters of dots of color that gave the impression of a solid form.

 

Definition
Seurat 
Term

Postimpressionism:


Name the Artist:


The “father of modern painting,” was more concerned with the composition and technique of a painting than its content.

Definition

Cézanne