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Chapter 23-Respiratory System
A&P 2
52
Anatomy
09/26/2009

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Term
Diffusion
Definition
carbon dioxide moves out of tissues and into the blood and out of the blood and into the alveoli by _______.
Term
oxygen is transported in the blood
Definition
bound to hemoglobin
Term
if body tissues are no longer able to make ATP, the cells n the tissue become ______ and begin to die.
Definition
Ischemic
Term
Oxygen moves out of the alveoli and into the blood and out of the blood and into the tissues by ______.
Definition
Diffusion
Term
whenever people cry, there nose runs. this is because the ________ drains tears into the nose.
Definition
nasolacrimal ducts
Term
Uvula
Definition
the structure that seperates the nasopharynx from the oropharynx
Term
nasopharynx
Definition
the portion of the parynx that extends from the internal nares to the level of the uvula
Term
Mucous is needed in the nasal cavity to
Definition
protect against pathogens
Term
The nasal septum
Definition
divides the nose into right and left chambers
Term
stratified squamous epithelium is needed in the oropharynx to  
Definition
protect against abrasions from food
Term
Pharynx
Definition
part of the upper respiratory tract
Term
secondary bronchus
Definition
each lobe of the lung is supplied by a ________.
Term
a person has severe damage or disease to the upper area of their right lung. Surgery is needed. The doctor would need to remove _________.
Definition
the apical brochopulmonary segment of the right lung.
Term
path of air molecule from the external nares to the trachea
Definition
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea
Term
trachea
Definition
larger in diameter
Term
Tracchea
Definition
has "c" shaped cartilages that form its anterior and lateral sides
Term
When people aspirate liquids or food into their lungs, the liquid or food most commonly enters the right lung rather than the left lung. This is because the right primary bronchus is __________ than the left primary bronchus.
Definition
more vertical or direct
Term
The____lung contains two lobes while the ____ lung contains three lobes.
Definition
left; right
Term
When these ligaments or folds come together, they prevent food from entering the larynx.
Definition
epiglottis.
Term
During swallowing, the opening into the larynx is covered by the
Definition
epiglottis
Term
The pitch of the sound produced by the vocal cords is controlled by the
Definition
the frequency of the virbations
Term
Each lung is suspended in
Definition
a separate pleural cavity.
Term
The structure that separates the nasopharynx from the oropharynx is the
Definition
uvula
Term
When air passes through the glottis, which structures vibrate to produce sound?
Definition
vocal folds (chords)
Term
which muscles increase the volume of the thorax during a normal inhalation?
Definition
diaphram and external intercoastals
Term
During expiration, the alveolar pressure must be
Definition
greater than atmospheric pressure.
Term
During expiration, the volume of the thorax __________ as the diaphragm __________ .
Definition
decreases, relaxes
Term
For air to flow into or out of the lungs, there must be
Definition
a pressure gradient established between the atmosphere and the alveoli.
Term
Contraction of the _______ will increase the superior-inferior dimension of the thoracic cavity.
Definition
diaphragm
Term
When the inspiratory muscles contract
Definition
thoracic volume increases.
Term
Expiration during quiet breathing
Definition
occurs when the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax.
Term
For inspiration during labored breathing, which muscles are contracted?
Definition
diaphram, external intercosatl muscles, pectoralis minor muscles, and sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Term
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged across the respiratory membrane by the process of
Definition
diffusion
Term
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged across the respiratory membrane by the process of
Definition
diffusion
Term
Oxygen diffusion from the alveolus to the pulmonary capillary occurs because
Definition
alveolar PO2 is greater than capillary PO2.
Term
In which of these areas is the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) normally the greatest?
Definition
inspired air
Term
order from highest to lowest PO2
Definition

PO2 of alveolar air

PO2 of pulmonary veins

PO2 of pulmonary artery

Term
The walls of the alveoli
Definition
are composed of simple squamous epithelium.
Term
Which of the following increases the rate of gas exchange across the respiratory membrane?
Definition
increased surface area of the respiratory membrane
Term
The PCo2 of carbondioxide in the atmosphere at sea level is about
Definition
0.3
Term
The PCo2 of carbon dioxide in venous blood is about
Definition
45
Term
The Po2 of oxygen in the alveoli is about
Definition
104
Term
 
The PCo2 of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood about
Definition
40
Term
The Po2 of oxygen in the atmosphere at sea level is about
Definition
160
Term
Given the known values, oxgen will move from the ___________ and into the arterial blood and the from the arterial blood and into the ____________.
Definition
alveoli, tissues
Term
Given the known values, carbbon dioxide will move from the ___________ and into the venous blood and the from the venous blood and into the ____________.
Definition
tissues, alveoli
Term
The Po2 of oxygen in arterial blood is about
Definition
104
Term
 
 
The Po2 of oxygen in venous blood is about
Definition
40
Term
 
The Po2 of oxygen in resting tissues is about
Definition
40
Term
The PCo2 of carbon dioxide in resting tissue is about
Definition
45
Term
 
The PCo2 of carbon dioxide in the alveoli about
Definition
40
Term
Definition